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MSSW Program Orientation, Fall 2014 APA-Style Writing Workshop Presenter: Dr. Stan L. Bowie The University of Tennessee College of Social Work Knoxville, Tennessee

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Title: MSSW Program Orientation, Fall 2014 APA-Style Writing Workshop Presenter: Dr. Stan L. Bowie The University of Tennessee College of Social Work Knoxville, Tennessee


1
MSSW ProgramOrientation, Fall 2014APA-Style
Writing WorkshopPresenter Dr. Stan L.
BowieThe University of TennesseeCollege of
Social WorkKnoxville, Tennessee

2
Welcome to the University of Tennessee
  • College of Social Work

3
Workshop Objectives
  • To provide instruction on the elements of APA
    writing style (6th Edition) that are most
    important to writing college level term papers.
  • To provide instructions and examples regarding
    APA rules, answer questions, and assess the
    learning outcomes of the workshop.

4
What is APA Style?
  • APA style is a style of writing used by journals
    published by the American Psychological
    Association. The style is fully documented in
    the Publication manual of the American
    Psychological Association (6th edition, 2010).
  • APA style is a widely recognized standard for
    scientific writing in many different disciplines.

5
Why is APA Style Needed?
  • APA Style is needed by writers to maintain
    consistency in writing style and formatting,
    especially when writing for publication or
    graduate school level term papers.

6
Part I The Logic of APA and Other Writing
Styles
  • Its fundamentally about
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

7
Plagiarism, defined
  • Writing words, phrases, or sentences from another
    source without proper documentation.
  • Summarizing others ideas and thoughts without
    proper documentation.
  • Using facts, statistics, graphs, or phrases
    without acknowledging the source of information.

8
Consequences of Plagiarism
  • Violates the UTK academic code and can result in
    a student being dismissed from the University of
    Tennessee (See Hilltopics, 2013-2014)

9
Examples of Different Writing Style Manuals
  • MLA
  • Child Welfare League
  • Harvard Style
  • University of Chicago Style
  • Kate Turabian Manual

10
Key APA Concepts and Issues
  • Text (body of term paper)
  • In-Text Citations (author-date format)
  • References (1-to-1 match with citations)
  • Quotations (direct quotes)
  • Block quotes (40 words or more)
  • Paraphrase (say it in your own words)
  • Margins (1 inch on all four sides)
  • Personal communication citations (in-text)

11
Key APA Concepts and Issues, cont.
  • Indentation
  • Line spacing (double space entire paper)
  • Punctuation spacing
  • Pagination
  • Latin abbreviations (e.g., i.e., et al., etc.)
  • Punctuation with proper nouns
  • Book references

12
Key APA Concepts and Issues, cont.
  • Journal references (scholarly journals)
  • Edited book references
  • Book chapter references
  • Electronic references
  • Runningheader
  • Overcitation

13
In-Text Citations
  • In the text of your paper, you must cite any
    material or information that you borrow from
    another source. APA style requires you to use
    the author-date method of in-text citation.
  • This means that the authors last name and the
    year of publication are inserted in the text at
    the appropriate point, and enclosed in
    parentheses.

14
In-Text Citations (Cont.)
  • The underlying principle is that the ideas and
    words of other people must be formally
    acknowledged.
  • The reader can obtain the full source citation
    from the list of references that follows the body
    of the paper.

15
In-Text Citations (Cont.)
  • When the names of the authors of a source are
    part of the formal structure of the sentence, the
    year of publication appears in parentheses
    following the identification of the authors.
    Consider the following example
  • Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although
    there was a reduction in insulin dosage over a
    period of two weeks in the treatment condition
    compared to the control condition, the difference
    was not statistically significant.     

16
In-Text Citations (Cont.)
  • Another example
  • Reviews of research on religion and health have
    concluded that at least some types of religious
    behaviors are related to higher levels of
    physical and mental health (Gartner, Larson,
    Allen, 1991 Koenig, 1990 Levin Vanderpool,
    1991).     

