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Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances (Communities) Populations Dynamics and Growth Weather and Climate Climate and Biomes Potpourri – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecosystems, Biomes, and Climate JEOPARDY!! ?


1
Ecosystems, Biomes, and ClimateJEOPARDY!! ?
Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances (Communities) Populations Dynamics and Growth Weather and Climate Climate and Biomes Potpourri
10 10 10 10 10
20 20 20 20 20
30 30 30 30 30
40 40 40 40 40
50 50 50 50 50
2
Define and give two examples of resource
partitioning and explain how it can increase
species diversity.
10 Species Interactions and Response to
Disturbances
3
Resource partitioning occurs when species
competing for similar scarce resources evolve
specialized traits that allow them to use shared
resources at different times, in different ways,
or in different places. Some insect-eating bird
species reduce competition by feeding in
different portions of certain spruce trees and by
feeding on different insect species. Resource
partitioning allows species to avoid niche
overlap.
10
Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances
4
Describe three ways in which predators can
increase their chances of feeding on their prey
and three ways in which prey species can avoid
their predators.
20 Species Interactions and Response to
Disturbances
5
Some ways that predators can increase their
chances of feeding on their prey include
camouflage, chemical warfare, ability to fly
faster than the prey, and better vision.Some
ways in which prey species can avoid their
predators include camouflage, protective shells,
chemical warfare and a highly developed sense of
sight or smell that alerts them to the presence
of predators.
20 Species Interactions and Response to
Disturbances
6
Define and give an example of coevolution..
30 Species Interactions and Response to
Disturbances
7
Coevolution occurs when populations of two
different species interact in such a way over a
long period of time changes in the gene pool of
one species can lead to changes in the gene pool
of the other. Such changes can help both sides
become more competitive, or avoid or reduce
competition. An example is bees and flowers or
bats and moths.
30 Ch 8 Aquatic Biodiversity
8
30 Community 1
9
Define parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism
and give an example of each.
40 Species Interactions and Response to
Disturbances
10
Parasitism occurs when one organism (the
parasite) feeds on another organism (the host),
usually by living on or in the host. An example
is tick to human.Mutualism is an interaction
that benefits both species by providing each with
food, shelter, or some other resource. An example
is bee to flower.Commensalism is an
interaction that benefits one species but has
little, if any, effect on the other. An example
is epiphyte to tree.
40 Species Interactions and Response to
Disturbances
11
Distinguish between primary ecological succession
and secondary ecological succession and give an
example of each.
50 Species Interactions and Response to
Disturbances
12
Primary succession involves the gradual
establishment of biotic communities in lifeless
areas where there is no soil in a terrestrial
ecosystem or no bottom sediment in an aquatic
ecosystem.Examples include bare rock exposed by
a retreating glacier (Figure 5-10), newly cooled
lava, an abandoned highway or parking lot, and a
newly created shallow pond or reservoir.
Secondary succession occurs as a series of
communities or ecosystems with different species
develop in places containing soil or bottom
sediment. This type of succession begins in an
area where an ecosystem has been disturbed,
removed, or destroyed, but some soil or bottom
sediment remains. Candidates for secondary
succession include abandoned farmland, burned or
cut forests, heavily polluted streams, and land
that has been flooded.
50
Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances
13
Why do most populations live in clumps?
10
Populations Dynamics and Growth
14
Most populations live in clumps because they
cluster around resources, they have a better
chance of getting resources in a clump, living in
groups provides some protection from predators,
and living in packs gives some predators a better
chance of catching prey.
10
Populations Dynamics and Growth
15
What is a populations age structure and what
are three major age groups called?
20
Populations Dynamics and Growth
16
Age structure refers to the number or percentage
of males and females in young, middle, and older
age groups. A diagram of the age structure of the
human population might show the percentages of
males and females in the total population in age
categories pre-reproductive (ages 014)
reproductive (ages 1544) and post-reproductive
(age 45 and older).
20
Populations Dynamics and Growth
17
Distinguish between the environmental resistance
and the carrying capacity of an environment, and
use these concepts to explain why there are
always limits to population growth in nature.
30
Populations Dynamics and Growth
18
Environmental resistance is the combination
of all factors that act to limit the growth of a
population. It largely determines a populations
carrying capacity the maximum population of a
given species that a particular habitat can
sustain indefinitely. The growth rate of a
population decreases as its size nears the
carrying capacity of its environment because
resources such as food, water, and space begin to
dwindle. .
30
Populations Dynamics and Growth
19
Define population density and explain how some
limiting factors can become more important as a
populations density increases.
40
Populations Dynamics and Growth
20
Population density is the number of individuals
in a population found within a defined area or
volume. Limiting factors become more important
as population density increases because things
like diseases can spread quickly through dense
populations.
40
Populations Dynamics and Growth
21
Define and give an example of a population crash.
Explain why humans are not exempt from natures
population controls. .
50
Populations Dynamics and Growth
22
50
Populations Dynamics and Growth
A population may suffer a dieback, or
population crash, if it uses up its resource
supplies and temporarily overshoots, or exceeds,
the carrying capacity of the environment. The
reindeer population crashed when they were
introduced onto a small island in the Bering Sea.
Humans are not exempt from population crashes
when they have used up their resources, as seen
with the Irish potato famine. Speaking on a
global scale, there is no place for us to come
from (immigration) or go to (emigration). That
means population change is limited to births
minus deaths. To put it in the crudest of terms,
we must either reduce the number of births or
increase the number of deaths in order to
stabilize or reduce our population. If we choose
not to undertake that change, nature will do so
as we exceed our carrying capacity.
23
10 Weather and Climate
Distinguish between weather and climate.
