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Title: Note: This PowerPoint is intended for the sole use of the participants registered in the University of Maine


1
  • Note This PowerPoint is intended for the sole
    use of the participants registered in the
    University of Maines Child Study Center Early
    Childhood Training workshop series. Any other
    use is strictly forbidden

2
  • A special Thank you to the Davis Family
    Foundation for their generous grant to fund the
    workshop series last year and this year.

3
  • University of Maines Child Study
    Center
  • Early Childhood Training Program

4
Classroom management and reducing behavioral
problems in children.
  • Decrease the Childs opposition
  • with teachers
  • Decrease negative behaviors and noncompliance
  • Decrease peer aggression and disruptive behaviors
    in the classroom

5
  • What are symptoms of opposition and negative
    behaviors and noncompliance?

6
  • ODD Oppositional Defiance Disorder
  • ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
  • ADD Attention Deficit Disorder
  • Temper tantrums
  • Different from natural
  • development (terrible 2s,
  • early teen years)

7
  • ODD can cause clinical impairment in social,
    academic or occupational functioning, and is
    characterized by a recurrent pattern of
    negativism, defiance, disobedience and hostile
    behavior toward authority figures which persists
    for a period of at least 6 months. (rules out
    natural development?)

8
  • Learning disabilities is a term that describes a
    heterogeneous (mixed bag) group of disorders that
    impact listening, speaking, reading, writing,
    reasoning, math, and social skills.
  • Learning disabilities do not go away.

9
  • The difference between normal BAD behavior and
    oppositional/defiant behavior is a matter of
    degree, frequency, and intensity. (Kevin and
    traveling, Mason and marker/door)
  • Children with defiant tendencies display
    disruptive behavior to the extent that it
    disrupts their learning, school adjustment, home
    life (lives) and sometimes with their social
    relationships.

10
  • ODD is frequently a co-morbid condition with
    ADHD, and can also be diagnosed along with
    Tourette Syndrome, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder,
    Anxiety and mood disorders, Aspergers, language
    processing impairments, sensory integration
    deficits, or even nonverbal learning disabilities.

11
  • 50-65 of defiant children have ODD and either
    ADD or ADHD
  • 35 of these children develop some form of
    affective disorder
  • 20 have some form of mood disorder, such as
    bipolar disorder or anxiety
  • 15 develop some sort of personality disorder
  • Many of these children also have learning
    disorders.

12
  • Characteristics include obnoxious aggressive
    behavior and an intent to bother people,
    particularly authority figures. Authority
    figures include teachers, parents, older
    siblings, grandparents, and also may lash out at
    authoritarian rules (school attendance, bedtimes,
    homework deadlines, cleaning room, orderly desk,
    personal grooming and appearance).
  • (not always ODD)
  • child and bedtime routine

13
  • Some of these children share many of the
    following characteristics
  • --They possess a strong need for control and will
    do anything to gain power
  • --they typically deny responsibility for their
    misbehavior and have little insight into how they
    impact others
  • (Ricky and his actions)

14
  • The child is socially exploitive and very quick
    to notice how others respond, and then uses these
    responses to their advantage in family or social
    environments, or both.

15
  • The child can tolerate a great deal of
    negativity, in fact sometimes seeming to thrive
    on large amounts of conflict, anger and
    negativity from others, and are frequently
    winners in escalating battles of negativity.
    (teacher get red, teacher crying, I have a bad
    attitude) poker face
  • --any attention is good attention, and if they
    cant get good attention, they may go for
    negative attention

16
  • Partial list of characteristics seen in defiant
    children
  • Getting angry easily
  • Arguing and talking back
  • Defying reasonable requests
  • Bucking rules
  • Intentionally bothering people
  • Pushing the limits
  • Not taking responsibility for mistakes or
    misbehaviors

17
  • Getting easily annoyed
  • Being resentful, spiteful, or vindictive
  • Speaking harshly
  • Being brutally unkind when upset
  • Seeking revenge
  • Having frequent temper tantrums ( out of terrible
    2s timeframe)
  • Parents of these children
  • describe them as being rigid and demanding
    from an early age.

