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Water: Quantity and Quality

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Nancy Mesner Last modified by: Leslie Weeks Created Date: 11/9/2004 11:28:14 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Water: Quantity and Quality


1
Water Quantity and Quality
2
Earths Water Supply
3
Earths Water Budget
  • Precipitation is the income. Evapotranspiration
    and runoff are the expenses.
  • The water budget of Earth as a whole is balanced
    because
  • precipitation evapotranspiration and runoff.
  • The water budget of a particular area, called the
    local water budget, is usually not balanced.

4
Local Water Budget
  • Factors That Affect the Water Budget
  • Temperature, vegetation, wind, and the amount and
    duration of rainfall.
  • Vary geographically east receives 2/3 rain,
    west receives 1/3
  • Changes with the seasons in most areas of Earth.

5
Water Budget
  • Water Use
  • On average, each person in US uses about (80 gal
    daily) 20,890 gal of water each year.
  • As the population of the United States increases,
    so does the demand for water.
  • About 90 of the water used by cities and
    industry is returned to rivers or to the oceans
    as wastewater.
  • Some of this wastewater contains harmful
    materials, such as toxic chemicals and metals.

6
Ogallala Aquifer
  • The Ogallala aquifer is the largest aquifer in
    North America, extending beneath 174,000 square
    miles across eight states with more than three
    billion acre-feet of water in available storage.

7
Ogallala Aquifer
  • More than 90 percent of the water pumped is used
    to irrigate crops
  • Ogallala Aquifer is in a state of overdraft owing
    to the current rate of water use.
  • If withdrawals continue unabated, the aquifer
    could be depleted in only a few decades.

8
River Systems
  • tributaries streams that flows into a lake or
    into a larger stream
  • watershed the area of land that is drained by a
    river system
  • A river system is made up of a main stream and
    tributaries.
  • The ridges or elevated regions that separate
    watersheds are called divides.

9
Mississippi River Watershed
10
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11
Continental Divides
12
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13
What is a watershed?
  • Geographic area within which all water drains to
    a common point.

14
  • To find the source of water pollution, then you
    have to know where the water comes from

15
What is causing the hypoxic zone in the Gulf
of Mexico?
16
Clean Water Act of 1972
  • Protects U. S. Water Quality
  • States retain water ownership and authority to
    define rights and water use controls by way of
    permits
  • Counties and towns control land use
  • Initial focus on point source pollution
  • Amended in 1983 to include non-point source
    pollution

17
What is causing the scum in my back yard pond?
18
What is the connection between watersheds and
water quality?
Everything that happens in a watershed can affect
the quality of the water downstream .we all
live downstream from somebody.
19
Pollution Source Types
20
Point Source Pollution
  • Pollution whose source is known
  • Usually confined to small area
  • Effluent materials from pipe or tank
  • Examples cities and industries dumping

21
Nonpoint-source pollution
  • Comes from many sources that makes it difficult
    to identify
  • Spreads over wide area
  • Difficult to control
  • Examples runoff from land surface

22
Disease Causing Agents
  • Bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasitic
    worms
  • Source sewage systems and untreated waste.
  • Treatment chlorine in water
  • http//www.epa.gov/safewater/kids/flash/flash_filt
    ration.html

23
Inorganic Chemicals
  • Acids, salts and toxic metals (lead, mercury,
    copper)
  • make water unfit to drink and will cause the
    death of aquatic life.

24
Mercury Poisoning( and other heavy metals)
  • Sources chlorine chemical plants and coal-fired
    power plants.
  • http//www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/seafoodwatch
    .aspx
  • Fish to Avoid eating due to Mercury
  • Sea Bass (Chilean) Shark
  • Tuna (Canned Albacore) Swordfish
  • Tuna (Yellowfin)

25
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26
Biomagnification
  • Toxins build up in
  • food chains, and cause
  • further contamination
  • Take a long time to
  • break down

27
Synthetic Organic Compounds
  • Organic compounds such as detergents, oil,
    plastics and pesticides
  • Synthetic detergents (phosphates)

28
Oil Spills
29
Fertilizers
  • Plant nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen)
  • cause algae blooms too much algae growing in
    the water
  • unpleasant tastes and odors to the water.

30
Dissolved Oxygen
  • Organic matter (fertilizers, sewage) enters a
    body of water
  • Algae growth increases
  • Plant material dies due to overpopulation
  • Dissolved oxygen levels decrease as the plant
    decomposed by bacteria
  • Fish, aquatic organisms die due to lack of oxygen

31
Oxygen Demanding Wastes
  • Sewage, manure, industrial waste, decayed
    vegetation
  • Decomposition by bacteria depletes amount of
    dissolved oxygen in water.

32
What causes oxygen concentrations to
change? Natural causes Uptake by
organisms Natural increases in
temperature Quiet water (low re-oxygenation) H
uman causes Any biological material that will
decay in water High temperatures or low
flows Excessive plant growth in water
33
Sediment (Turbidity)
USDA NRCS
34
Sediments (Turbidity)
  • Material suspended in water decreases the passage
    of light through the water
  • Soil particles (clay, silt, and sand)

35
  • Why do we care about sediments in streams and
    lakes?
  • smother fish eggs and tiny aquatic life
  • Very cloudy water affects visual predators
  • Sediments fill in reservoirs
  • Sediments bring nutrients, metals, and more into
    water

36
Radioactive Thermal Wastes
Pollution
  • Sources from rock, minig, processing of
    radioactive materials
  • Damage cells
  • Genetic defects
  • Industries release heat into waterways
  • Changes the eciosystems

37
Radioactive Wastes
  • A Nuclear Regulatory Commission section chief,
    confirmed in a conference call between NRC
    officials and reporters Monday that the 2005 leak
    occurred in the same pipe system that is the
    focus of the search for the source of the current
    leak.
  • Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen that has been
    linked to cancer when ingested in large amounts,
    but the NRC officials said the tritium leak first
    reported at Vermont Yankee on Jan. 7 posed no
    immediate threat to public health and safety.
  • Associated Press / February 24, 2010

38
What causes temperatures to rise? Natural
causes Seasons Length of river Location of
river Hot springs Human causes Removal of
streamside vegetation (shade) Runoff over
concrete and other heated surfaces Changes in
stream shape Reductions in flow Impoundments In
dustrial discharges
39
Loop Lake
  • State Standard (minimum or maximum
  • depending on pollutant)
  • Loop Lake Past/Present
  • present amount in lake
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