24
Weather is a set of physical conditions of the
lower atmosphere such as temperature,
precipitation, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover,
and other factors in a given area over a period
of hours or days. Climate is an areas
general pattern of atmospheric conditions over
periods ranging from at least three decades to
thousands of years.
10
Weather and Climate
25
Why are oceans responsible for the earths
temperature and climate?
20
Weather and Climate
26
 Land quickly absorbs and reflects solar energy
back to space, whereas bodies of water hold on to
solar energy and release it back slowly to space.
This helps to keep warmth on our planet, which is
distributed by ocean currents.
20
Weather and Climate
27
Explain how convection circulates warm air and
cold air in the atmosphere.
30
Weather and Climate
28
30
Weather and Climate
Air at the equator is warmer and less dense, so
it rises in the atmosphere north and south away
from the equator. As it rises, it starts to cool,
become more dense, and sinks back to the equator.
.
29
Explain how convection circulates deep currents
and surface currents.
40
Weather and Climate
30
40
Weather and Climate
Cold, deep currents along the ocean floor are
eventually drawn up to become warm surface
currents carried by the wind. When cold currents
reach the surface, it is warmed by the sun and
becomes a warm surface current.
31
What do the circuit movement of rising warm
and sinking cold air form in the atmosphere? How
many are there?
50
Weather and Climate
32
convection cells--- there are 6 giant
convection cells
50
Weather and Climate
33
10
Climate and Biomes
What is the rain shadow effect and how can it
lead to the formation of deserts?
34
10
Climate and Biomes
rain shadow effect is a reduction of rainfall
and loss of moisture from the landscape on the
side of mountains facing away from prevailing
surface winds. Warm, moist air in onshore winds
loses most of its moisture as rain and snow on
the windward slopes of a mountain range. This
leads to semi-arid and arid conditions on the
leeward side of the mountain range and the land
beyond.
35
20
Climate and Biomes
Explain why there are three major types of each
of the major biomes (deserts, grasslands, and
forests).
36
20
Climate and Biomes
The three major biomes are determined by the
amount of precipitation. Differences in climate,
mostly from average annual precipitation and
temperature, lead to the formation of tropical
(hot), temperate (moderate), and polar (cold)
deserts, grasslands, and forests.
37
30
Climate and Biomes
What type of information does weather give you?
List all four.
38
30
Climate and Biomes
Precipitation Temperature Humidity Wind
39
40
Climate and Biomes
What four things determine a places climate?
40
40
Climate and Biomes
Wind Ocean currents Mountains Latitude .
41
50
Climate and Biomes
What are the three major climate zones?
42
50
Climate and Biomes
Polar Temperate Tropical
43
My name is Bond, Ionic BondTaken, not shared!
10
Genetics 2
44
From Mariano Cecowski ltMCecowskiNoSpam.sif.com.
argtQ if both a bear in Yosemite and one in
Alaska fall into the waterwhich one disolves
faster?A The one in Alaska because it is
HIJKLMNO
10 Population Growth
45
Alimentary What Sherlock Holmes said to Dr.
Watson.Urinate What a nurse would say if a
patient asked her what room he's in.Urine - The
opposite of "You're out!"Benign What we want
when we are eight.Intestine - Currently taking
an exam CARDIOLOGY advanced study of poker
playing TERMINAL ILLNESS getting sick at the
airport
10 Population Growth
46
10
Potpourri
List the defining features of the atmospheric
layers.
47
10
Potpourri
temperatures air pressure solar
energy gases in layer
48
10
Genetics 2
49
20
Potpourri
What is air pressure?
50
The effect of all the gas molecules being pulled
toward the earth via gravity, causing molecules
to push down on the planet.
20
Potpourri
51
30
Potpourri
What is the Gulf Stream?
52
30
Potpourri
Warm water current in the Atlantic Ocean
53
30
Genetics 2
54
40
Potpourri
Describe the exploding white-tailed deer
population problem in the United States and
discuss options for dealing with it.
55
40
Potpourri
There are 25 30 million white- tailed deer in
the United States. Laws to protect deer have
restricted hunting and natural predators such as
wolves and mountain lions have been nearly
eliminated. During the last 50 years, large
numbers of Americans have moved into the wooded
habitat of deer and provided them with flowers,
garden crops, and other plants they like to eat.
In some forests, they are consuming native ground
cover vegetation and allowing nonnative weed
species to take over. Deer also spread Lyme
disease to humans. Each year there are 1.5
million deer vehicle collisions which injure at
least 14,000 people and kill at least 200.
Options for dealing with the deer overpopulation
include the following   Changing hunting
regulations to allow killing of more female deer.
Since it is too dangerous to allow widespread
hunting with guns in populated communities, hire
licensed archers who use bows and arrows to help
reduce deer numbers. However, animal activists
argue that this is cruel and inhumane treatment.
Scare off deer by spraying the scent of deer
predators or rotting deer meat or using
electronic equipment that emits high-frequency
sounds, which humans cannot hear. Surround their
gardens with high fencing. Such deterrents may
protect one area, but cause the deer to seek food
in someone elses yard or garden. Deer can be
trapped and moved from one area to another. This
is expensive and must be repeated whenever deer
move back into an area. Put deer on birth control
by shooting females with darts loaded with a
contraceptive.
56
50
Potpourri
In terms of stability of ecosystems, distinguish
between inertia (persistence) and resilience and
give an example of each.
57
50
Potpourri
There are two aspects of stability in living
systems One is inertia, or persistence the
ability of a living system, such as a grassland
or a forest, to survive moderate disturbances,
such as mild drought. A second factor is
resilience the ability of a living system to be
restored through secondary succession after a
moderate disturbance, such as a wildfire.
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