17
In-Text Citations (Cont.)
  • When a source that has two authors is cited, both
    authors are included every time the source is
    cited.         
  • When a source that has three, four, or five
    authors is cited, all authors are included the
    first time the source is cited. When that source
    is cited again, the first author's surname and
    "et al." are used.
  • Consider the following example Reviews of
    research on religion and health have concluded
    that at least some types of religious behaviors
    are related to higher levels of physical and
    mental health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, Jenkins,
    1991). Payne et al. (1991) showed that ... 
  •  

18
In-Text Citations (Cont.)
  • When a source that has six or more authors is
    cited, the first author's surname and "et al."
    are used every time the source is cited
    (including the first time). 

19
In-Text Citations (Cont.)
  • Every effort should be made to cite only sources
    that you have actually read. When it is necessary
    to cite a source that you have not read that is
    cited in a source that you have read, use the
    following format for the text citation and list
    only the source you have read in the References
    list
  • Grayson (as cited in Murzynski Degelman, 1996)
    identified four components of body language that
    were related to judgments of vulnerability. 

20
Other In-Text Citation Rules
  • When using quotations in text, you must use the
    citation, and list the page number.
  • Example 1 Mary had a little lamb (Jones,
    1989, p. 3).
  • Example 2 Jones (1989) found that Mary had a
    little lamb (p. 311).

21
Other In-Text Citation Rules
  • Block quotes
  • A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be
    enclosed in double quotation marks and should be
    incorporated into the formal structure of the
    sentence.
  • Example
  • Patients receiving prayer had "less congestive
    heart failure, required less diuretic and
    antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of
    pneumonia, and were less frequently intubated and
    ventilated" (Byrd, 1988, p. 829). 

22
Other In-Text Citation Rules
  • Block quotes
  • A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should
    appear (without quotation marks) apart from the
    surrounding text, in block format, with each line
    indented five spaces from the left margin. 

23
Other In-Text Citation Rules
  • Example of a block quote
  • Bowie Dabbs (2003) made the following
    observation regarding primary care to poor
    workers
  • Another important barrier to accessing and
    utilizing primary health care is lack of
    insurance. As the numbers of uninsured have
    grown, employment-related health insurance
    coverage for workers continues to decline. Only
    29 of poor workers were covered by
    employer-related insurance in 1993. (p. 233)

24
Other In-Text Citation Rules
  • Example of the same block quote, stated another
    way
  • Previous observations were made in the
    literature regarding primary care to poor
    workers
  • Another important barrier to accessing and
    utilizing primary health care is lack of
    insurance. As the numbers of uninsured have
    grown, employment-related health insurance
    coverage for workers continues to decline. Only
    29 of poor workers were covered by
    employer-related insurance in 1993. (Bowie
    Dabbs, 2003, p. 233)

25
Other In-Text Citation Rules
  • Reproduce a quote exactly. If there are errors,
    introduce the word sic italicized and
    bracketed--for example sic--immediately after
    the error to indicate it was part of the original
    source.
  • Use three dots with a space before, between, and
    after each (ellipsis points) when omitting
    material, four if the omitted material includes
    the end of a sentence (with no space before the
    first). Do not use dots at the beginning or end
    of a quotation unless it is important to indicate
    the quotation begins or ends in mid-sentence.

26
Other In-Text Citation Rules
  • Example of the previous block quote, using
    ellipsis points to omit material
  • Previous observations were made in the
    literature regarding primary care to poor
    workers
  • Another important barrier to accessing and
    utilizing primary health care is lack of
    insurance. As the numbers of uninsured have
    grown, employment-related health insurance
    coverage for workers continues to decline. Only
    29 of poor workers were covered with health
    insurance in 1993. (Bowie Dabbs, 2003, p. 233)
    Note by employer related was omitted and
    replaced with different words in required
    brackets.

27
In a recent study of reaction times, Walker
(2000) found no interaction amongst variables in
the cross-sectional data. Walker's research
supports the work of others tudying similar
variables (James King, 2004 Salinger, 1999).
However, interactions among variables were
identified in the longitudinal data.
28
Other In-Text Citation Rules (Cont.)
  • Acronyms When spelling out the name of an
    organization or group, spell it out entirely the
    first time, then afterward, use the acronym.
  • Example In a government study (National
    Institute of Mental Health NIMH, 1998), it was
    found that
  • Thereafter The previously cited study (NIMH,
    1998) found that

29
Other In-Text Citation Rules (Cont.)
  • Multiple works by the same author
  • If citing multiple works by the same author at
    the same time, arrange dates in order. Use
    letters to distinguish multiple publications by
    the same author in the same year.
  • Example Several studies reached the same
    conclusion (Johnson, 1988, 1990a, 1990b, 1999)
    about breast self examination among African
    American women.

