Land Use and Pollution JEOPARDY!! ? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Land Use and Pollution JEOPARDY!! ?

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Title: Land Use and Pollution JEOPARDY!! ?


1
Land Use and Pollution JEOPARDY!! ?
Land Use 1 Land Use 2 Waste 1 Waste 2 Potpourri
10 10 10 10 10
20 20 20 20 20
30 30 30 30 30
40 40 40 40 40
50 50 50 50 50
2
Distinguish among an old-growth forest, a second-
growth forest, and a tree plantation (tree farm
or commercial forest).
10 Land Use 1
3
An old-growth forest is an uncut or regenerated
primary forest that has not been seriously
disturbed by human activities or natural
disasters for several hundred years or more.
Old-growth forests are reservoirs of biodiversity
because they provide ecological niches for a
multitude of wildlife species.A second-growth
forest is a stand of trees resulting from
secondary ecological succession. These forests
develop after the trees in an area have been
removed by human activities such as clear-cutting
for timber or cropland or by natural forces such
as fire, hurricanes, or volcanic eruption. A
tree plantation, also called a tree farm or
commercial forest, is a managed tract with
uniformly aged trees of one or two genetically
uniform species that usually are harvested by
clear-cutting as soon as they become commercially
valuable. The land is then replanted and
clear-cut again in a regular cycle.
10
Land Use1
4
 What major ecological and economic benefits do
forests provide?
20 Land Use 1
5
Forests provide major ecological and economic
services. Ecological services include support
energy flow and chemical cycling, reduce soil
erosion, absorb and release water, purify water
and air, influence local and regional climate,
store atmospheric carbon, and provide numerous
wildlife habitats. Economical services include
fuel wood, lumber, pulp to make paper, mining,
livestock grazing, and recreation jobs.
20 Land Use 1
6
Distinguish among selective cutting,
clear-cutting, and strip cutting in the
harvesting of trees. .
30 Land Use 1
7
Harvesting TreesSelective cutting occurs when
intermediate-aged or mature trees in an
uneven-aged forest are cut singly or in small
groups.Clear-cutting occurs when loggers
remove all the trees from an area.Strip
cutting involves clear-cutting a strip of trees
along the contour of the land within a corridor
narrow enough to allow natural regeneration
within a few years. After regeneration, loggers
cut another strip next to the first, and so on. .

30 Land Use 1
8
30 Community 1
9
What are two types of forest fires?
40 Land Use 1
10
Two types of fires can affect forest ecosystems.
Surface fires usually burn only undergrowth
and leaf litter on the forest floor. They may
kill seedlings and small trees, but they spare
most mature trees and allow most wild animals to
escape. Another type of fire, called a crown
fire, is an extremely hot fire that leaps from
treetop to treetop, burning whole trees. Crown
fires usually occur in forests that have not
experienced surface fires for several decades, a
situation that allows dead wood, leaves, and
other flammable ground litter to accumulate.
These rapidly burning fires can destroy most
vegetation, kill wildlife, increase soil erosion,
and burn or damage human structures in their
paths.
40 Land Use 1
11
What is deforestation and what parts of the world
are experiencing the greatest forest losses? .
50 Land Use 1
12
Deforestation is the temporary or permanent
removal of large expanses of forest for
agriculture, settlements, or other uses. These
losses are concentrated in less-developed
countries, especially those in the tropical areas
of Latin America, Indonesia, and Africa.
50
Land Use 1
13
Describe four ways to manage forests more
sustainably.
10
Land Use 2
14
Identify and protect forest areas high in
biodiversity.Rely more on selective cutting and
strip cutting.No clear-cutting on steep
slopes.No logging of old-growth forests.
10
Land Use 2
15
What are four ways to reduce the harms caused by
forest fires to forests and to people?
20
Land Use 2
16
Set small, contained surface fires, such as
prescribed fires, to remove flammable small trees
and underbrush in the highest-risk forest
areas.Allow many fires on public lands to
burn, thereby removing flammable underbrush and
smaller trees, as long as the fires do not
threaten human structures and life. Protect
houses and other buildings in fire-prone areas by
thinning a zone of about 60 meters (200 feet)
around them and eliminating the use of flammable
materials such as wooden roofs. Thin forest
areas vulnerable to fire by clearing away small
fire-prone trees and underbrush under careful
environmental controls.
20
Land Use 2
17
Distinguish between rangelands and pastures.
30
Land Use 2
18
Rangelands are unfenced grasslands in
temperate and tropical climates that supply
forage, or vegetation, for grazing (grass-eating)
and browsing (shrub-eating) animals. Pastures
are managed grasslands or enclosed meadows
usually planted with domesticated grasses or
other forage.
30
Land Use 2
19
What are the major environmental threats to
national parks in the world and in the United
States?