18
  • Causes
  • 2 different theories
  • Developmental theory suggesting that the
    resistance is really a result of incomplete
    development. For some reason, these children
    never really complete the developmental tasks
    that normal children master during the toddler
    years. They get stuck in the 2-3 year old
    stage of child defiance and never really grow out
    of it.

19
  • Learning Theory suggests that defiance develops
    as a response to negative interactions. The
    techniques used by parents and authority figures
    on these children bring about the disobedient
    behaviors. The parents are not to blame when
    this happens. The same techniques work out quite
    well for normal children.
  • Innate versus environmental

20
  • Too much vs. too little structure
  • In an overly structured environment
  • the parent is rigid and inflexible. They
    micromanage and come down hard
  • on their children, controlling every
  • aspect of their lives. (ex Tiger mom,
  • single child and overprotective parents)
  • Children can exhibit defiance when parents dont
    provide enough structure by setting appropriate
    boundaries, or establishing and following through
    with consequences for misbehavior
  • (Sams club).

21
  • DOES MY CHILD HAVE SPECIAL NEEDS?
  • All children are different.
  • Whats causing the issue?
  • Sneakers, parent working more, illness at home,
    grandparent ill, money, parent issue (impending
    divorce, daddy doesnt live with us anymore),
    loss of job, moving, family stress, death in the
    family.
  • Some of the disruptive behaviors are cause
    specific, and can be dealt with in a simpler
    manner.

22
  • Look at your Childs temperament
  • some shy kids are labeled introverts,
  • social outcasts, stuck ups.
  • Some active kids are called hyper,
  • difficult, mischievous, purposely
  • against me.
  • Some temperaments can be changed or tempered,
    some we need to learn how to work with.
    (BREAKING A CHILD)

23
  • How do you interact with your child?
  • Are you causing some of the issues?
  • Do you expect too much from your child?
  • (EX Mason, 4 year old and sitting, raising
    the bar)
  • How do you view your role as a parent friend,
    teacher, guider?
  • How much give and take is there?
  • Are you clear in your expectations
  • We take courses/have training for our jobs, why
    not assistance for raising our kids?

24
  • ARE YOU THE INSTIGATOR?

25
  • What is your temperament?
  • For a child you are the most
  • important person in their life.
  • But that usually changes as
  • they grow, and they will grow.
  • Are you adapting to them as they change?
  • (no why can I how come pleeaassseee, mommy
    mommy mommy, daddy daddy daddy, what does this
    mean???)
  • Objectively take a step back

26
  • HOW IS THE FAMILY LIFE?
  • What affects one child may affect others.
  • Behavior issues can be learned by siblings.
  • Attention seeking by siblings
  • or spouses.
  • How is married life?
  • Finances, work, drug alcohol use.
  • Education level not always a great indicator of
    parenting skill

27
  • Avoiding conflict
  • Avoiding conflict is not avoidance, its akin to
    picking your battles
  • Clear language and expectations
  • Age appropriate (tall 3 year old)
  • Walk away
  • Keep calm
  • Find out the child's end game
  • What do you know about your child?

28
  • Build on the positives, give the child
    APPROPRIATE praise and positive reinforcements
    when they show flexibility or cooperation.
  • Put yourself in time out.
  • Apologize when youve made a mistake. Good
    modeling.
  • Manage your own stress. All work and no play

29
  • How to decide too much vs. too little?
  • or.
  • where can we find the perfect parent
  • with all the answers?

30
  • How pervasive a problem?
  • SOME SAY ONE 1 IN 14 TO 1 IN 7 HAVE BEHAVIOR
    ISSUES (7-15 OF POPULATION).
  • Are we pushing too hard, thus causing some of the
    problems?

