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Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts

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Title: Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts


1
Introduction to Engineering and Technology
Concepts
  • Unit Nine
  • Chapter 3 Course Review

2
Instructions for Success
  • This review is intended for you to follow along
    in your notebook.
  • Material covered in this extensive review will be
    included on the final exam.
  • Good luck!

3
Objective
  • Students will review key concepts of the
    Introduction to Engineering and Technology
    Advanced Path course in preparation for the final
    exam.

4
Mindjog!
  • On your worksheet, please respond to the
    following question 
  • Remembering everything that you have learned,
    please redefine the term technology.

5
Unit Review
6
Definition of Technology
  • Technology humans using objects to change the
    natural and manmade environment (Wright, 2004) .
  • All technology has FOUR basic features (Wright,
    2004) .

7
Four Features of Technology
  • Technology is human knowledge.
  • Technology uses tools, materials, and systems.
  • Any application of technology results in
    artifacts and other outputs.
  • Technology is developed by people to modify or
    control the environment (Wright, 2004).

8
Other Outputs?
  • On the last slide, it was stated that one of the
    features of technology is the result of other
    outputs.
  • What does this mean?
  • First, if artifacts are human-made things, then
    the other outputs are the leftovers.
  • These outputs can include things like pollution
    and scrap (Wright, 2004).

9
Technologys Evolution
  • We have already established that technology is
    dynamic.
  • The earliest piece of technology has been around
    as long as humanity has walked this Earth 2.5
    million years ago! (Wright, 2004).
  • Can you guess what it is?
  • The first piece of technology was A ROCK!

10
Technologys Evolution (continued)
  • How is a rock a piece of technology?
  • While not manmade, a rock makes our life easier.
  • Technology can also be defined as anything that
    makes a humans life easier.
  • Our decedents used this early technology for
    cutting and pounding (Wright, 2004).

11
The Timeline
  • The evolution of technology can be divided up
    into seven ages. They are
  • The Stone Age
  • The Bronze Age
  • The Iron Age
  • The Middle Ages
  • Renaissance
  • The Industrial Revolution
  • The Information Age (Wright, 2004).

12
The System Components
  • All technological systems are made up of several
    components. They include
  • Goals
  • Inputs
  • Processes
  • Outputs
  • Feedback and Control (Wright, 2004)

13
Processes
  • All technological systems are characterized by
    some sort of action.
  • The steps in these actions are called a process.
  • Tech systems use three types of processes
  • Problem solving, production, and management
    processes (Wright, 2004).

14
Processes (continued)
  • The problem solving process is similar to the
    scientific method and can be broken down into
    steps
  • Identifying a problem
  • Developing potential solutions
  • Isolating, refining, and detailing the best
    solution
  • Modeling/testing and evaluating the solution
  • Communicating the final solution (Wright, 2004).

15
Processes (continued)
  • The production process are the actions that are
    completed to perform the function of the
    technological system.
  • This can be something as basic as a set of
    instructions to complete a specific task, like
    building something (Wright, 2004).

16
Processes (continued)
  • The management process are all of the actions
    people use to ensure that the production
    processes operates efficiently and appropriately.
  • Management uses four basic steps
  • Planning setting goals and different courses of
    action
  • Organizing diving tasks into segments
  • Actuating assigning and supervising work
  • Controlling comparing system output to the goal
    (Wright, 2004)

17
Dynamic Technologies
  • It has already been stated that technology is
    dynamic constantly changing.
  • For example, what was once the telegraph has
    become the cell phone.
  • Technology can be said to have three Levels of
    Development
  • Obsolete
  • Current
  • Emerging (Wright, 2004)

18
Obsolete Technologies
  • Consider that certain technologies go through a
    period of evolution.
  • Think in terms of the printing press, the
    typewriter, the computer, and now the laptop.
    Most people no longer have a typewriter in their
    homes because it is, for the most part, obsolete.
  • While the typewriter might work just fine, it is
    not efficient enough for humanities current
    needs.
  • Obsolete technologies are those that can no
    longer efficiently meet human needs for products
    and services (Wright, 2004).

