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World English Vs. World Englishes


Title: New & World Englishes Author: Oliver Gerstner Last modified by: idwan Created Date: 5/15/2007 9:18:26 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World English Vs. World Englishes

World English Vs. World Englishes
  • Wednesday Sharing Session
  • December 2, 2009
  • Presented by Sonny Soentanto

Definitions Explanations
  • World English
  • is the concept of the English language as a
    global means of communication in numerous
    dialects, and also the movement towards an
    international standard for the language. It is
    also referred to as Global English, World
    English, Common English, Continental English or
    General English.
  • Sometimes "international English" and the
    related terms above refer to a desired
    standardisation, i.e. Standard English however,
    there is no consensus on the path to this goal.
  • World Englishes
  • Any language variety of English including
    those developed by communities in which English
    was not indigenous in modern history.
    ( The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics,
    2007, p. 234)

Why English Has Become a World Language
  • Historical reasons spread through trade and
    colonization, wars, and cultural dissemination.
  • Educational reasons English is much more
    developed than other languages.
  • Political reasons Language of super power and
    language of political institution
  • Intellectual reasons scientific, technological,
    and academic info available in English
  • Economic reasons working language in mncs
  • Practical reasons international air traffic,
    emergency services
  • Entertainment reasons language of popular music,
    cultures, broadcasting

World (New) Englishes
  • Forms of New Englishes not uniform in
    characteristics, but share criteria
  • developed through education system
  • developed in an area where English was
  • not spoken by majority of people
  • has become nativised by own language
  • features

  • ( after J.Jenkins, World Englishes,2003,p

The Concepts of ENL, ESL EFL
  • Three distinct forms of users
  • increasingly difficult to classify speakers
    belonging to only one group
  • but important starting point to understand
    distinctions and spread of New World Englishes

ENLEnglish as Native Language
  • language of people born raised in countries,
    where English is (historically) the first
  • countries like UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New
  • -gt as traditional, cultural linguistic bases
  • around 350 million ENL speakers around the world
  • Not one single variety, differences in
    territories (e.g. UK and US)
  • Norm providing and spoken in the Inner Circle

ESLEnglish as Second Language
  • people living in territories like India,
    Bangladesh, Nigeria and Singapore
  • Countries former colonised by British
  • -gtEnglish gained importance in administration
  • English serves official purpose within the
    country in law, education and government
  • also worldwide around 350 million speakers
  • Norm developing and labeled as non-standard,
    illegitimate, interlanguage, bad, deviant, half

EFLEnglish as Foreign Language
  • For speakers of EFL English serves no purpose in
    own country
  • Historically learned for communication with ENL
  • Nowadays used for communication with other
    non-native speakers
  • Norm dependent and used in Expanding Circle
  • Example for EFL Indonesia

Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes
  • most influential model describing spread of World
  • Connected to the ENL, ESL, EFL concepts
  • Kachru divides World Englishes in three
    concentric circles

Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes
  • The Inner Circle
  • Countries UK, USA, Canada,Australia, New Zealand
  • -gt ENL countries
  • Spoken English as norm providing
  • English-language standards determined by ENL
    speakers (Inner Circle)

Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes
  • The Outer Circle
  • Countries Bangladesh, Singapore,
  • India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
  • Tanzania, Malaysia,
  • -gt ESL countries
  • Spoken English regarded as norm developing
    (developing own standards)

Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes
  • The Expanding Circle
  • Countries China, Egypt, Indonesia, Taiwan,
    Korea, Israel,
  • -gt EFL countries
  • Spoken English regarded as norm performing
  • -gt standards from Inner Outer Circles are
    performed / taken over
  • But no official status, therefore dependent on
    standards set by Inner Circle

Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes
  • Criticism
  • Model implies uniformity of countries within one
  • -gt not true even in Inner Circle differences in
    amount of liguistic diversity
  • todays Immigration left out of account
  • grey area between Outer and Expanding Circle -gt
    countries in transition from EFL to ESL status,
    like Argentina, Belgium, Denmark

Mc Arthurs circle of World English
  • Inner Circle
  • World Standard English
  • -gt but not existing in identifiable form
  • Outer Circle
  • Band of regional varieties of English
  • standard standardising forms

