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Cleaning up Hong Kong's Harbour


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Title: Cleaning up Hong Kong's Harbour

Cleaning up Hong Kong's Harbour
T.W.G.Hs. Li Ka Shing College
F.6A Lau Cheuk Ming
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  • Cleaning up Hong Kongs Harbour is important
    for the protection of public health, for the
    marine environment, and to help to realize the
    vision of sustaining Hong Kong as one of the
    worlds great cities. The harbour is at the heart
    of the city. Its health and attractiveness help
    to shape the health and attractiveness of the
    city around it.

From the view of pollution to see HK
  • Hong Kong has 235 islands and an 800km long
    coastline. Hong Kong has valuable marine resource
    to cultivate the economic development, let Hong
    Kong be a well-known, international and momentous
    city. So far, the relationship between the ocean
    and the human being are closely. The humans
    centrally settled along the coast in earlier
    period. Nowadays, the population increase
    rapidly, many new infrastructure are developed
    and a great-size reclamation is processing, show
    that Hong Kong has developed rapidly.

  • It gives a great pressure on marine
    environment. A healthy marine environment not
    only be a habitat of marine organisms, but also
    be a humans valuable resource. Hong Kong is
    famous in seafood. It attracts many foreign
    people to Hong Kong every year. The ocean
    provides us lots of benefits but how do we treat

Policy challenges
  • A policy for controlling water pollution
    needs to specify the level of water quality
    desired and what measures should be adopted to
    achieve this goal. Various problems, including
    incomplete information about the costs and
    benefits of pollution abatement, make it
    difficult to determine the optimal level of water
    quality in terms of economic efficiency.
    Therefore, the choice is often made based on
    other criteria, such as human health concerns or
    the protection of current uses of the water.

The marine environment problem
  • 1. The process of coastal reclamation in Hong
    Kong made the marine environment to face a great
    menace. As Hong Kong is shortage of land, the
    population increase rapidly, and the development
    of housing, infrastructure, and other facilities
    continue to give a great pressure on the supply
    of land. The Government plans to reclaim 1287
    hectare along the coast. If the whole reclamation
    plans all carry out, the distance between the
    both sides of Victoria Harbour will shorten to

  • The process of reclamation needs to dig out
    the sand from the coast and make a new piece of
    land. The process of digging out the sand would
    turn out the deposit from the seabed. It makes
    the seawater to become muddy and turbid, fishes
    and other organism lived on the seabed may die by
    suffocation. Moreover, the process of reclamation
    changes the natural coastline it affects the
    movement of seawater, and has a great possibility
    to let the quality of seawater become more badly.

  • In 20th centenary, Hong Kong needs to manage
    over 20 million cm3 toxic sand, it mainly comes
    from the process of reclamation. The Government
    decides to set up a zone of dumping sand at the
    boundary of habitat of Chinese-White-Dolphin. It
    would be a serious and toxic menace to the
    dolphin and other marine organisms. Furthermore,
    digging out a large hole on the ocean floor
    deposit the sewage sand, it damages the seabed
    environment. If people eat the contaminative
    sea-born organisms, it will harms for our health.

  • 2. The wastage pollution is also a great
  • concern in Hong Kong. The water
  • boundary of Hong Kong bears a large
  • amount of not fully treated industrial and
  • residential sewage water. The sewage
  • water collected from the public sewage
  • water pipe, only 80 of sewage water has
  • First Degree treatment. The quality of
  • water in water decrease gradually, it
  • have a negative impact to the health of
  • people and the marine organism.

  • 3. The solid wastes throw by the public is also a
    great concern in Hong Kong. People who lived on
    the boat and ship always throw the rubbish to the
    sea due to their own convenience and the company
    often put the toxic and unused materials into the
    ocean, it is the reason that it is costly of
    treating those materials. They are all selfish.
    lt damages the sea view of Hong Kong. Moreover,
    the beaches and the sea-born organisms are also
    polluted. At the end, the result bears by

  • 4.The wastage water may cause the occurrences of
    red tide. The massive number of algae will
    consume a large amount of oxygen in the water
    during the night such that fish, especially those
    cultured in cages, will die of oxygen depletion.
    Also, some algal species may produce mucus or
    toxins which damage the fish gills and impair the
    fish's ability to respire. The fish may also die
    of suffocation.