19
Current Technologies
  • Current technologies are the artifacts that you
    see around you everyday.
  • They are currently efficient enough to meet
    humanity's needs.
  • Think about cars, mp3 players, cell phones,
    microwaves, etc. These are all current.
  • Current Technologies include the range of
    techniques used to produce most of the products
    and services today (Wright, 2004).

20
Emerging Technologies
  • Emerging Technologies are the new technologies
    that are not widely employed today (Wright,
    2004).
  • Emerging Technologies posses of chance of
    becoming mainstream as time passes.
  • There was a time before the internet, the
    computer, television, and radio. During this
    time these ideas were considered, high tech.
  • As needs, desires, and costs changed, these high
    tech artifacts found their way into our everyday
    lives.

21
Unit Review
22
Processes Review
  • The problem solving process is similar to the
    scientific method and can be broken down into
    steps
  • Identifying a problem
  • Developing potential solutions
  • Isolating, refining, and detailing the best
    solution
  • Modeling/testing and evaluating the solution
  • Communicating the final solution (Wright, 2004).

23
In Fact
  • Developing design solutions really come down to
    three steps
  • Developing preliminary solutions.
  • Isolating and refining the best solution.
  • Detailing the best solution (Wright, 2004).
  • When developing solutions there is a good bit of
    imagination involved.
  • Once the imagination has produced potential
    solutions, they need to be refined to see if they
    are, in fact, possible.

24
Measurement
  • Measurement is the practice of comparing the
    qualities of an object to a standard.
  • In earlier times, we used body parts as that
    standard. Literally, one foot was the size of
    your foot. Unfortunately, not everyones foot is
    the same size.
  • Two measurement standards are in use today U.S.
    customary and the Metric System (Wright, 2004).

25
U.S. Customary System
  • This system was developed in England from the
    1100s to the 1500s.
  • Some aspects of this system were based on body
    parts, for instance an inch and a thumb being the
    same thing.
  • Despite using logic and common understanding, the
    system is confusing in that numerous terms are
    used to describe the same measure.
  • For instance, 12 inches equals a foot but 36
    inches equals three feet or one yard.
  • Also confusing are the inconsistencies in
    computing fractions and multiples of different
    base measurements. (Wright, 2004).

26
Consider
  • Consider that we have developed standards for
    seven physical qualities, including
  • Size and shape the length, area, or volume of
    an object.
  • Mass the amount of matter in an object.
  • Temperature how hot or cold an object or place
    is.
  • Time How long an event lasts
  • The other qualities are number of particles,
    electrical current, and light intensity (Wright,
    2004).

27
Material Resources
  • Materials form the foundation for all production
    activities. Without material resources,
    production is not possible (Wright, 2004).
  • There are three types of natural resources that
    can become the inputs to a production. These
    materials are
  • Genetic Materials
  • Fossil Fuel Materials
  • Minerals (Wright, 2004).

28
Unit Review
29
Six Simple Machines
  • Machines are artifacts that transmit or change
    the application of power, force, or motion.
  • Simple Machines work on the two basic principles
    of the lever and the inclined plane.
  • The Six Simple Machines are
  • The Lever
  • The Wheel and Axle
  • The Pulley
  • The Inclined Plane
  • The Wedge
  • The Screw (Wright, 2004)

30
Quick Review
  • In the last chapter, we defined energy as the
    ability to do work.
  • The concept of technology is anything that makes
    our lives easierit does the work for us to a
    certain extent.
  • Therefore, without energy, humans could not work
    on the development of technology that in turn
    could not work to benefit our needs (Wright,
    2004).

31
Quick Review (continued)
  • We also stated that energy is in two forms
    kinetic and potential.
  • Kinetic energy is energy that being used.
  • Potential energy is energy that is being stored.
  • Think of a batteryalone the battery has the
    potential to be transformed and used. When
    placed in a device that runs on battery power,
    the energy becomes kinetic (Wright, 2004).