30
Other In-Text Citation Rules (Cont.)
  • Personal Communications
  • For unrecoverable data such as emails,
    conversations, and interviews, use personal
    communication citations.
  • Example The best strategy for parent training
    is to use experienced parents for trainers (J.B.
    Smith, personal communication, November 27,
    2012).
  • Note Personal communication citations DO NOT
    appear on the reference page.

31
Reference Formats
32
General Reference Rules
  • All references cited in the text must appear in
    the reference list.
  • Each entry in the reference list must be cited in
    the text.
  • There are different reference formats for
    journals, books, edited books, newspapers, and so
    forth. The differences are important!

33
Abbreviations used in References
  • Chap. Chapter
  • ed. Edition
  • rev. ed. Revised edition
  • 2nd ed. Second edition
  • Ed. Edited by
  • (Eds.) Multiple editors
  • Trans. Translated by
  • p. Page number, with space after period

34
Abbreviations used in References
  • pp. Page numbers (plural)
  • Vol. A specific Volume
  • vols. A work with multiple volumes
  • No. Number
  • Pt. Part
  • Suppl. Supplement
  • Tech. Rep. Technical Report

35
An important note regarding the use of pp. for
page numbers
  • Use the abbreviation "pp." for page numbers in
    encyclopedia entries, multi-page newspaper
    articles, chapters or articles in edited books,
    but not in journal or magazine article citations,
    where numbers alone should be used (see examples
    of reference formats).

36
Rules for Italics (Underlining)
  • Do not italicize or underline common foreign
    abbreviations (vice versa, et al., vis-a-vis).
  • Do not italicize or underline for mere emphasis.
  • Italicize or underline the titles of books and
    articles, letters used as statistical symbols,
    and volume numbers in reference lists.

37
A reference list should be provided at the end of
all papers to assist readers in identifying and
retrieving sources. Only include references for
material cited in your paper. Note that this is
what differentiates a reference list from a
bibliography.
38
Items in your reference list should be listed
alphabetically by the first author's surname. The
list is double spaced and formatted using a
hanging indent (i.e., the second line of each
item is indented five spaces). There are five
core elements to each listing Element One
author Element Two year Element Three title
of article/ chapter Element Four name of
journal/ book (Vol/Issue if scholarly
journal) Element Five publisher location and
name (page s if scholarly journal)
39
Other Reference Considerations-Publishers
City-Different works by same author-Capitalizati
on-Italics versus underlining
40
Reference Examples
  • Book
  • Pope, R. L., Reynolds, A. L., Mueller, J. A.
    (2004). Multicultural competence in student
    affairs. San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass.
  • Edited Book
  • Gilligan, C, Lyons, N. P., Hammer, T. J.
    (Eds.). (1989). Making connections The
    relational worlds of adolescent girls at Emma
    Willard School. Cambridge, MA Harvard
    University Press.
  • NOTE THAT THE NAME OF THE SCHOOL RETAINS ITS
    CAPITALIZATION SINCE IT IS A PROPER NOUN

41
Reference Examples
  • Chapter in an Edited Book
  • McEwen, M. E. (2003). The nature and uses of
    theory. In S. R. Komives, D. B. Woodard, Jr.
    CA Jossey-Bass.

42
Reference Examples
  • Journal Article
  • Boatwright, K. J., Egidio, R. K. (2003).
    Psychological predictors of college women's
    leadership aspirations. Journal of College
    Student Development, 44, 653-669.

43
Reference Examples
  • Komives, S. K., Owen Casper, J., Longerbeam, S.
    D., Mainella, F., Osteen, L. (2004).
    Leadership and dentity development. Concepts
    Connections, 72(3), 1-6.
  • NOTE issue next to Vol

44
Reference Examples
  • Newspaper Article
  • Coughlin, E. K. (1993, March 24). Sociologists
    examine the complexities of racial and ethnic
    identity in America. The Chronicle of Higher
    Education, pp. A7-A8.

45
Reference Examples
  • Magazine Article
  • Henry, W. A. (1990, April 9). Beyond the
    melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.