40
Land Use 2
20
National parks are threatened because they are
too small and fragmented to sustain many large
animal species, because of invasions by nonnative
species that compete with and reduce the
populations of native species, and lack of
funding. Around the world, there are also many
problems with lack of protection and people
entering parks to harvest resources.
40
Land Use 2
21
What is the buffer zone concept? .
50
Land Use 2
22
50
Land Use 2
The buffer zone concept involves strictly
protecting the inner core of a reserve, allowing
people to extract resources sustainably around it
23
10 Waste 1
Distinguish among solid waste, industrial solid
waste, municipal solid waste (MSW), and hazardous
(toxic) waste and give an example of each.
24
Solid waste is any unwanted or discarded material
we produce that is not a liquid or a gas, such as
a box.Industrial solid waste produced by mines,
agriculture, and industries that supply people
with goods and services, such as extra
packaging.Municipal solid waste (MSW), often
called garbage or trash, consists of the combined
solid waste produced by homes and workplaces.
Examples include paper and cardboard, food
wastes, cans, bottles, yard wastes, furniture,
plastics, metals, glass, wood, and
e-waste.Hazardous, or toxic, waste threatens
human health or the environment because it is
poisonous, dangerously chemically reactive,
corrosive, or flammable. Examples include
industrial solvents, hospital medical waste, car
batteries (containing lead and acids), household
pesticide products, dry-cell batteries
(containing mercury and cadmium), and ash from
incinerators and coal-burning power plants.
10
Waste 1
25
Distinguish among waste management, waste
reduction, and integrated waste management.
20
Waste 1
26
 Waste management attempts to manage wastes
in ways that reduce their environmental harm
without seriously trying to reduce the amount of
waste produced. It typically involves mixing
wastes together and then transferring them from
one part of the environment to another, usually
by burying them, burning them, or shipping them
to another location. Waste reduction tries to
produce much less waste and pollution, and the
wastes that are produced are considered to be
potential resources that can be reused, recycled,
or composted.Integrated waste management uses a
variety of strategies for both waste reduction
and waste management.
20
Waste 1
27
Distinguish among refusing, reducing, reusing,
and recycling in dealing with the wastes we
produce. .
30
Waste 1
28
30
Waste 1
Waste reduction based on four Rs Refuse dont
use it. Reduce consume less and live a simpler
lifestyle. Reuse rely more on items that can be
used repeatedly instead of on throwaway items,
and buy necessary items secondhand or borrow or
rent them. Recycle separate and recycle paper,
glass, cans, plastics, metal, and other items,
and buy products made from recycled materials.
29
What is composting?
40
Waste 1
30
40
Waste 1
Composting involves the use of bacteria to
decompose yard trimmings and other biodegradable
wastes.
31
Distinguish between primary (closed-loop)
recycling and secondary recycling.
50
Waste 1
32
Primary, or closed-loop, recycling involves
materials being recycled into new products of the
same type. For example, used aluminum cans are
turned into new aluminum cans. Secondary
recycling involves waste materials converted into
different products. For example, used tires can
be shredded and turned into rubberized road
surfacing, and newspapers can be reprocessed into
cellulose insulation.
50
Waste 1
33
10
Waste 2
What are the major advantages and disadvantages
of using incinerators to burn solid and hazardous
waste? .
34
10
Waste 2
Advantages of incinerating solid include reduces
trash volume, less need for landfills, low water
pollution, concentrates hazardous substances into
ash for burial, sale of energy reduces cost,
modern controls reduce air pollution, and some
facilities recover and sell metals.
Disadvantages include expensive to build,
costs more than short-distance hauling to
landfills, difficult to site because of citizen
opposition, some air pollution and CO2 emissions,
older or poorly managed facilities can release
large amounts of air pollution, output approach
encourages waste production, and can compete with
recycling for burnable materials such as
newspaper.
35
20
Waste 2
  Distinguish between open dumps and sanitary
landfills.
36
20
Waste 2
There are two types of landfills. Open dumps
are essentially fields or holes in the ground
where garbage is deposited and sometimes burned.
They are rare in developed countries, but are
widely used near major cities in many developing
countries. In newer landfills, called sanitary
landfills, solid wastes are spread out in thin
layers, compacted, and covered daily with a fresh
layer of clay or plastic foam, which helps to
keep the material dry and reduces leakage of
contaminated water.
37
30
Waste 2
Summarize the problems involved in sending
e-wastes to less-developed countries for
recycling.
38
30
Waste 2
The value of the metals that can be recycled is
such that poor workers are exposed to
considerably hazardous conditions to mine the
waste of its valuable components
39
40
Waste 2
What are the major advantages and disadvantages
of disposing of liquid hazardous wastes in (a)
deep under-ground wells and (b) in surface
impoundments?