32
Its the Law
  • Finally, we noted that energy cannot be created
    or destroyed. Therefore, energy can only be
    converted from one form to another.
  • Its general forms are as follows
  • Mechanical
  • Radiant
  • Chemical
  • Thermal
  • Electrical
  • Nuclear (Wright, 2004)

33
Sources
  • Now that we have defined the different forms of
    energy, there needs to be an understanding of
    exactly what source we are using to harness it.
  • There are three
  • Exhaustible
  • Renewable
  • Inexhaustible (Wright, 2004)

34
Energy Conversion
  • So far, we have defined and discussed energy
    forms and sources.
  • What we have said is that energy is
    transformedand it is through these four ways
  • Inexhaustible Energy Converters
  • Renewable Energy Converters
  • Thermal Energy Converters
  • Electrical Energy Converters (Wright, 2004)

35
Unit Review
36
What is Construction?
  • The Mindjog asked you to consider the components
    of your home. Did you think of things like
    lumber, piping, the foundation, and the like?
  • What is construction anyway?
  • Construction is a production activity that
    produces structures such as buildings or roadways
    (Wright, 2004).

37
What is Involved?
  • What steps are taken when constructing a
    building?
  • Preparing the Site
  • Setting Foundations
  • Building the Framework
  • Enclosing the Structure
  • Installing Utilities
  • Finishing the Exterior and Interior
  • Completing the Site (Wright, 2004)

38
What is Transportation?
  • The Mindjog asked you to consider the different
    ways you could get from Point A to Point B. Did
    you mention a car, plane, or boat?
  • What is transportation anyway?
  • Transportation is all acts that relocate humans
    and their possessions.
  • Transportation Technology provides movement using
    technical means to extend human ability (Wright,
    2004).

39
Goals of Communication
  • Every communication message is designed to
    deliver a certain impact.
  • Communication can meet one or more of the three
    basic goals
  • Inform
  • Persuade
  • Entertain (Wright, 2004).

40
Types of Communication
  • One way to look at communication is in the terms
    of sender and receiver.
  • The most familiar type of communication is people
    communicating with people. It is referred to as
    human to human.
  • There is also machine to human. It is used to
    display machine operating conditions. Think
    about when computer displays errors.
  • If youve ever sent anything through a computer
    or set a thermostat, youve used, human to
    machine.
  • There is also machine to machine. Humans
    create programs and put them into computers, and
    the computer directs and controls an apparatus
    (Wright, 2004).

41
Unit Review
42
Agriculture
  • When you hear someone say, agriculture, what do
    you think of?
  • Do you think of rows of corn, fields of wheat,
    and cows roaming the grounds?
  • Agriculture is people using materials,
    information, and machines to produce food and
    natural fibers (Wright, 2004).
  • Essentially, agriculture can described as
    farming.

43
Biotechnology
  • Biotechnology and agriculture are two related
    studies.
  • One aspect of biotechnology considers the
    practices that improve propagation, growing, and
    harvesting activities (Wright, 2004).
  • More directly, biotechnology uses biological
    agents in processes to produce goods or services
    (Wright, 2004).
  • These agents are microorganisms, enzymes, or
    animal and plant cells (Wright, 2004).

44
Medicine
  • Medicine can be described as the diagnosing,
    treating, and prevention of diseases (Wright,
    2004).
  • Disease is any change that interferes with the
    appearance, structure, or function of the body
    (Wright, 2004).
  • There are many professionals that treat disease
    and injury physicians, nurses, nurse
    practitioners, physician assistants, medical
    technologists, dentists, dental hygienists, and
    pharmacists (Wright, 2004).

45
Goals
  • The aforementioned health care professionals
    respond to health care in three ways
  • Diagnosis performed by conducting interviews,
    physical examinations, and medical tests.
  • Treatment involves applying medical procedures
    to cure disease.
  • Prevention actions taken to keep people from
    contracting a disease (Wright, 2004).