31
  • Preschoolers are expelled 3 times more frequently
    than children in grades K-12

32
  • National Center for Early Development and
    Learning (2000) indicated that 46 of
    kindergarten teachers reported that more than
    half of the children in their classes were not
    ready for school, that is, they lacked the
    self-regulatory skills and emotional and social
    competence to function productively and to learn
    in kindergarten.
  • Will public pre-Ks help with this problem?

33
  • Similarly, several Head Start studies suggested
    that between 16 and 30 of preschool children in
    those classes posed ongoing conduct problems for
    teachers.
  • Question is it child, or teacher/parent, or
    both?
  • (Party, shirts, language and soap,)

34
  • The Early Child Longitudinal Survey (ECLS), in a
    national representative sample of over 22,000
    kindergarten children, suggests that exposure to
    multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds
    that children will demonstrate less social
    competence and emotional regulation and more
    behavior
  • problems than more
  • economically advantaged
  • children.

35
  • How to diagnose behavior issues?
  • Across the board assessments
  • ----Horribly expensive
  • ---- insufficient personnel to conduct
    assessments
  • ---- too long a time lag for treatment.
  • ----Unnecessary?

36
  • Who should do the
    testing/screening to form a diagnosis?

37
  • Pediatricians
  • See child infrequently
  • See child short periods of time
  • Rely heavily on parent feedback
  • Training for behavior diagnoses?
  • Direct observation of childs issues?
  • Good part of a team approach

38
  • Parents
  • Lack of training
  • Bias
  • Professional understanding of issues?
  • Understanding of developmental stages?
  • Denial
  • Checklists available (Dr. LaFreniere)
  • Used by early education staff also

39
  • There is increasing evidence to suggest that
    teachers efforts to involve parents in ways to
    support their childrens learning at home
    (through phone call, newsletters, suggested
    homework activities, etc,) and in developing
    coordinated home/school behavior plans have
    positive effects on childrens academic, social
    and emotional competence.
  • Shouldnt it be built into work week?

40
  • Early Education Staff
  • Childcare, preschool, early public school
  • Training
  • Direct observation
  • Time period of observation
  • Comparison of other children of similar age
  • Interactions with family members
  • Unbiased (?) filler of the blanks

41
  • Mental Health Professionals
  • Professional training
  • Access to comprehensive diagnostic testing
    materials
  • Knowledge of development
  • Interaction with early education staff and family
  • Facility to conduct therapies

42
  • Who makes the diagnosis?
  • EVERYONE
  • WORKS
  • TOGETHER

43
  • Diagnosis made, now what to do?
  • Accept diagnosis? (I think youre full of .., His
    father was the same way at that age,)
  • Team treatment.
  • Family, program and
  • therapists working together.
  • Clear, consistent communication a must.
  • Follow treatment plancan you?
  • 10 experts, 6 different ways to proceed, which
    way do you go?

44
  • For parents, follow the plan that you can STICK
    WITH.
  • Is there a weak link?
  • Too difficult, too strenuous, too unnatural, too
    expensive plans may not work. If not workable,
    inform team immediately for revisions or
    additional assistance or services.

45
  • For teachers in public school, special staff,
    supplies and scheduling are available.
  • For preschool/child care staff, backing of
    Director/supervisors essential, as well as other
    staff, and family.
  • One-on-one or additional staffing needed?
  • Workshops for staff specific to situation.
  • Patience and persistence to deal with situation.

46
  • Treatment plans too numerous to mention here.
  • Medications
  • Herbal treatments
  • Diet (JUMPING ON ANOTHER CHILD)
  • Treatment facilities
  • In-home staffing/therapy
  • Respite care

47
  • Treatment needs to be designed for YOUR child
    and YOUR family or center.
  • Whatever treatment plan chosen, done in
    conjunction with family.

