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Ocean color NATO SfPS

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Title: Ocean color NATO SfPS


1
  • Ocean color NATO SfPS
  • Project Annual Meeting
  • Istanbul 10-11 November 2011

2
  • Project title Ocean colour Application for the
    Western Black Sea
  • Period of development 2010 2014
  • Joint Research Centre of EC (JRC), Ispra, Italy
    (through a Letter of Endorsement)
  • Maritime Hydrographic Directorate (MHD),
    Constanta, Romania
  • Research Center of the Navy, Costanta, Romania)
  • Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of
    Sciences (IO-BAS), Bulgaria, Varna
  • National Institute for Marine Research and
    Development (NIMRD) Grigore Antipa, Constanta,
    Romania

3
  • Rationale and Justification
  • The Black Sea receives drainage from almost
    one-third of the continental Europe (five times
    its own surface) which includes significant
    portions of 17 countries, 13 capital cities and
    some 160 million people. Of all the basins of the
    world ocean, the environmental degradation in the
    Black Sea is the most severe.
  • The monitoring of trophic and geochemical status
    of the Black Sea can rely on satellite ocean
    color data. In fact such a technology allows for
    the determination at synoptic scale of water
    quality indicators like
  • chlorophyll a concentration (and potentially
    accessory pigments) used as a proxy for
    phytoplankton biomass
  • concentration of total suspended matter and
    colored dissolved organic matter through its
    absorption properties.
  • Current limitation in the operational use of
    satellite ocean color data in the Black Sea and
    in other marginal seas is the lack of regional
    bio-optical algorithms linking the satellite
    signal to the specific water quality indicators.
    In fact operational satellite products generally
    rely on algorithms developed for global
    applications which generally are the source of
    large uncertainties in coastal areas. This urges
    the development of specific regional bio-optical
    algorithms on the basis of comprehensive data
    sets of statistically representative in situ
    measurements.

4
Current Status and Objectives
Optical remote sensing (satellite ocean color)
has demonstrated the capability to provide
synoptic information of the optical and
biogeochemical properties of the oceans. This is
based on the determination of the spectrum of the
water leaving radiance (i.e., the radiance
emerging from below the sea surface obtained from
the top-of-atmosphere signal corrected for the
atmospheric perturbation).
The proposed project, within the framework of ESA
and ROSA coordinated activities, and with the
collaboration of JRC, aims at carrying out
dedicated bio-optical cruises in the Romanian
waters influenced by the Danube discharges. The
data collection carried out by the partnership
will basically rely on the equipment and
methodologies regularly applied by the JRC for
mapping the bio-optical properties of the
European seas and complying with the MERIS
Validation Team protocols.
The in situ data collected during these cruises
will then be applied i. to verify the
consistency of the models utilized for the
atmospheric correction process in sediment
dominated waters with specific reference to the
MERIS bright pixel atmospheric correction ii. to
support the development of regional bio-optical
algorithms and models for the determination of
optically significant seawater constituents in
the form of concentration or inherent optical
properties from satellite ocean color sensor data
(with the highest priority for MERIS imagery).
5
The project also aims at operating an autonomous
above-water radiometer on an oil platform in
front of the Romanian coast. This system will
produce data which will be used for the
continuous assessment of the atmospheric
correction process of current satellite ocean
colors sensors (with the highest priority for
MERIS). The autonomous radiometer will be
provided by the JRC and will be part of the
international AERONET-OC network. The long-term
operation of the system will be taken over by
NIMRD with the support of the JRC. The system
will ensure real-time transmission of data. These
will be available to the project partnership
without restrictions from the AERONET-OC data
base and also from the ESA MERMAID server.
The operation of the above-water system will be
complemented by an ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current
Profile) operated near the deployment platform to
monitor sea currents and wave regimes. The data
exploitation will comprise the continuous
analysis of in-situ and satellite match-up data,
and an evaluation of the sea current effects on
them.
The project will also benefit from the NIMRD data
archive of transparency and sea color produced
during different oceanographic cruises from 1971
to 2009.
6
Data The in situ data collected within the
framework of the oceanographic cruises will
comprise state-of-the-art and quality assured
comprehensive measurements of apparent and
inherent optical properties of seawater, in
addition to the concentration of optically
significant constituents
AOP are the remote sensing reflectance and the
diffuse attenuation coefficient (all determined
through in-water radiometric profiling). Inherent
optical properties are the absorption, scattering
and back-scattering coefficients (determined
through in-water profiling). Concentrations of
specific seawater suspended constituents include
those of pigments and total suspended matter
(determined from laboratory analysis of water
samples).
The in situ data collected with the autonomous
above-water radiometer on a continuous basis will
be the remote sensing reflectance and the aerosol
optical thickness
7
Milestones and Deliverables i. the
installation of the autonomous system on an
offshore oil platform in the Danube area during
the first year ii. the completion of the
oceanographic campaigns scheduled for the first
and second year and iii. yearly summary of data
analysis. Accordingly deliverables are
Data from the fixed platform (i.e., the
radiometric data accessible from the AERONET OC
and MERMAID servers and ADCP data accessible from
NIMRD) Data from ship campaigns (radiometric data
and inherent optical properties)
Annual scientific reports and publications
documenting the field activities and results from
data analysis. It is expected that results are
also presented in at least one workshop (e.g.,
MERIS Validation Team Meeting) or conference per
year.
8
Project's synergy with European projects
ECOOP European COastal-shelf sea OPerational
observing and forecasting system
Regional Atmospheric Model (ALADIN Family
Basin-Scale Circulation Model
Sea Surface Elevation
Ro
1 km 170 x 270
9
NIMRD
  • Romanian National Monitoring Program (part of
    BSIMAP)
  • Romanian Monitoring grid - 44 stations
  • 21 in coastal waters
  • 12 in transitional waters
  • 11 in marine waters
  • inner shelf waters covered quite well
    spatially and temporally in the National
    Monitoring Program
  • outer shelf and open waters - occasionally
    covered within the framework of various projects