46
Technology in Medicine
  • In the past, physicians depended on people to
    describe their symptoms. Today, many different
    types of diagnostic devices exist. For our
    discussion, we will examine three
  • Routine Diagnostic Equipment
  • Noninvasive Diagnostic Equipment
  • Invasive Diagnostic Equipment (Wright, 2004).

47
Treatment Technologies
  • Treatment of illnesses can also require drugs,
    specialized equipment, or both.
  • A drug is a substance used to prevent, diagnose,
    or treat a disease. It can be used to prolong
    the life of patients with incurable conditions.
  • Other areas of technology include developing life
    support equipment, artificial body parts, medical
    computer systems, blood chemistry sensors,
    therapeutic instruments, and medical imaging and
    treatment systems (Wright, 2004).

48
Optical Technologies
  • Optical Technologies consider the reaction to
    visible light waves (Wright, 2004).
  • Optical properties include color (waves that are
    reflected), optical transmission (ability to pass
    light waves), and optical reflectivity (ability
    to reflect light waves) (Wright, 2004).
  • Think about microscopes, lasers, fiber optics,
    bar code readers, and scannershow do they play a
    role in our lives (Wright, 2004)?

49
Fiber Optics
  • Still, the aforementioned techniques are limited
    by the distance the information can be sent.
  • Fiber optics are channels that guide light waves
    through internal reflection over some distance.
  • Internal reflection means that when the light
    waves strike the outer edge of the fiber, they
    are reflected back towards the center.
  • Optical communication of this type is called
    guided optical transmission, which began
    development in the 1960s (Wright, 2004).

50
Fluid Power Systems
  • Fluid Power Systems use either liquids or gases
    to transfer power from one place to another
    (Wright, 2004).
  • Systems that use air are called pneumatic
    systems.
  • Liquids are used in hydraulic systems (Wright,
    2004).

51
Electrical Energy
  • In the Chapters dealing with energy, we said that
    electrical energy is associated with electrons
    moving along a conductor (Wright, 2004).
  • In a previous chapter, we discussed that atoms
    have electrons and that electrons have a negative
    charge.

Electrons
52
Insulator
  • When the electrons do not move within the atom,
    binding them in such a way, the result is an
    insulator.
  • An insulator is a poor conductor of electricity.
  • Items that are considered insulators include
    wood, plastic, glass, and so on (Brian, 2004).

53
Conductor
  • Conductors, such as metals, allow the electrons
    to move within the atom.
  • When the electrons move, it becomes easier for
    electricity to flow though the material.
  • As the electrons move, they transmit electricity
    from one point to another (Brian, 2004).

54
Computers
  • When a lot of people think of technology they
    immediately visualize a computer with internet
    connection.
  • Computers are used in all areas of life and are
    especially good when used for communication.
  • A computer is a machine that performs a number of
    tasks controlled by a set of instructions
    (Wright, 2004).

55
Computer Memory
  • Read only memory (ROM) is memory that can be read
    by the computer but cannot be changed (Wright,
    2004).
  • Random-access memory (RAM) is memory that can be
    read or changed by the computer and the user.
  • In addition, data can be stored outside of the
    computer by external storage devices
  • These can include CD-ROMs, hard drives, flash
    drives, etc (Wright, 2004).

56
Networks
  • While computers alone can be used to do a
    specific task, they can be connected into
    networks. In this case, a computer is connected
    to other computers. There are two types
  • Local Area Network (LAN) used in a single
    building or site, it connects several personal
    computers to a special computer called the sever.
    The sever is used to store programs and data for
    the network.
  • Wide Area Network (WAN) covers large
    geographical areas. The largest WAN is the
    internet (Wright, 2004).

57
The Internet
  • The term internet means interconnected networks.
    The internet is a computer-based global
    information system.
  • No one really owns it because much of its
    creation and initial workings emerged from
    research that was federally funded.
  • It is a collection of large and small independent
    networks called intranets.
  • These intranets link hundreds of computers, with
    the internet allowing them to share information
    (Wright, 2004).