48
  • 10 Cs
  • Clear language
  • Calm manner
  • Concise explanations/directions
  • Consistent
  • Caring
  • Choices
  • Consequencestaken away, given back
  • Communication
  • Changes
  • Confidentiality
  • 1

49
  • Parent family training intervention
  • (dog obedience classes)
  • Effect on family
  • Explanations (communication)
  • Individual time
  • Deal with perception of favoritism
  • among siblings
  • Parent time (perfect parent?)

50
  • And
  • now
  • a
  • word
  • from
  • our
  • sponsor.

51
  • When to effect change?
  • Only when ready to deal with issues/changes
  • Talk about/discuss at a neutral time
  • Dont talk in front of children
    (parents/teachers)
  • Make few changes at a time
  • Parents (adults) on same page before enacting
    changes (ext. family, friends)
  • Time

52
  • Steps to take in dealing with targeted issues.
  • Cognitive competence a pupils general feeling of
    doing well at school.
  • The anticipation of success probably promotes and
    enhances on-task orientation.
  • Atkinson (1964) states that motivation is highest
    when the task is perceived as appropriately
    challenging and the chance of successful
    accomplishment is above 50 (Bru, 2006)

53
  • Bandura (1997) maintains that a personal belief
    in self-efficacy influences how much effort an
    individual will expend and how long they will
    persevere in the face of obstacles or even
    failure (Bru, 2006).
  • Make the tasks, activities, programs more
    relevant and fun for the students--not watering
    down or dumbing down the materials, just making
    them apropos to the students.

54
  • Effective classroom management can help
  • to decrease disruptive classroom behaviors and
    increase student engagement in academic tasks.
  • Poor classroom management has been linked to
    long-term negative behavioral and social outcomes
    for students

55
  • There is substantial evidence indicating that
    well-trained and supportive teachers who use high
    levels of praise, proactive teaching strategies,
    and non-harsh discipline can play an extremely
    important role in fostering the development of
    social and emotional skills and preventing the
    development of conduct disorders in young
    children.

56
  • What type of praise?
  • Overdone and overused?
  • Using several names when dealing with specific
    issues
  • Storytelling (fishing story)

57
  • Having a supportive relationship with at least
    one teacher has been shown to be one of the most
    important protective factors influencing
    high-risk childrens later school success
    (Webster-Stratton, 2008).
  • Dont teach to be remembered, teach to be
    enjoyed. (Kevin Duplissie, August 16, 2012).
  • (Best Buy, parade, SATs, MIT)

58
  • Classroom management
  • Physical placement of chairs, desks, etc
  • Vision placement of staff
  • Discourage inside running aisles
  • Visually encouraging without too much noise
  • Height of materials for viewing and for use
  • Availability of useful materials
  • Permission for use?
  • Proper care of materials
  • Do children have ownership in program?

59
  • ESTABLISH ROUTINE

60
  • Encourage participation of all children
  • Encourage participation of all staff
  • Encourage participation of families where and
    when appropriate
  • Encourage staff feedback to staff
  • Encourage staff feedback to parents
  • Encourage staff feedback to children

61
  • Time for variety of activities
  • Play time inside and out
  • Large motor/large muscle play
  • Play with, but dont overtake
  • Let child take some of the lead
  • Explain game, but remember learning curve
  • Dont be afraid to be silly with child
  • Make the connection
  • Dont preach

62
  • Staffing
  • Appropriate number to meet program needs (public
    pre-ks)
  • Appropriate language in program
  • Appropriate language to children
  • Asking or telling?
  • Encouraging or discouraging?
  • Difference between thats a good job and I
    like the way you did XXXXX
  • Variety of training programs
  • Bring in appropriate self

63
  • Staff engaged with children
  • Visual cues
  • Verbal cues language and tone
  • Physical cues
  • Staff placement
  • Looking down or looking at
  • Staff relationships with co-staff, parents,
    children and directors
  • Staff wanting to be there
  • Its not just a job, its an adventure