40
40
Waste 2
Advantages of deep-well disposal include safe
method if sites are chosen carefully, wastes can
often be retrieved if problems develop, easy to
do and low cost. Disadvantages of deep-well
disposal include Leaks or spills at surface,
leaks from corrosion of well casing, existing
fractures or earthquakes can allow wastes to
escape into groundwater and output approach that
encourages waste production. Advantages of
surface impoundments include low construction
costs, low operating costs, can be built quickly,
wastes can often be retrieved if necessary and
can store wastes indefinitely with secure double
liners. Disadvantages of surface impoundments
include groundwater contamination from leaking
liners (or no lining), air pollution from
volatile organic compounds, overflow from
flooding, disruption and leakage from earthquakes
and output approach that encourages waste
production. .
41
50
Waste 2
What is a secure hazardous waste landfill? List
four ways to reduce your output of hazardous
waste.
42
50
Waste 2
Sometimes liquid and solid hazardous wastes are
put into drums or other containers and buried in
carefully designed and monitored secure hazardous
waste landfills. Three ways to reduce hazardous
waste include avoiding the use of pesticides and
other hazardous chemicals, using less harmful and
substances, and avoiding the disposal of
pesticides, paints, solvents, oil, antifreeze, or
other hazardous chemicals by flushing them down
the toilet, pouring them down the drain, burying
them, throwing them into the garbage, or dumping
them down storm drains. About 5 of all
hazardous waste produced in the United States is
regulated under the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA, pronounced RICKra), passed
in 1976 and amended in 1984. The EPA sets
standards for management of several types of
hazardous waste and issues permits to companies
allowing them to produce and dispose of a certain
amount of wastes in acceptable ways. Permit
holders must use a cradle-to-grave system to keep
track of waste they transfer from a point of
generation (cradle) to an approved off-site
disposal facility (grave), and they must submit
proof of this disposal to the EPA.
43
My name is Bond, Ionic BondTaken, not shared!
10
Genetics 2
44
From Mariano Cecowski ltMCecowskiNoSpam.sif.com.
argtQ if both a bear in Yosemite and one in
Alaska fall into the waterwhich one disolves
faster?A The one in Alaska because it is
HIJKLMNO
10 Population Growth
45
Alimentary What Sherlock Holmes said to Dr.
Watson.Urinate What a nurse would say if a
patient asked her what room he's in.Urine - The
opposite of "You're out!"Benign What we want
when we are eight.Intestine - Currently taking
an exam CARDIOLOGY advanced study of poker
playing TERMINAL ILLNESS getting sick at the
airport
10 Population Growth
46
10
Potpourri
What is a biodiversity hotspot and why is it
important to protect such areas?
47
10
Potpourri
Biodiversity hotspots are areas especially rich
in plant species that are found nowhere else and
are in great danger of extinction. These areas
need to be protected because suffer serious
ecological disruption, mostly because of rapid
human population growth and the resulting
pressure on natural resources. One to help
sustain the earths biodiversity and its people
is to identify and protect areas where vital
ecosystem are being impaired enough to reduce
biodiversity or harm local residents. Proponents
of this approach contend that we must identify
highly stressed life raft ecosystems. In such
areas, people live in severe poverty, and a large
part of the economy depends on various ecosystem
services that are being degraded severely enough
to threaten the well-being of people and other
forms of life.
48
10
Genetics 2
49
20
Potpourri
What is ecological restoration?
50
Ecological restoration is the process of
repairing damage caused by humans to the
biodiversity and dynamics of natural
ecosystems.Examples of restoration are
reintroducing native species, removing invasive
species, restoring grasslands and coral reefs.
20
Potpourri
51
30
Potpourri
Describe the science-based, four-point strategy
for carrying out ecological restoration and
rehabilitation.
52
30
Potpourri
A science-based, four-point strategy for
carrying out ecological restoration and
rehabilitation 1. Identify the causes of the
degradation (such as pollution, farming,
overgrazing, mining, or invasive species). 2.
Stop the abuse by eliminating or sharply reducing
these factors. This would include removing toxic
soil pollutants, improving depleted soil by
adding nutrients and new topsoil, preventing
fires, and controlling or eliminating disruptive
nonnative species. 3. If necessary, reintroduce
speciesespecially pioneer, keystone, and
foundation speciesto help restore natural
ecological processes, as was done with wolves in
the Yellowstone ecosystem. 4. Protect the area
from further degradation and allow secondary
ecological succession to occur.
53
30
Genetics 2
54
40
Potpourri
What are the major advantages and disadvantages
of incinerating hazardous wastes?
55
40
Potpourri
Advantages of phytoremediation include easy to
establish, inexpensive, can reduce material
dumped into landfills and produces little air
pollution compared to incineration. Disadvantages
of phytoremediation include slow (can take
several growing seasons), effective only at depth
plant roots can reach, some toxic organic
chemicals may evaporate from plant leaves and
some plants can become toxic to animals.
56
50
Potpourri
Describe three ways to detoxify hazardous waste.
57
50
Potpourri
1.Physical methods 2.Chemical methods 3.Use
nanomagnets 4.Bioremediation 5.Phytoremediation .
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