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The Integumentary System


And It s Functions Integument means covering So the integumentary system is the skin and its appendages And this system consists of the skin, hair, nails ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Integumentary System

The Integumentary System
  • And Its Functions

What is the Integumentary System
  • Integument means covering
  • So the integumentary system is the skin and its
  • And this system consists of the skin, hair,
    nails, glands, and nerves and among these the
    skin is the largest organ of the human body.

What Does It Do?
  • You may be aware that one of the main functions
    of the integumentary system is as a protective
    barrier, that keeps our body free from intrusion
    from foreign materials, microorganisms and
    prevents dehydration. The integumentary system
    function also helps in elimination the waste
    products and in the regulation of body

  • Skin is continuous with, but structurally
    distinct from mucous membranes that line the
    mouth, anus, urethra, and vagina. Two distinct
    layers occur in the skin the dermis and
    epidermis. The basic cell type of the epidermis
    is the keratinocyte, which contain keratin, a
    fibrous protein. Basal cells are the innermost
    layer of the epidermis. Melanocytes produce the
    pigment melanin, and are also in the inner layer
    of the epidermis. The dermis is a connective
    tissue layer under the epidermis, and contains
    nerve endings, sensory receptors, capillaries,
    and elastic fibers.

  • The integumentary system has multiple roles in
    homeostasis, including protection, temperature
    regulation, sensory reception, biochemical
    synthesis, and absorption.

Hair follicles
  • Hair follicles are lined with cells that
    synthesize the proteins that form hair. A
    sebaceous gland (that secretes the oily coating
    of the hair shaft), capillary bed, nerve ending,
    and small muscle are associated with each hair

  • Hair, scales, feathers, claws, horns, and nails
    are animal structures derived from skin. The hair
    shaft extends above the skin surface, the hair
    root extends from the surface to the base or hair
    bulb. Genetics controls several features of hair
    baldness, color, texture.

  • Eccrine glands are a type of sweat gland linked
    to the sympathetic nervous system they occur all
    over the body. Apocrine glands are the other type
    of sweat gland, and are larger and occur in the
    armpits and groin areas these produce a solution
    that bacteria act upon to produce "body odor".

  • Nails consist of highly keratinized, modified
    epidermal cells. The nail arises from the nail
    bed, which is thickened to form a lunula (or
    little moon). Cells forming the nail bed are
    linked together to form the nail.

Skin and Homeostasis
  • Skin functions in homeostasis include protection,
    regulation of body temperature, sensory
    reception, water balance, synthesis of vitamins
    and hormones, and absorption of materials. The
    skin's primary functions are to serve as a
    barrier to the entry of microbes and viruses, and
    to prevent water and extracellular fluid loss.
    Acidic secretions from skin glands also retard
    the growth of fungi. Melanocytes form a second
    barrier protection from the damaging effects of
    ultraviolet radiation. When a microbe penetrates
    the skin (or when the skin is breached by a cut)
    the inflammatory response occurs.

  • Heat and cold receptors are located in the skin.
    When the body temperature rises, the hypothalamus
    sends a nerve signal to the sweat-producing skin
    glands, causing them to release about 1-2 liters
    of water per hour, cooling the body. The
    hypothalamus also causes dilation of the blood
    vessels of the skin, allowing more blood to flow
    into those areas, causing heat to be convected
    away from the skin surface. When body temperature
    falls, the sweat glands constrict and sweat
    production decreases. If the body temperature
    continues to fall, the body will engage in
    thermiogenesis, or heat generation, by raising
    the body's metabolic rate and by shivering.

.And Again
  • In hot weather up to 4 liters per hour can be
    lost by these mechanisms. Skin damaged by burns
    is less effective at preventing fluid loss, often
    resulting in a possibly life threatening problem
    if not treated.

Vitamin D vs. Skin
  • The skin also assists in the synthesis of vitamin
    D. Children lacking sufficient vitamin D develop
    bone abnormalities known as rickets.

Fun Facts
  • ?Surface of approx 2 sq mtrs ?
  • One sixth body's mass.
  • ?Heaviest single organ. ?
  • Protective ?
  • Waterproof
  • ?Major sensory organ
  • ?Eyelids have the thinnest skin ?
  • Back has the thickest skin (dermis) ?
  • Sole of heel has the thickest skin (all layers) ?
  • Hair grows approx. 1 cm a month ?
  • Average head hair is around 120,000 ?
  • Nails grow approx. .5 mm per week
  • Two to five million sweat glands are a bacteria

Did You Know?
  • The skin is the largest organ in the body 12-15
    of body weight, with a surface area of 1-2 meters
  • And
  • Water loss occurs in the skin by two routes.
  • evaporation
  • sweating

  • fssfsd
  • 10 WAYS TO
  • 1

I and 2
  • 1. Wash your face regularly
  • If you dont wash our face before bedtime, all
    the bacteria, dirt, and dust you have gathered
    throughout the day will stick to youre pillow and
    sheets. It also aggravates the acne and can cause
    it to spread
  • 2.Change your pillow cases
  • If you dont shower before you go to bed, be
    sure to change out your pillow cases regularly,
    at least twice a month. If you are a smoker you
    should change your pillow case the next day if
    you did not shower that night. This is because
    the smoke will gather in your hair and irritate
    your skin.

3 and 4
  • 3. Stop the habit of touching your face
  • If you cant quit this habit, then be sure to
    constantly clean your hands so you dont transfer
    any bacteria to your face.
  • 4.Eat healthy
  • It is important to stick to a proper diet if you
    want healthy skin. You need to eat as little junk
    food as possible, but if you cant control
    yourself, then be sure to add many fruits and
    vegetables to your means daily.

5 and 6
  • 5. Drink lots of water
  • It is best to drink at least eight glasses of
    water daily to stay hydrated. Drink more whenever
    you work out or sweat to make sure you replace
    the fluids that you lost.
  • 6. Avoid unhealthy sunlight
  • Sunlight is healthy if it is not between 10am
    and 4pm. If you want to bathe in the sun, be sure
    to do it in the morning. The sunlight is bad for
    your skin after 10am, so be sure to apply

7 and 8
  • 7. Work out
  • Exercise is very important as it helps increase
    blood flow. It also allows oxygen to circulate
    throughout your body, which in turn will keep the
    skin healthy and vibrant.
  • 8. Avoid heavy makeup
  • Makeup contains many different kinds of
    chemicals. If you put on too much makeup
    everyday, your fae will get irritated and acne
    will develop.

9 and 10
  • 9. Always wear moisturizer
  • This is to help youre skin stay supple and
    young. Even if you have oily skin, there are
    moisturizers our there for all skin types.
  • 10. Get enough sleep
  • It is best to have 8 hours of sleep daily if you
    want healthy skin. If you do not get enough
    sleep, it will dry up your skin.

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