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POWERFUL SPIRITS: NATIVE AMERICANS AND ALCOHOL IN COLONIAL AMERICA

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POWERFUL SPIRITS: NATIVE AMERICANS AND ALCOHOL IN COLONIAL AMERICA North America, 1750 New France New Spain Europeans in North America English Attitudes to Native ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: POWERFUL SPIRITS: NATIVE AMERICANS AND ALCOHOL IN COLONIAL AMERICA


1
POWERFUL SPIRITS NATIVE AMERICANS AND ALCOHOL
IN COLONIAL AMERICA
2
North America, 1750
3
New France
4
New Spain
5
Europeans in North America
English Colonies New France New Spain
Land Demands Huge Small Small
Migrants Huge Small Small
Furs Skins Central Central No
Indians Prior Exp. / Alcohol No No Yes
Alcohol Trade Critical Critical No
6
English Attitudes to Native Americans
  • Ethnocentric Perspective
  • Language
  • Clothing
  • Settlements
  • Type of Economy
  • Marriage
  • Gender Roles
  • Concept of Land Ownership
  • Existence of a Market Economy

7
  • Long-Range Goal of Colonists
  • Radical Cultural Transformation
  • Two Conditions for Cultural Conversion
  • God and Trade

8
  • Trade of Pivotal Importance of Trade Because of
    English Mercantile Thought
  • Expulsion of French After 1763 Underlined
    Preeminence of Trade

9
Drinks Role in Reinforcing Stereotypes
  • Consumption of Alcohol in England
  • Heavy
  • Successfully Integrated into English Society
  • Cultural Norms,
  • Wide Experience Government Legislation

10
  • Stereotype of Indian Consumption of Alcohol
  • Indians Cultural Inferiority
  • Importance of Christianity and Commerce

11
Indians Drinking Habits
  • Colonists Assumptions
  • Addiction
  • Immediate Consumption
  • Determination to Get Drunk
  • Violent Behavior

12
  • Validity of These Assumptions
  • One Accurate View
  • Evidence Contradicting Other Assumptions

13
Indian Consumption of Alcohol I
  • Inborn Enzyme Deficiency?
  • English Rationale for Selling Alcohol to Indians
  • Demand
  • Civilizing Influence
  • Profitable
  • Land Acquisition
  • Create or Maintain Alliances

14
Indian Consumption of Alcohol II
  • 6. Gift-Giving Rituals
  • Toasting
    Customary at Treaty Meetings
  • English Authorities Gave Alcohol to Native
    Americans

15
Indian Motives for Drinking Alcohol I
  • Four Factors
  • Demand
  • Hospitality Rituals
  • Mourning Ceremonies
  • Sacred Substance with Supernatural Powers
  • Communicate with Spirit World
  • Mourn a Love Ones Departure

16
Indians Motives for Drinking Alcohol II
  • 4. Demographic Catastrophe
  • a. Decline of Indian Population, 1607-1763
  • b. Chief Cause Epidemic
    Diseases, Intertribal Warfare and Conflict with
    Land Hungry Settlers
  • c. Impact Frustrations, Anger and Sense of
    Powerlessness
  • d. Alcohol Provided a Means of Escape

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