  • Furthermore, the fisherman may suffer a
    great loss because of the death of fish. Numbness
    of the lips, tongue or limbs, headache and
    dizziness commonly occur within 30 minutes after
    consumption of the contaminated seafood because
    shellfish can accumulate these algal biotoxins
    such that they become toxic to humans.

  • 5.The several leakages of oil and the
    incineration on the sea also polluted the
    seawater. It may cause the shortage of drink
    water or leaving some toxic substance behind, it
    affects the environment of ecology in long term.
    For example, the coral fish contain ciguatoxin,
    which is poisonous to our health.

Measures should be taken so far in the harbour
areas are
  • There is no one single measure that will clean
    up the harbour. A range of infrastructure,
    programmes and measurement have to be put in
    place and maintained if sustained improvement in
    the quality of the harbour is to be achieved.

In the Government side
  • 1. Strategic Sewage Disposal Scheme
  • It collects sewage from the entire Kowloon
    urban area and northeast Hong Kong Island by 6
    deep sewage collection tunnels, to a centralized
    chemically enhanced primary treatment works at
    Stonecutters Island for treatment.

  • It is intended to provide a sewage collection,
    treatment and disposal system in stages for these
    discharges in order to protect Victoria Harbour
    and the surrounding Hong Kong and Mainland water.
    It prevents the direct exposure of sewage water
    to the ocean. The first stage of the scheme is
    completed, the following stages is in process, it
    have shown that the scheme is effective.

  • 2. Improvement of water pollution technology and
  • For instance, the Anaerobic Biological
    Treatment Technology for High Strength Organic
    Wastewater, Oxidation Pound for Sewage Treatment,
    and Technology and Equipment for Industrial
    Wastewater with High Strength Toxic and Hazardous
    Organic Pollutant.
  • These programs aim to minimize the pollutants
    in water before entering to the sea.

  • 3. To charge sewage charges (SC) and
  • the trade effluent surcharge (TES),
  • to achieve the polluter pay
  • principle.
  • The SC aims at recovering the cost of
  • collecting and treating wastewater at
  • or below domestic strength. The TES
  • aims at recovering the additional cost
  • of treating trade effluent with
  • pollution level exceeding domestic

  • The sewage-charging scheme which links the
    sewage charges (i.e. the costs of collecting,
    treating and disposing of sewage) to the volume
    of water consumed, will make people aware of the
    "price" of producing wastewater. They will be
    encouraged to produce less wastewater and, hence,
    pay less sewage charges.

  • 4. Source control
  • Set up industrial estate, industrial
  • zone and new town that it can
  • concentrate the zone of emitting great
    amount wastage water and control the source of
    wastage water. The Government can set up law and
    regulations that limit or regulate the emission
    of wastage water and the quality of water should
    reach the prescript level.

  • 5. The program of re-using the sewage water
  • It is costly to buy drink water from the
  • mainland, and the availability of drink
    water used in the world is also reducing. There
    is wastage of using drink water to clean the road
    and flush the toilet. The amount of domestic
    sewage is large, but the pollution level is low.
    Nowadays, with the improvement of technology, the
    polluted water can be reused after the treatment
    of wastage water.

  • It not only reduces the emission of wastage
    water to the sea, but also an efficient use of
    water resource. For example, Triangle School
    Wastewater Treatment Facility in Chatham County,
    North Carolina

  • 6. The promotion work and education
  • Efficient use the media such as radio,
    television and the Internet, be the promotion
    tool, to increase the strength of promotion
  • It aims increase the sense of efficient use
    the resource of the whole society and the sense
    of protecting the environment, especially in
    creating the sense of proper use

  • the water, willing to undertake a part of
    expense of the treatment of wastage water. Put
    the relevant knowledge into the education of
    primary and secondary syllabus, that enhance the
    awareness and charge the behavior of the public
    towards waste prevention and recovery. For
    example, tree planting, waste recovery pilot
    scheme and student environment protection
    ambassador scheme.

In the citizen side
  • 1.  Reducing the use of water
  • We can avoid the unnecessary use of water.
    For instance, when you take a bath, it is better
    to use the shower instead of using bathtub we
    can use the wastage water to plant and sweep the
    floor .It can efficiently reduce the amount of
    using water. Moreover, we encourage using the
    biodegradable-cleaning agents to clean or remove
    the contamination. It can reduce the damaging
    effect on natural environment.

