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Indian Removal Acts

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Title: Indian Removal Acts 1830-1850 Author: Big Daddy Last modified by: Big Daddy Created Date: 5/10/2009 10:45:59 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Indian Removal Acts


1
Indian Removal Acts
Presentation created by Robert Martinez Primary
Content Source The Story of US by Joy
Hakim Images as cited.
http//georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/trailtr5.jpg
2
  • Between 1830 and 1850 an estimated 100,000
    Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees, and
    Seminoles were forced from their homelands to the
    new Indian Territory beyond the Mississippi.

http//www.sip.armstrong.edu/Indians/jpeg/Choctaws
andShawnees.JPG
3
  • Their massive eviction is one of the sadder
    chapters in American history, the price exacted
    by a seemingly endless stream of land-hungry
    white settlers.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/jstephenconn/30505398
80/
4
  • President Andrew Jacksons Indian Removal Act
    of 1830 ultimately added 100 million acres of
    land to the public domain.

http//www.uni.edu/schneidj/webquests/standard9/BR
ENDA/jackson-andrew.jpg
5
  • While most Indians went peacefully, the
    Seminoles fought back.

http//www.christopherstill.com/images/mural_patri
ot_and_warrior_sample.jpg
6
  • In 1835 U.S. troops arrived in Florida after a
    3 year grace period had run out. No Seminoles had
    left during that period.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/67219958_at_N00/31650302
84/
7
  • Led by Chief Osceola, the Seminoles ambushed
    an Army unit north of present-day Tampa.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/67219958_at_N00/31642014
45/
8
http//www.flickr.com/photos/67219958_at_N00/31650362
68/
9
  • In late 1837 the Army used a truce flag to
    lure Osceola into a camp near St. Augustine. He
    was captured and sent in Charleston, SC, where he
    died the following year.

Chief Osceola
http//www.kislakfoundation.org/millennium-exhibit
/profiles/Image6.jpg
10
  • Four years later, the Seminole quit fighting,
    about 3,000 Indians and blacks were sent to
    Oklahoma, while a few hundred disappeared into
    the Everglades.

http//mle.matsuk12.us/american-natives/se/seminol
e-canoe.jpg
11
  • The Creeks, Chickasaws, and Choctaws migrated
    voluntarily. Between 1831 and 1833, about 15,000
    Choctaws made the long trek from Mississippi and
    western Alabama to the Indian territory.

http//www.tjhsst.edu/sgoswami/images/mapofindian
removal.jpg
12
  • But the Cherokees were a different story. They
    held out until the deadline for leaving had come
    and gone, trying to prove that they could adapt
    to white culture.

http//www.snowwowl.com/images/cherokee/image006.j
pg
13
  • Their 800-mile journey in the fall and winter
    of 1838-39 has become known as the Trail of
    Tears.

http//richheape.com/media/8-town.jpg
14
  • By 1820, after dozens of treaties, Cherokee
    land was down to 10 percent of its original size.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/fallenangil/178087325
/
15
  • The Cherokee at first tried to resist moving
    off their lands. By 1830, they had their own
    newspaper, printed in both English and a written
    form of Cherokee developed by Sequoyah.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/themosleyvault/225955
0440/
16
  • Many of them were partially white and lived in
    small houses with white picket fences, some
    operated plantations and even owned slaves.

http//news.nationalgeographic.com/news/bigphotos/
images/060123_cherokee_dig_big.jpg
17
  • Delivering a speech in New York, Cherokee
    spokesman John Ridge said, You asked us to throw
    off the hunter and warrior state we did so. You
    asked us to form a republican government we did
    so. You asked us to cultivate the earth and learn
    the mechanical arts we did so. You asked us to
    cast away our idols and worship your God we did
    so.

Cherokee John Ridge
http//www.wpclipart.com/American_History/Native_A
mericans/Cherokee/John_Ridge__Cherokee.png
18
  • That same year, the Supreme Court rules that
    the Indian Removal Acts against the Cherokee
    were unconstitutional. Yet Jackson refused to
    enforce the ruling of the highest court in the
    land.

Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Marshall
19
  • In 1835, 20 Cherokees singed a treaty,
    agreeing their nation would move in exchange for
    5 million dollars. But the vast majority of
    Cherokees stayed put.

http//www.sitemason.com/files/jxuRUY/cherokee10.J
PG
20
  • Finally in 1838, soldiers began going door to
    door. Individuals were given no time to collect
    possessions or locate family members.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/monazimba/3329677693/
21
  • Those who resisted were beaten or put in
    chains, the old and ill were pushed out of their
    homes at bayonet point, women were molested.

http//www.sonofthesouth.net/american-indians/pict
ures/cherokee-indian.jpg
22
  • I fought through the Civil War and have seen
    menslaughtered by the thousands, but the
    Cherokee removal was the cruelest work I ever
    knew, wrote one soldier.

http//www.indianahumanities.org/wethepeople/200/t
he_trail_of_tears.jpg
23
  • Some were moved west in the summer, but
    drought and sickness took a toll. Most were
    allowed to wait until fall.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/hjelle/2870750415/
24
  • Heavy rains slowed their progress, and then
    came a bitter winter. Ice floes on the
    Mississippi River bogged down some groups for
    weeks.

http//www.tjhsst.edu/sgoswami/images/4tear44b.jp
g
25
  • Women tried to gather edible plants from the
    forest to supplement rations of white flour and
    old salt pork, yet many plants were unfamiliar.

http//www.americaremembers.com/Products/CTOTTRI/C
TOTTRI_pic_small.jpg
26
  • Deaths from malnutrition and exposure were
    common. Most families lost at least one member.
    In all, some 4,000 Cherokees died, nearly a fifth
    of their entire population.

http//i175.photobucket.com/albums/w142/nzkiwi1957
/NATIVE20INDIANS20AND20WOLVES/CherokeeTrailOfTe
arsShadowOfTheOwl.jpg
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