64
  • Modifications in program content
  • Divide materials into small manageable units
  • Present material in systematic fashion
  • Ex numbers and counting
  • Posters
  • Varied counting materials available
  • Make a game of counting things at cleanup time
  • Make a game of counting boys and girls

65
  • Adapt materials ex Planting seeds
  • Counting seeds
  • Count cups needed for all kids
  • Counting spoonfuls of sand needed
  • Counting spoonfuls of water needed
  • Counting how many days until sprouting
  • Counting how many inches grown in day/week
  • Draw pictures of activity
  • Counting flowers/buds
  • Dont overdo thingsnot everything needs to be a
    teachable moment

66
  • Use clay/play dough to make the seeds
  • Place pictures children made on walls
  • Kids will go count their stuff on their own
  • Cook with items planted (peas for snacks, carrots
    for snacks, etc.)

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  • Additional presentations and practice
  • Show Tell
  • Calendar time
  • Invite guests to discuss subject matter
  • Natural environment (Madison, STOP)
  • Increased use of graphs, charts, posters, books
  • Allow children access to these varied materials

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  • Active student and staff involvement
  • Present material in song fashion
  • Present material in dance fashion
  • Present material in drawn fashion
  • Create a game to present material and incorporate
    materials

71
  • Modifications in student work product
  • adapt task characteristics/requirements
  • clay, play dough,
  • group work (cooperation, social networking,
    peer influence, peer measure)
  • allow extra time (parents rushing in to go
    home)
  • Still have expectations, but can they be adapted?

72
  • DECREASING PEER AGGRESSION IN THE CLASSROOM
    (WORKS FOR HOME TOO).

73
  • DEAL WITH THE ISSUE HEAD ON
  • Books Baby Faces If youre angry and you know
    it The way I feel Why should I listen Why
    should I help Im so grumpy David goes to
    school No David Alexander and the terrible,
    Horrible, no good, very bad day On Monday It
    looked like spilt milk I love school.
  • Great conversation starters
  • Book clubs

74
  • Picture cards
  • Show me your XXXXXX face
  • What would you do if I came to school XXX?
  • If I had a bad day what could you do to make it
    better?
  • If YOU had a bad day, what could we do to make it
    better?
  • If YOU had a bad day, what could your parents do
    to make it better?

75
  • Talk about Feelings
  • DONT SMILE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

76
  • If YOU had a bad day, what could YOU do to make
    it better?

77
  • MAKING
  • A
  • CHILD
  • SAY
  • SORRY

78
  • Help them make choices
  • Fingers
  • Repeat offenders
  • Choices and consequences
  • Shakespeare had it right Thrice is mine
  • Team consistency (including parents)
  • Face needs to show importance of words
  • Set the stage (semester starting, new child
    starting, CLEAR reminders of routine, rules and
    expectations)
  • ASK THE KIDS TO HELP

79
  • Sharing
  • Emotions
  • Cooperation (use teachers for example, act it
    out)
  • Screaming and yelling

80
  • Make school fun
  • The Kissing Hand Huggly goes to school Spot
    goes to school Mouses First Day Its Time for
    School Stinky Face and others.
  • USE YOUR TALENTS
  • Ask KIDS for suggestions for snacks for the month
  • Field trips
  • Varied activities (woodworking)

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  • Is routine too rigid or structured?
  • Are the expectations of the children too high?
  • Is there adequate coverage?
  • Are there adequate staff?????
  • Do the staff have management support?
  • Do the staff have parental support?
  • Do the staff have each others back?

83
  • Obtain objective assessment from staff who work
    with child.
  • Use checklists to verify objectivity
  • Are you in agreement that there is an issue that
    needs to be addressed? If so

84
  • Set up a meeting with parent's.
  • Assure them you are there for child and family.
  • Have examples of the issue at hand.
  • Are parents seeing issues at home also?

85
  • Have specific examples of how you are dealing
    with issue at school.
  • Illustrate that staff and program are here to
    help with the issue.
  • Have paperwork (articles, program guides, etc.)
    as handouts to parents.
  • Ask if regular meetings would be of assistance?