58
Unit Review
59
Three Factors
  • When purchasing technology, think about these
    important factors
  • Function how well will the product meet your
    needs? How well does it work? Is the product
    durable and easy to maintain? How well will it
    do the job you have in mind?
  • Value Does the performance of the product match
    its price? Do other products meet your needs as
    well but cost less? Is it worth the selling
    price (Wright, 2004)?

60
Maintaining Technology
  • Having your product work properly when called
    upon often requires maintenance.
  • Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent
    breakdowns, such as oil changes.
  • Understand that no technology will work all the
    time or last forever. Repairing technology is
    the process of putting a product back into good
    working order (Wright, 2004).

61
Management
  • Technology is purposeful it is developed to meet
    a problem or opportunity.
  • However, it must be managed.
  • Therefore, technology is a product of managed
    human activity.
  • Management can be defined as the act of planning,
    directing and evaluating an activity.
  • Management involves authority and responsibility
    (Wright, 2004).

62
Areas of Industry
  • There are several areas of industry
  • Research and Development activities that might
    result in new or improved products and processes.
  • Production develop methods for producing
    products or services and the activities that
    produce the desired outputs.
  • Marketing the activities that encourage the
    flow of goods and services from the producer to
    the consumer.
  • Industrial Relations activities that develop an
    efficient work force and maintain positive
    relations with the workers and the public.
  • Financial affairs activities that obtain,
    account for, and disburse funds (Wright, 2004).

63
Unit Review
64
Processing
  • Before we get started, realize that tools and
    machines are used in three major types of
    processing
  • Material Processing
  • Energy Processing
  • Information Processing
  • For the purposes of this Unit, we will be looking
    at tools and machines used in material processing
    (Wright, 2004).

65
Motion
  • Cutting motion is the action that causes material
    to be removed from the work. It causes the
    excess material to be cut away.
  • Feed motion is the action that brings new
    material into the cutter. It allows the cutting
    action to be continuous.
  • Cutting and feed motions can be
  • Rotating uses round cutters or spins the work
    around an axis
  • Linear moves a cutter or work in one direction
    along a straight line
  • Reciprocating moves the tool or the work back
    and forth (Wright, 2004).

66
Types of Machine Tools
  • Hundreds of different machine tools exist,
    however they can be grouped into six categories
  • Turning Machines
  • Sawing Machines
  • Drilling Machines
  • Shaping Machines
  • Planing Machines
  • Grinding Machines (Wright, 2004).

67
General Safety Rules
  • General Safety Rules
  • Safety is an integral part of the technology
    laboratory setting.
  • Understanding and following the appropriate
    safety procedures will aid in the learning
    opportunities presented to you.

68
Unit Review
69
Bridges
  • We have said that construction activities do not
    always produce buildings.
  • In regards to transportation technologies, a
    bridge is vital to provide a path to move over
    obstacles.
  • These obstacles include marshy areas, ravines,
    other roads, and bodies of water.
  • Bridges can carry a number of transportation
    systems that include highways, railroads, canals,
    pipelines, and footpaths (Wright, 2004).

70
Bridges (continued)
  • Generally, there are two types of bridges fixed
    and movable.
  • A fixed bridge does not move. Once it is set in
    place, it stays there.
  • Movable bridges can change their position to
    accommodate traffic below it. This type of
    bridge is used to span ship channels and rivers.
    The bridge can be drawn up or swung out of the
    way so that ships can pass (Wright, 2004).

71
Bridges (continued)
  • Bridges have two major parts the superstructure
    and the substructure.
  • The superstructure includes the abutment and
    piers. It carries the loads of the deck to the
    substructure. The deck is the part used for the
    movement of vehicles and people across the
    bridge. The kind of superstructure indicates the
    type of bridge.
  • The substructure spreads the load of the bridge
    into the soil.

