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Title: Review%20of%20Literature

Review of Literature
  • Islamic University
  • Nursing College

Review of Literature
  • A literature review involves the systematic
    identification, location, search, and summary of
    written materials that contain information on a
    research problem.
  • Purposes of A literature Review
  • Source of research ideas

  1. A search of previous work acquaints the
    researcher with what has been done in a field,
    there by minimizing the possibility of
    duplication and increase the probability that a
    new study will make a distinctive contribution to
  2. Information on research approach.
  3. Assessment of feasibility.

  • Scope of a literature reviews
  • I- Types of information to seek.
  • A-Research findings
  • C-Methodological information.
  • D-Opinions and view points.
  • E- Anecdotes and Clinical descriptions.
  • II- Depth and breadth of literature coverage.

  • The extensiveness of the literature review
    depends on a number of factors-
  • a- The nature of the document being prepared.
  • b- The researchers own level of knowledge.
  • c- Relevancy research that is highly related
    to your problem usually merits rather detailed
  • D- Sources for the literature review

How to access previous work on a topic.
  • A primary source is a description of a research
    study that is written by the original researcher
  • Secondary resource IS a description of a study
    prepared by some one other than the original
  • The literature review should utilize primary
    source whenever possible.

Locating literature sources
  • Card catalog contains an alphabetical listing of
    books under 3 categories
  • a- Title.
  • b- Author
  • c- Subject heading.
  • Indexes contains reference materials on books
    and periodicals.

  • Example
  • Nursing intervention and pain relief for post
    operative patients, (Joun), north Am. 11 (2)
  • Nursing intervention and pain relief for post
    operative pts (article title).
  • -(Joun) (author).
  • -North Am (Journal number).
  • -11 (volume number).
  • -(2) (issue number).
  • -283-95 (page number).
  • -Jun. 76 (date of issues).
  • -(research) (type of article).

Examples of indexes useful to nurse researchers
are the-
  • 1. International nursing index.
  • A articles from more than 275 nursing Journals,
    more that 2700 non nursing journals covers form
    1966 to the present (quarterly)
  • 2. Index medicus.
  • Nursing research index
  • Nursing studies index
  • Current index to journals in education

  • 3. Abstracts
  • provide a summary of a study rather than just a
  • The abstract is a brief description of the study
    placed at the beginning of the journal article.
    In about 100 to 200 words.
  • The abstract answers the following questions,
    what were the research questions? What methods
    did the researcher use in answering those
    questions? And what did the researcher discover?

  • 5.The summary
  • Presents the high lights of the findings of a
    study and is placed at the end.
  • 4.Computer searches
  • able to produce an immediate search, this is
    called on line search.
  • MEDLINE covers all areas of biomedical literature
    with added coverage of nursing and dental

Preparing and writing the literature review.
  • Identifying and locating relevant references.
  • Abstracting and recording notes
  • Examine the abstract or summary of a report in
    order to determine its potential value.
  • 3. Once the document is considered relevant, the
    entire report should be read critically.

  • 4. Use index cards-
  • Separate cards should be used for each new
    reference to facilitate organization and sorting.
  • Direct quotes should be avoided.
  • It is important to paraphrase.
  • If the reference is a research reports the
    following kinds of information should usually be
  • 1- The problem statement.

  • 2- the procedures and methodology.
  • 3- The results and conclusions.
  • 4- The researchers own criticism or comments.
  • The review should point out both consistencies
    and contradictions in the literature.
  • Studies that are relevant to your study should be
    described in detail.
  • The summary should point out any gaps or areas of
    research inactivity.

  • The review should be as objective as possible.
  • The literature review should conclude with a
    summary or overview.
  • The critical summary should demonstrate the need
    for the new study.

Guidelines for critiquing Research Reviews
  1. Does the review seem thorough? Does it appear
    that the review includes all or most of the major
    studies that have been conducted on the topic of
    interest? Does the review include recent
  2. Is there an overdependence on secondary sources
    when primary sources could have been obtained?

  • 3. Is there an overreliance on opinion articles
    or anecdotes and an underemphasis on research
  • 4. Is the review a summary of past work, or does
    it critically appraise the continuations of key
    studies? Does it discuss weaknesses in existing
    studies and identify important gaps in the

  • 5. Does the review conclude with a brief outline
    of the state of the art of the research on the
  • 6. Is the review organized in such a way that the
    development of ideas is clear? If review is part
    of anew study, is the material organized in such
    a way that the review builds a case for
    conducting the new study?

  • 7.Is the review paraphrase adequately, or is it a
    string of quotations from the original sources?
  • 8. Does the review use appropriate language,
    suggesting the tentativeness of prior findings?
  • 9. Does the review appear to be sufficiently

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