86
  • Assure them that asking
  • child to leave program is the last resort (and it
    should be last resort).

87
  • Use behavior charts
  • How will staff use them?
  • How will parents use them?
  • Does the child know about them and what
    they are for?
  • Do they go back and forth between school and home?

88
Rewards and punishment
  • If they lose something (taken away, punishment),
    are they allowed to earn it back?
  • How long before they receive reward?
  • Has that been explained well to child, staff and
    family?

89
  • The Daily and Weekly Point Sheet chart can be
    used to track progress. These charts can be
    modified to fit the individual child and/or
    teacher's needs.

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  • At the end of each week, a photocopy of the
    Weekly chart is made for the teacher's records.
    Students are then permitted to take their copy
    home. Some parents like to use these charts along
    with the daily point sheets to help motivate the
    students with rewards at home.

92
  • Parents must be reminded to accentuate the
    positive. Periodically remind them that the point
    sheets and monthly charts are tools of
    communication. Help them see that even though a
    student may have low points for a particular day,
    he or she still may have made good choices.
  • Remind them of the positives, not just focusing
    on the negatives.

93
  • REINFORCERS
  • The following list of reinforcers is only a
    start. Ask the students what they want to earn.
    Be observant to detect their least favorite
    activities. For the plan to work, there must be
    things students want to avoid as well as things
    they want to earn.

94
  • Primary reinforcers include food items and
    drinks. These work best with younger students and
    with any age when stress factors are high.
    Permission from parents is sometimes needed.
    Primary reinforcers might include the following
  • Candy Juice Fruit Crackers
    Soda Cookies
  • Cake Pizza Chips Pretzels
    Ice cream Marshmallows

95
  • Secondary reinforcers include tangible items. It
    is wise to discuss in advance with the students
    what items they prefer to avoid purchasing too
    much. Free samples and donations are often
    available. Some suggested secondary reinforcers
    are
  • Posters Erasers Cars
    Dolls
  • Notebooks Sports cards Visors
    Bubble baths
  • Nail polish Stickers Pens
    Jewelry
  • Sunglasses Caps Pencils
    Games
  • Markers Clothing Cologne
    Silly straws

96
  • Social reinforcers are the highest level of
    reinforcement. It is not recommended that groups
    begin earning these at
  • first unless adult supervision is
  • always available. The students
  • will be earning time and the right
  • to use whatever materials are
  • necessary. Points can be paid
  • by the minute.

97
  • Painting Models Coloring Clay
  • Playing outside Game time
    Computer
  • Library Films Listening to tapes
    or records Visiting another classroom
    Helping in the office
  • Excerpted from Tough to Reach, Tough to Teach.

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  • What behaviors are you trying to change?

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  • Dont forget the power of the words
  • I LOVE YOU
  • IM PROUD OF YOU
  • YOU DID A GREAT JOB.

118
  • DONT FORGET THE POWER OF THE WORDS
  • I LOVE YOU
  • IM PROUD OF YOU
  • YOU DID A GREAT JOB

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120
  • DONT FORGET THE POWER OF THE HUG.

121
  • DONT FORGET THE POWER OF THE TIME SPENT WITH
    MOM, DAD, OR TEACHER, OR DOING SOMETHING THE
    CHILD WANTS TO DO.

122
  • QUALITY NOT QUANTITY

123
  • Not meant to be all-inclusive.
  • Can talk more about any of these slides in live
    workshop on Oct 26..
  • Never stop learning from other teachers, parents,
    or the kids themselves.

124
  • REMEMBER
  • TO
  • HAVE
  • FUN.
  • They will grow up quickly.
  • Before we know it, they are up gone
  • Dont rush childhood.
  • Dont forget to smile.

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  • Upcoming workshops
  • Toilet training. Please send your proven and
    creative tips to me to include for all to see and
    try.

127
  • Time for a fishing story?
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