Deck
Abutment
Piles
Pier
Span
Earth
Water
Earth
(Wright, 2004)
Earth
72
Types of Bridges
  • Beam Bridges use concrete or steel beams to
    support the deck. This is a bridge that you
    would commonly see on interstate highways.
  • Truss Bridges Use small parts arranged in
    triangles to support the deck. These bridges
    carry heavier loads over longer spans than the
    Beam Bridges.
  • Arch Bridges use curved members to support the
    deck. Arch bridges are used for longer spans.
    (Wright, 2004).

Suspension
Arch
Truss
Cantilever
73
Types of Bridges (continued)
  • Cantilever Bridges use trusses that extend out
    like arms. The ends of the arms can carry small
    span or hook up to each other. The load is
    transmitted by the arms to the center. None of
    the load is carried by the ends of the arms.
  • Suspension Bridges use cables to carry the
    loads. A large cable is suspended from towers.
    From the large cable, smaller cables drop down to
    support the deck. (Wright, 2004).

Suspension
Arch
Truss
Cantilever
74
Measurement
  • We discussed measurement in Chapter Two and
    stated that there are two types of accuracy
    standard and precision.
  • Many production settings do not require precise
    measurement. Standard measurement is often given
    to the foot, inch, or fraction of an inch.
  • However production applications need a more
    precise size. Think about laboratory testing,
    metals, and specific parts.
  • Using standard accuracy and the US Customary
    System, we are going to do some basic ruler
    measurements (Wright, 2004).

75
Sixteenths
  • Each mark on the ruler, or rule, is called a
    sixteenth.
  • In one inch, there are 16 sixteenths. As a
    fraction, that is 16/16. 16/16, as with any
    number over itself, is one whole. Therefore,
    16/16 equals one whole, or one inch.
  • You will see an arrow highlighting all the
    sixteenths and then you will see the marks in the
    ruler change color, showing you the sixteenths.

1
2
3
76
Eighths
  • Every other sixteenth is called an eighth. There
    are 8 eighths in an inch (8/8 1).
  • The arrow will now appear, showing you the
    eights.

1
2
3
77
Quarters
  • Every fourth mark on the ruler is called a
    quarter. There are 4 quarters in 1.
  • Like eighths, some quarters can be reduced.
    Lets see which marks are quarter marks.

1
2
3
78
Halves
  • Every eighth mark on the ruler is called a half.
    There are 2 halves in 1.
  • Lets see where the halves are on the rule.

1
2
3
79
Whole Numbers
  • Every sixteenth mark on a rule is a whole number.
  • Lets see the whole numbers.

1
2
3
80
Unit Review
81
Lifestyle
  • A lifestyle is what a person does with business
    and family life their work, social, and
    recreational activities.
  • Consider that during colonial times, families
    worked six days a week with long hours to grow a
    small amount of food. These people did not take
    vacations and instead worked on perfecting their
    craft or trade, such as being a blacksmith.
  • Housing was modest and simple, as were other
    technologies available to meet basic human needs
    and wants (Wright, 2004).

82
The Future
  • Since technology is a product of human activity,
    humans can control it. To do this, we must have
    an idea of the kind of future we want.
  • Futuring or future research is an actual research
    technique that identifies five distinct features
  • Alternate Avenues many possible answers rather
    than the answer.
  • Different Futures instead of refining what is,
    a futurist looks for an entirely new future.
  • Rational Decision-Making uses logical thinking
    over math and statistics when making decisions.
  • Designing the Future not improving present or
    past practices. Futurists focus on predicting a
    possible future that can be created.
  • Interrelationships linear models suggest one
    step leads to the next. Futurists see
    alternatives, cross-impacts, and leaps forward
    (Wright, 2004).

83
References
  • Brian, M. (2004). How Electricity Works.
    Retrieved June 27, 2008 from http//science.hows
    tuffworks.com/electricity. htm
  • Molecular Expressions Electricity and Magnetism
    (n.d.). Retrieved June 27, 2008 from
    http//micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java /ohms
    law
  • Wright, R. (2004) Technology The
    Goodheart- Willcox Company, Inc.
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