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DETERIORATING GROUND WATER QUALITY

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... In costal areas saline water intrusion resulted in contamination of the potable ground water ... (Assam -23,841; Bihar ... that arsenic in ground water is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DETERIORATING GROUND WATER QUALITY


1
National Seminar of Technical Experts in Rural
Water Supply Sanitation 25th July 2008
Issues on Rural Water Supply in
India A.Bhattacharyya Joint Secretary
Department of Drinking Water Supply
2
Water
  • Builder
  • Purifier
  • Diluter
  • Divider

Catch every drop of water that is falling on Earth
3
Ground water development in India
  • Traditionally rural water supply systems are
    based on ground water sources (more than 85)
  • About 85 of the ground water sources are drawn
    for irrigation and rural drinking water draws
    hardly 3
  • Ground water development in Delhi, Haryana,
    Punjab Rajasthan is more than 100 and in
    States of Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and
    Uttar Pradesh it is more than 70. (CGWB report
    2006)
  • Causing imbalance between over-withdrawal of
    ground water and deficit recharge
  • Resulting permanent fall in the water table every
    year to the tune of 2 -3 meters

4
Ground Water Usage
  • Cleary indicates that drinking water is a very
    small consumer of both the surface and ground
    water and it is primarily due to extensive and
    indiscriminate use for agriculture .
  • Comprehensive management and conjunctive use of
    both surface and ground water, incorporating both
    quality and quantity aspects of water is largely
    lacking

Note the disparity ! 85-90 of surface water
sources are tapped by Urban water supply
Source Earth Treads 2001, World Resources
Institute
5
Map of extent of Ground Water Exploitation
  • Heavy extraction of groundwater, especially for
    irrigation groundwater levels in many districts
    have fallen by more than 4 meters (_at_ gt 20
    cm/year) during 1981-2000.
  • 15 of the blocks fall under dark/grey/over-exploi
    ted area
  • Source CGWB

Caution Excess withdrawals cause ingress of
chemical contaminants
6
Fresh Water Availability
  • Utilizable water resource in Brahmaputra valley
    is 18,417 cu.m. and in the Sabarmati Basin it is
    as low as 180 cu.m. Rajasthan has 8 of
    population with 1 of countrys water resource
    and Bihar has 10 of population with 5 water
    resource
  • Rapid urbanization (2025 -more than 50 urban
    population and by 2050 population to reach1.64
    billion), food security (1.13 billion),
    phenomenal industrial growth and ever increasing
    population growth has witnessed extensive
    development of water resources.
  • Irrigation potential increased from 23 million
    hectares in 1951, since attaining independence to
    about 100 million hectares now. The production of
    food grains has increased from around 50 million
    tonnes in the fifties to about 200 million
    tonnes. Would need 450 million tonnes by the year
    2050 A.D.
  • Indias finite and fragile water resources are
    stressed, while sectoral demands are increasing.
  • Per capita water availability has been falling
    drastically from 5,000 cubic meters per year in
    1947 to about 2000 cubic meters per year at
    present and may decline to 1000 cubic meters per
    year in 2050

7
Annual Per Capita Availability
Precipitation 4,000 km3
Where are we leading to ?
Adequate Water
Water Scarcity
8
Deteriorating Ground Water Quality
  • Over-drawal and extensive use of pesticides and
    insecticides for irrigation have made the sources
    un-potable in many area excess nitrate in 19387
    habitations in 10 states( Rajasthan-7693,
    Karnataka-4077 Maharashtra-4552)
  • In costal areas saline water intrusion resulted
    in contamination of the potable ground water
    aquifers 12425 habitations in 15 States
    (Rajasthan-4428)
  • Presence of high concentration of arsenic and
    fluoride in ground water based drinking water
    sources is attributed to anthropogenic and
    geogenic.
  • Studies in West Bengal show that arsenic in
    ground water is primarily due to leaching of
    arsenic bearing soil, which is geogenic in nature
  • Fluoride contamination affects people in more
    than 29030 habitations in 17 States and excess
    arsenic in 7067 habitations in 5 States.
  • Excess iron present in 104,477 habitations in 24
    States(Assam-23,841 Bihar-21,540 Orissa
    -26,136)

9
Water quality affected habitations as on
01.04.2006
10
Increasing investment trend in RWS Sector
State Government investments were higher than the
Central Govt. investments till the XI Plan
period.
11
THE CURRENT SITUTATION RWS SECTOR
  • Water Source Problems
  • High dependence on ground water (85)
  • Over extraction of ground water for irrigation
  • Uncontrolled deforestation
  • Neglect of traditional practices and systems,
    including rain water harvesting
  • Inadequate integrated water management and
    watershed development
  • Emerging water quality problems