  • 2.  Increase the sense of protecting
  • the environment
  • The natural environment is a valuable
  • resource for the human. If we damage it, it
  • takes up a long period of time to recover.
  • The natural environment not only serves
  • for ours, but also for the generation of
  • ours. The increase in sense of protecting
  • the environment would beneficial to our
  • generation.

  • Furthermore, the parents and the teacher are
    responsible for educating the children of
    protecting the environment. It also protects the
    valuable species of organism continue to live in.
    For example, the Chinese-White-Dolphin.

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In the firm side
  • The film can co-operate to the Government.
  • The reuse of the wastage water is efficient
    and profitable. Since the film consumed a lot of
    water in production, it was such a huge expense
    for them. Some reports stated that by using the
    reuse of the wastage water, it would reduce 20
    cost of using water that can increase the profit
    of the firm. Moreover, they can also invest into
    an industry like USA, with

  • the goal of managing wastewater effectively,
    economically, and ecologically, firm can renew
    the wastage water into clean water based on
    domestic uses and industrial uses. This idea has
    already been shown to effectively process
    wastewater, and at a much lower cost than pay the
    expense of consuming water. The supply of land
    can be negotiated with the Government.

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  • Besides, the manufacturer and the
    agriculturist should not put the industrial waste
    and the solid waste to the sea directly, due to
    reduce the expense of treating the waste. They
    should follow the rule of regulation and law of
    treating the waste in order to protect the marine

The role of Student Environment Protection
  • In fact, the role of student environment
    protection ambassador is done by action in
    improving the environment, and help to promote
    the message of environment protection, no matter
    the responds of schools or society are also very
    important. Moreover, the student environment
    protection ambassador also takes an important
    role in society.

In the schools side
  • With Cleaning up Hong Kongs Harbour be the
    main achievement of environment protection, hope
    to build up a correct concept of waste reduction,
    recycling and improving the treatment of waste
    through regular courses and different kind of

  • 1. Done by action
  • With the achievement of valuable experience
    through training, cooperate with schools to
    establish an authority of environment protection.
    It consists of teachers, students and parents,
    and with the head of student environment
    protection ambassador at the school. Let the
    other students join with the scout to clean the
    campus. Also let students know deeply about the
    policy of waste reduction, recycling the waste
    through cooperate each other.

  • Furthermore, we can cooperate with Parents and
    Teachers Associations to run activities of waste
    reduction, recycling the wastage water, and
    encourage participating the activities outside
    school that organized by the organization of
    environment protection and society.

  • It aims to bring the message of environment
    protection in outside, back to school. So
    students not only can receive the message of
    environment protection at school, but also have
    done by action at home, it aims to promote the
    message of waste reduction, and recycling the
    wastage water.

  • 2. For instance, we can organize an environment
    protection week and regular flea market.
    Moreover, we can arrange bird watching, planting
    trees and fieldwork. It aims to give students to
    have more chances that contact the natural

  • Therefore, they can learn how to enjoy and
    protect the natural environment let everyone
    know the sense of responsibilities to protect the
    natural environment. We have to promote the
    message of waste reduction, and recycling the
    wastage water at school, encourage setting waste
    separation bin and managing

  • wastewater effectively. Besides, we have to
    negotiate with school about the relevant
    measurement and the long-term plan of waste
    reduction, and recycling the wastage water at

  • 3. The action of waste reduction, and
  • recycling the wastage water
  • We can discuss with teachers about
  • adding the topic of waste reduction
  • and recycling the wastage water in
  • the civil education. Besides playing
  • games, we can learn the knowledge
  • from the books.

In the society side
  • We can cooperate with outside, especially in
    the streets, the private and public housing. We
    aim to increase the sense of environment
    protection and cooperate the promotion work of
    the Government through promotion. Let the citizen
    understand the present condition of waste
    reduction and recycling the wastage water

  • Because the citizen produces the greatest
    amount of wastage water and solid waste, if they
    cooperate, in long-term calculation, the
    Government can reduce the expense of waste
    reduction. And the student environment protection
    ambassador also takes an important role in

  • Moreover, we can cooperate with the
    organization of environment protection to
    organize waste reduction, and recycling the
    wastage water.

  • According the data, it shows that the
    Government is lack of protecting the marine
    environment and reducing the amount of the
    wastage water. Student environment protection
    ambassadors can be the assistants of the
    promotion work of the Government.

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