Mc Arthurs circle of World English
  • crowded fringe
  • Dividing the world into 8 seperate regions
  • Describe subvarieties of the standard
    standardising forms
  • Examples Welsh English, Quebec English,
  • Summary example
  • WSE
  • American Standard English
  • Midland

Singapore English - Short Overview About History
  • Singapore was originally part of the Sri Vijaya
    kingdom of Sumatra
  • in 1819 the British trader Sir Stamford Raffles
    leased the island from the Sultan of Johore
  • it became the 'Straits Settlements' with Malacca
    and Penang in 1826 (under the East India
  • 1867 British colony
  • taken by Japanese in 1942 (WW II) but became
    British again in 1945
  • self-government in 1959
  • part of the Federartion of Malay from 1963 to
  • then independent state

Singapore English - General Facts
  • four official languages in Singapore English,
    Mandarin Chinese, Malay and Tamil
  • English is the language of the law courts,
    government administration and education
  • 1947 31,6 percent of students attended
    English-medium schools (others attended Chinese-
    and Tamil-medium schools)?
  • since 1987 English is the exclusive medium for
    primary, secondary and tertiary education
  • main language of commerce and business
  • main feature wide social range of its users

The Concept of basilect and acrolect use of
  • Social dialectic concept
  • Acrolect (standard)
  • Used for international communication
  • And for formal public intranational interaction
  • Basilect (colloquial)
  • Used for informal intranational communication

Singapore English - General Facts
  • on the other hand home-grown colloquial style -
    so called Singlish
  • serves the young as a means of solidarity,
    relaxing and being oneself
  • vigorous, slangy and creative language
  • at the higher level there's a government-backed
    normative variety based on British English
  • spoken with a near-RP accent
  • used by Singapore Broadcasting Corporation
  • influenced by American usage

Singapore English - Particular Features
  • Chinese influence
  • Chinese particles la(h) and aa/ah used to express
    emphasis and emotion
  • la(h) as a token of informal intimacy ? Can you
    come tonight? Can lah/Cannot lah
  • aa/ah in yes-no questions ? You wait me, aa?
    instead of Will you wait for me?
  • I come tonight, ah? instead of Should I come
  • You think I scared of you, ah?

Singapore English - Particular Features
  • Chinese-style interjections
  • ay yaah! to express surprise or exasperation
  • ay yor! to express pain or wonder or both
  • ay yer! indicating a reaction to something
    unpleasant and maybe unexptected
  • che! expressing irritation or regret

Singapore English - Pronounciation
  • vowels in words such as take, so and dare are
    often single vowels as in Scottish English and
    not diphthongs as in RP
  • reduction of final consonant clusters to one
    spoken consonant
  • juss for 'just'
  • tol for 'told'
  • slep for 'slept'

Singapore English - Grammar
  • tendency of omitting
  • articles You have pen or not?
  • plural inflection -s I got two sister and three
  • present-tense inflection -s This radio sound
  • past-tense inflectinon -ed/-t ask for asked and
    slep for slept

Singapore English - Grammar
  • direct and indirect objects are often placed
    first ? Me you don't give it to. instead of You
    didn't give it to me.
  • also used more often than too, especially at the
    end of a sentence? But we are supposed to learn
    Chinese also.

Singapore English - Grammar
  • ways of checking if someone agrees or disagrees
    or can or cannot do something are pretty
  • Are you coming? Yes or not?
  • Like it or not?
  • Are you going? Can or not?
  • Enough or not?

Singapore English - Vocabulary
  • English words with re-applied meanings
  • send meaning 'take' ? I will send you home.
  • open meaning 'put on' ? Open the light.
  • close meaning 'put off' ? Close the light.
  • take suggesting 'eat, drink, like' ? Do you take
    hot food?

Singapore English - Vocabulary
  • formal and informal style are less distinct from
    each other than in British and American usage
  • that results in a mix of highly colloquial and
    highly formal use ? her deceased hubby rather
    then her dead husband
  • words taken from regional languages
  • for example the Malayan word makan (food) ?
    Let's have some makan.

The Implication for LIA
  • No need to bother about World Englishes if you
    teach EC, ET, EA.
  • Expose the students to World Englishes if you
    teach CV, CIB etc. to raise their awareness and
    tolerance and provide your students with
    cross-cultural communication strategies.