12
THE CURRENT SITUTATION RWS SECTOR CONTINUED
  • MANAGEMENT PROBLEM
  • SECTOR SUFFERS FROM GENERAL VICIOUS CIRCLE
    SYNDROME
  • ADHOC APPROACH ADOPTED IN DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECTS
  • EMPHASIS ON PHYSICAL COVERAGE ONLY
  • INADEQUATE FINANCIAL ALLOCATION AGAINST WORKS
    UNDERTAKEN
  • LACK OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE FUND
  • INEFFICIENT AND BLOATED SERVICE INSTITUTIONS
  • LEADING TO GAP BETWEEN ASSETS CREATED AND SERVICE
    AVAILABLE. OUTLAY OUT PUT GAP

13
THE CURRENT SITUTATION RWS SECTOR (CONTINUED)
  • UNWILLINGNESS OF USER TO PAY FOR SERVICE
  • UNABLE TO MAINTAIN SERVICES WITHOUT EXTENSIVE
    SUBSIDIES
  • LACK OF ADEQUATE PRICING LEVELS CHARGED TO
    CONSUMERS CONTRIBUTES TO THE FINANCIAL WEAKNESS
    OF AGENCY
  • FAILURE TO LEVY RATES PREVENTS EFFICIENT USE AND
    CONSERVATION OF WATER
  • MINING OF GROUND WATER FOR IRRIGATION (FREE POWER
    TARRIF) RESULTED LARGE NOS OF DW SOURCES DEFUNCT.

14
Coverage status of Habitations
  • Based on 1991-94 survey and revalidation figure
    of 1996 and subsequent coverage upto 2003 the
    coverage of rural habitations was more than 97
  • Fresh survey in 2003 revealed that there are
    55,067 habitations that are yet to be covered of
    the earlier survey
  • Alarming aspect is that 2.8 lakh habitations
    which were fully covered have become partially
    covered primarily due to failure of source.
    Reassessed figure is 3.31 lakh
  • 2,16,968 habitations have water quality problems
  • Thus total 6,03,639 habitations are to be covered
    during Bharat Nirman period (2005-06 to 2008-09)

15
Action initiated by DDWS
  • States are encouraged to take up water
    recharging structures, water conservation
    techniques and rain water harvesting structures
    to ensure sustainability of drinking water
    sources. Funds are provided for the same
  • Launched Community Based Water Quality Monitoring
    and Surveillance Program in which sanitary
    inspection is introduced. Districts Laboratories
    have also been sanctioned
  • Under Sub-Mission program special funds are
    provided to tackle quality affected habitations
    with major thrust on Arsenic and Fluoride
  • Launched CCDU for generating awareness and
    capacity development
  • Major emphasis is given to linking with other
    related activities i.e. watershed management,
    NREGP, prevention of pollution of surface
    ground water etc. and empowering community in
    decision making

16
Actions needed
  • Move away from dependency on one source to a
    combination of sources
  • Greater emphasis on individual roof-water
    harvesting
  • Introduction of regular and systematic collection
    of hydro-meteorological, hydrological and
    hydro-geological data by all related Departments
    and analysis the Data by a single nodal agency
  • Supplement by introducing a system for processing
    qualitative and quantitative information for all
    types of water bodies.
  • Project future sector-wise demand including
    quality and type of user and develop National
    Water Master Plan for short and long term
    perspective.
  • Demand for water for different purposes should be
    estimated at different periods of time in
    conformity with respective State goal
  • The right of individual exploitation of ground
    water needs to be restricted both for economic
    reasons for equitable distribution

17
Actions needed continued.
  • Strong Scientific inputs based on existing and
    innovative techniques in water resource
    development management at the micro and macro
    level is required.
  • Regulation, monitoring and enforcement to prevent
    over exploitation and pollution of DW source
    through public and collective rights on local
    communities seems essential
  • For mitigation of quality problems steps have
    been initiated to shift from ground water based
    to surface water based schemes and also
    conjunctive use of ground water, surface water
    roof-water harvesting
  • To bring this holistic approach of Integrated
    Water Resource Management there is need a to
    rope in services of Technical Experts to assist
    the State Governments in proper implementation of
    the programme.

18
  • Thank You
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