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The Periodic Table

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Title: The Periodic Table


1
The Periodic Table
  • How the periodic table is put together

2
What is the Periodic Table?
  • It is an organizational system for elements.

Picture from www.chem4kids.com
3
Periodic ? Periodic Law ? Periodic Table
  • Something periodic occurs at regular or at least
    generally predictable intervals
  • Periodic law - physical and chemical properties
    of the elements are periodic functions of their
    atomic numbers
  • Periodic Table of Elements a table of the
    elements, arranged by atomic number, that shows
    the patterns in their properties based on the
    periodic law

Can you think of anything that is periodic?
4
Dmitri Mendeleev
  • In the 1860s he devised a periodic table where
    the elements were ordered by their atomic masses
  • He did this by grouping elements together
    according to their similarities

Image taken from http//jscms.jrn.columbia.edu/c
ns/2006-04-18/fido-luxuriantflowinghair/mendeleev/

5
Mendeleevs Published Periodic Table of Elements
Why do you think there are question marks here?
Image taken from http//www.chemsoc.org/networks/
learnnet/periodictable/post16/develop/mendeleev.ht
m
6
Element
  • A pure substance made up of one kind of atom that
    cannot be broken down into simpler substances by
    physical or chemical means
  • 90 occur naturally on earth
  • 25 were synthesized (made) by scientists

Meet the Elements
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vUy0m7jnyv6U
7
So how is it arranged?
  • The idea of the periodic table is that it is
    organized like a big grid. The elements are
    placed in specific places because of the way they
    look and act. If you have ever looked at a key,
    you know that there are rows (left to right) and
    columns (up and down). The periodic table has
    rows and columns, too, and they each mean
    something different.
  • quoted from http//www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_pe
    rtable.html

8
You've got Your Periods...
  • Even though they skip some squares in between,
    all of the rows go left to right. When you look
    at a periodic table, each of the rows is
    considered to be a different period (PERIODic
    table.)
  • quoted from http//www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_pe
    rtable.html

9
Periods Rows
  • In the periodic table, elements have something in
    common if they are in the same row.
  • All of the elements in a period have the same
    number of atomic orbitals.
  • Every element in the top row (the first period)
    has one orbital for its electrons. All of the
    elements in the second row (the second period)
    have two orbitals for their electrons. It goes
    down the periodic table like that.
  • quoted from http//www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_pe
    rtable.html

10
And you got your groups
  • The periodic table has a special name for its
    columns, too. When a column goes from top to
    bottom, it's called a group.
  • quoted from http//www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_pe
    rtable.html

11
Groups Columns
  • The elements in a group have the same number of
    electrons in their outer orbital.
  • Every element in the first column (group one) has
    one electron in its outer shell. Every element on
    the second column (group two) has two electrons
    in the outer shell. As you keep counting the
    columns, you'll know how many electrons are in
    the outer shell.
  • There are some exceptions to the order when you
    look at the transition elements, but you get the
    general idea.

12
What do all the numbers mean ?
From www.science-class.net
13
Other than periods and groups, the table is
divided into families.
From www.science-class.net
14
ALKALI METALS
  • very reactive metals that do not occur freely in
    nature
  • malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and
    electricity.
  • can explode if they are exposed to water

From www.science-class.net
15
ALKLINE EARTH METALS
  • metals
  • very reactive
  • not found free in nature

From www.science-class.net
16
TRANSITION METALS
  • ductile and malleable, and conduct electricity
    and heat
  • iron, cobalt, and nickel, are the only elements
    known to produce a magnetic field.

From www.science-class.net
17
RARE EARTH ELEMENTS
  • many are man-made

From www.science-class.net
18
OTHER METALS
  • are ductile and malleable
  • are solid, have a high density,

From www.science-class.net
19
METALLOIDS
  • have properties of both metals and non-metals
  • some of the metalloids are semi-conductors. This
    means that they can carry an electrical charge
    under special conditions. This property makes
    metalloids useful in computers and calculators

From www.science-class.net
20
NON-METALS
  • not able to conduct electricity or heat very well
  • very brittle
  • Do not reflect light.

From www.science-class.net
21
HALOGENS
  • "halogen" means "salt-former" and compounds
    containing halogens are called "salts"
  • exist in all three states of matter

From www.science-class.net
22
NOBLE GASES
  • do not form compounds easily
  • Happy/Inert Elements (Full outer shells)

From www.science-class.net
23
Element Song
Tom Lehrer CHEMISTRY element song
From www.science-class.net
24
Lets Make our own Periodic Tables
  • BEFORE YOU FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS ON THE
    WORKSHEET
  • Number the Periods 1-7 (remember periods go
    across the table)
  • Number the Groups 1-18
  • Redraw with a heavy line the crisscross line
    between metals and nonmetals.
  • Write the name of each of the following groups
    above the number
  • Group 1 Alkali Metals
  • Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Group 3-12 (collectively) Transition Metals
  • Group 17 Halogens
  • Group 18 Noble Gases

From www.science-class.net
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