10
Parameters monitored in parallel, in situ and
remote sensing
  • Chlorophyll a
  • commonly used parameter for the estimation of
    phytoplankton biomass and primary production
  • included in the list of indicators of
    eutrophication within WFD
  • proposed indicator related to Direct effects of
    nutrient enrichment criteria (Descriptor 5) in
    the MSFD
  • Transparency
  • strongly related to the amount, size, composition
    of suspended material (sediments and organic
    material)
  • Transparency related to increase in suspended
    algae is proposed as MSFDs indicator (Descriptor
    5)

11
Validations of the RS data
  • MSFD recommends appropriate methodologies for
    chlorophyll a observation offshore using tools as
    satellite observation
  • In open waters remote sensing methods are the
    most promise tool for eutrophication assessment,
    on synoptic scales through the detection of
    chlorophyll a and water transparency
  • Integration of in-situ and remote sensing data
    improves understanding of ecosystem processes and
    dynamics
  • Identification of chlorophyll a temporal trends
  • the use of remote sensing products for wider
    marine areas can provide a much finer resolution
    in time and space
  • Identification and understanding the link
    between algal blooms and nutrients input
  • Serious issues
  • provide reliable data at very low costs
  • based on information provided by the RS
    measurements, we can plan and/or adjust the
    course of the cruises of 2012

12
Use of RS data in NIMRDs Oceanography Department
  • important tool of monitoring
  • marine¬†waters in the¬†Romanian
  • National Monitoring Programplanning,
  • developing and extension of all marine
  • monitoring activities
  • in several on-going national projects (annual
    reports)
  • The influence of Danubes discharges on the
    trophic status of Romanian transitional and
    coastal waters in order to implement WFD and MSFD
  • Characterization of benthic and planktonic
    communities of the Romanian continental shelf
  • Evaluation of macrophyte communities from the
    Romanian coast (MACROEVAL)
  • Complex system for the application of the remote
    sensing technics for environmental quality
    monitoring and Romanian ICZM implementation
    support (IMAGIS)/coastal WQ studies

13
Northwestern BS Basin RS data requirements more
accurate data (if possible) in the inner shelf
waters and fill data gap before 2009
  • Work to do (NIMRD)
  • Contribution to improvement of data validation
  • extended coverage area for in-situ measurements
    through common cruises
  • collect discrete samples (spatial and temporal)
    when is possible
  • Preparation and Participation in BS common
    expedition from September 2012 with ROSA support
  • better use of products
  • better dissemination (more papers based on these
    data)
  • use data in more national and international
    projects
  • use data in other research areas (i.e. fisheries,
    marine ecology)
  • Training/assimilation of RS technology of
    processing and delivery

14
  • Thanks for your attention!
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