46
Reference Examples
  • Websites
  • Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic
    leadership development Getting to the roots of
    positive forms of leadership. Leadership
    Quarterly, 16, 315-338. Retrieved from
    http//www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescripti
    on.c ws_home/620221/description
  • NOTE THAT YOU DO NOT END THIS TYPE OF REFERENCE
    WITH A PERIOD.

47
Major Reference Formats for Term Papers, Theses,
and Dissertations
48
Books, single author
  • Miller, G. (1981). City by contract. Cambridge,
    MA Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Mulroy, E.A. (1995). The new uprooted Single
    mothers in urban life. Westport, CT Auburn
    House.

49
Books, No Author or Editor Listed
  • Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary.
    (1961). Springfield, MA G. C. Merriam.

50
Book, Corporate Author, Edition other than 1st
  • American Psychiatric Association. (1990).
    Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
    disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC Author.
  • Note Author is used as above when author
    and publisher are identical.

51
Books, 3-5 authors
  • Becker, F., Bowie, S. L., Dluhy, M., Topinka,
    J. (1998). Assessing the privatization of
    managing public housing Final report. Miami,
    FL Florida International University Institute
    of Government.
  • Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., Williams, J. M.
    (1995). The craft of research. Chicago
    University of Chicago Press.

52
Book Chapter in an Edited Book (Cont.)
  • Bowie, S.L., Dutton-Stepick, C.,
    Stepick, A. (2000). Voices from the
    welfare vortex A descriptive profile of
    urban, low-income African American women on
    the eve of devolution. In L.G. Nackerud,
    M. Robinson
  • (Eds.),Early implications of welfare
    reform in the southeast (pp. 91-111).
    Huntington, NY Nova Science
    Publishers

53
Journal Articles
  • Bowie, S. L. (2001). The impact of privatized
    management in urban public housing communities
    A comparative analysis of perceived crime,
    neighborhood problems, and personal safety.
    Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 28 (4),
    67-87.

54
Anonymous or unknown author(Common in
Newspapers)
  • Caffeine linked to mental illness. (1991, July
    13). New York Times, pp. B13, B15.

55
Magazine Article
  • Gardner, H. (1991, December). Do babies sing a
    universal song? Psychology Today, 70-76.

56
Pamphlet/Brochure
  • Just Say No Foundation. (1992). Saving our
    youth. Brochure. Washington, DC Author.

57
Avoid Biased and Pejorative Language
  • Generally speaking, avoid writing anything that
    will offend anyone
  • Do not use ethnic labels (e.g., Hispanic), when
    you can use geographical labels (e.g, Mexican
    Americans)
  • Dont refer to men when referring to all
    adults, when you can use men and women.

58
Avoid Biased and Pejorative Language (Cont.)
  • Do not use homosexuals, when you can use gay
    men and lesbians.
  • Do not use depressives, when you can use
    people with depression.

59
Avoid Biased and Pejorative Language (Cont.)
  • Correct use of the terms gender and sex
  • The term gender refers to culture and should be
    used when referring to men and women as social
    groups.
  • The term sex refers to biology and should be
    used when biological distinctions are emphasized
    (e.g., sex differences in hormone production.)

60
Be Sensitive to Labels
  • Persons in clinical studies are patients, not
    cases.
  • Avoid equating people with their conditions. For
    instance, do not say schizophrenics, say
    people diagnosed with schizophrenia.
  • Use the term, sexual orientation, not sexual
    preference.

61
Use of Ethnic Terminology in Writing
  • In racial references, the manual simply
    recommends that we respect current usage.
    Currently both the terms "Black" and "African
    American" are widely accepted, while "Negro" and
    "Afro-American" are not. These things change, so
    use common sense.

62
Use of Ethnic Terminology in Writing
  • Capitalize Black and White when the words are
    used as proper nouns to refer to social groups.
    Do not use color words for other ethnic groups.
    The manual specifies that hyphens should not be
    used in multiword names such as Asian American or
    African American.

63
Use of Age Terminology in Writing
  • In referring to age, be specific about age
    ranges avoid open-ended definitions like "under
    16" or "over 65." Avoid the term elderly. Older
    person is preferred. Boy and Girl are acceptable
    referring to high school and and younger. For
    persons 18 and older use men and women.

64
This Concludes the APA Style Workshop
  • Questions?
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