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Introduction%20to%20Carbon%20Chemistry

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Title: Introduction%20to%20Carbon%20Chemistry


1
Introduction to Carbon Chemistry
  • Honors Physical Science
  • Ms. Mandel

2
D13 Explain how the structure of the carbon
atom affects the types of bonds it forms in
organic and inorganic molecules.
3
Learning Targets
  • I can explain why carbon can form many different
    compounds.
  • I can differentiate between the different types
    of hydrocarbons.
  • I can differentiate between the different carbon
    backbones.

4
Carbon
5
Why can Carbon form so many different bonds?
  • 4 valence e-
  • Relatively small size

en.petitchef.com
crystalmaker.com
6
What types of bonds can Carbon form?
Single covalent bonds Double covalent bonds
Triple covalent bonds
http//chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Orga
nic_Chemistry_With_a_Biological_Emphasis/Chapter__
13A_Chapter_13A_Introduction_to_organic_structur
e_and_bonding_I/Section_43A_Functional_groups_and
_organic_nomenclature
7
What is special about the properties of Carbon?
  • Can form long chains of atoms
  • Can form an almost infinite variety of compounds
  • The backbone of almost every molecule that
    living organisms make or use

dwb4.unl.edu
8
Identify 3 molecules containing carbon that
living organisms make or use
  • DNA
  • Genetic traits
  • Makes you you
  • Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Components of muscles, skin, and other organs
  • Carbohydrates
  • Starches
  • Sugars

9
Learning Target Checkpoint
  • Why can carbon form many different compounds?

10
inOrganic VS. organic Chemistry
11
Inorganic Chemistry
  • The study of compounds that do not contain carbon
  • There are exceptions
  • CO2
  • Diamonds (pure C)

12
Inorganic compounds
  • Includes salts, metals, substances made from
    single elements and any other compounds that
    don't contain carbon bonded to hydrogen.

13
Organic Chemistry
  • The study of carbon-containing compounds
  • Almost all contain C H bonds
  • Found in living things
  • DNA
  • Sugar (plants)
  • There are exceptions
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

14
Organic Compounds
  • CAS Substance Database has almost 24 million
    organic compounds
  • CAS REGISTRYSM, is the only integrated,
    comprehensive source of chemical information from
    a full range of disclosed material including
    patents, journals, and reputable web sources.  
  • When you need to positively identify a chemical
    substance, you can rely on the authoritative
    source for chemical names and structures of CAS
    REGISTRY.

15
Hydrocarbons
16
Hydrocarbons
  • Organic compounds that consist of only C and H
    atoms
  • Nonpolar
  • Poor conductors of electricity
  • Dont dissolve in water Why?
  • Typically found deep beneath the Earth
  • Fossil fuels

17
Hydrocarbons
  • Alkanes
  • Alkenes
  • Alkynes

18
Alkanes
  • All the Carbon to Carbon (C to C) bonds are
    single bonds
  • Basic molecular formula is CnH2n2
  • Cycloalkanes (ring-shaped) have the formula CnH2n

Methane CH4 Pentane C5H12 Nonane C9H20 Ethane
C2H6 Hexane C6H14 Decane C10H22 Propane
C3H8 Heptane C7H16 Butane C4H10 Octane
C8H18
19
(No Transcript)
20
How would you draw ethane?
How would you name C6H14?
Hexane
21
How would you name the structure below?
Octane
22
Alkenes
  • One or more carbon-carbon double bonds
  • General formula CnH2n

23
(No Transcript)
24
How would you draw butene?
How would you name C2H4?
Ethene
25
How would you name the structure below?
Propene
26
Alkynes
  • At least one triple bond between two carbon atoms
  • Having the formula CnH2n-2

http//www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesen/chemintro/ch
/ch16a.html
27
How would you draw 2-butyne?
How would you name C8H14?
Octyne
28
How would you name the structure below?
Ethyne
29
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
30
Saturated Hydrocarbons
  • Composed entirely of single bonds and are
    saturated with hydrogen
  • Alkanes

31
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
  • Have one or more double or triple bonds between
    carbon atoms.
  • Alkenes
  • Alkynes

32
Learning Target Checkpoint
  • How do you differentiate between alkanes,
    alkenes, alkynes and cycloalkanes?
  • How do you differentiate between saturated and
    unsaturated hydrocarbons?

33
Carbon Backbones
  • Carbon atoms can form long backbones of large
    molecules.

34
Carbon Backbones
  • Straight Chain

35
  • Branched Chain

36
Rings or Cyclic
37
Cross-linked Chains
  • Carbon chains linked together

http//www.csun.edu/science/standards/science/phys
ical-sci-8/files/3.5.2-polymers.pdf
38
Learning Target Checkpoint
  • How can you differentiate between the different
    carbon backbones?

39
Isomers
  • Have the same chemical formula but differ in the
    way the atoms are arranged.

40
C4H10
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