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Preparing research report

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Title: Preparing research report


1
  • Preparing research report

2
Preparing research report
  • Preparing a research report involves other
    activities besides writing in fact, writing is
    actually the last step in the preparation
    process.
  • Before writing can take place, the results of the
    research project must be fully understood and
    thought must be given to what the report will
    say.
  • Thus, preparing a research report involves three
    steps understanding, organising and writing.
  • The general guidelines that should be followed
    for any report or research paper are as follows

3
Consider the audience
  • The information resulting from the study is
    ultimately of importance to users, who will use
    the results to make decisions. Thus, the report
    has to be understood by them the report should
    not be too technical and not too much jargon
    should be used.
  • This is a particular difficulty when reporting
    the results of statistical analysis where there
    is a high probability that few, if any, of the
    target audience have a grasp of statistical
    concepts. Hence, for example, there is a need to
    translate such terms as standard deviation,
    significance level, confidence interval etc. into
    everyday language. This is sometimes not an easy
    task but it may be the case that researchers who
    find it impossible do not themselves have a
    sufficiently good grasp of the statistical
    methods they have been using.

4
  • M 1sd (A)
  • M 2sd (B)
  • 1sd is 14.74
  • M 115.2

5
Be concise, but precise
  • On the one hand, a written report should be
    complete in the sense that it stands by itself
    and that no additional clarification is needed.
    On the other hand, the report must be concise and
    must focus on the critical elements of the
    project and must exclude unimportant issues.
    There is a great temptation, on the part of
    inexperienced researchers, to seek to convey all
    that they did in order to obtain information and
    to complete the research. This is done almost as
    if the researcher is afraid that the audience
    will not other wise appreciate the time, effort
    and intellectual difficulties involved. What the
    researcher has to come to realise is that he/she
    will be judged by the contribution towards
    solving the marketing problem and not by the
    elegance or effort involved in the research
    methodology

6
Understand the results and drawing conclusions
  • The managers who read the report are expecting to
    see interpretive conclusions in the report. The
    researcher must therefore understand the results
    and be able to interpret these. Simply
    reiterating facts will not do, and the researcher
    must ask him/herself all the time "So what?"
    what are the implications. If the researcher is
    comparing the client's product with that of a
    competitor, for example, and reports that 60
    percent of respondents preferred brand A to brand
    B, then this is a description of the results and
    not an interpretation of them. Such a statement
    does not answer the 'So what?' question.

7
CONTENTS OF RESEARCH REPORT/ARTICLE
  • 1. Title
  • Title of the study brief, unique, and
    interesting
  • Omit obvious words and phrases such as A study
    on . . . and An investigation of . . .
    whenever you can as well.
  • Authors major contributor first
  • Contacts address, affiliation, email, and so on
  • You might also include other information on the
    title page such as contract number, a security
    classification such as CONFIDENTIAL, or a copy
    number depending on the nature of the report you
    are writing.

8
Abstract
  • Abstract summarizes the whole paper
  • Most frequently read by people
  • Abstract should stand alone
  • 200 words or so
  • An abstract is an accurate representation of the
    contents of a document in an abbreviated form
    (Porush 75). An abstract can be the most
    difficult part of the research report to write
    because in it you must introduce your subject
    matter, tell what was done, and present selected
    results, all in one short (about 150 words)
    paragraph. As a result, you should usually write
    the abstract last.

9
  • An abstract serves an important function in a
    research report it communicates the scope of
    your paper and the topics discussed to your
    reader, and, in doing so, it facilitates
    research.
  • Abstracts help scientists to locate materials
    that are relevant to their research from among
    published papers, and many times scientists will
    only read a papers abstract in order to
    determine whether the paper will be relevant to
    them.
  • Considering your audience and their needs will
    help you to determine what should be included in
    your abstract.

10
  • Introduction Construction sites are major
    contributors to nonpoint source (NPS) pollution.
    However, a lack of personnel to enforce
    erosion control regulations and limited
    voluntary compliance means that few developers
    apply effective erosion control.
  • Research problem New approaches are needed to
    increase erosion control on construction sites
    if this source of NPS pollution is to be
    significantly reduced.
  • Body This study tests whether an economic
    advantage exists for developers who use
    vegetative cover for erosion control, independent
    of advantages gained in addressing environmental
    or regulatory concerns. Improving residential lot
    appearance from muddy brown to green grass may
    increase the appeal of the lot to buyers.
  • Results A market survey shows that homebuyers
    and realtors perceive vegetated lots to be worth
    more than unvegetated lots, and this increased
    value exceeds the cost of seeding.
  • Conclusion Thus, developers can now be
    encouraged to invest in vegetative cover because
    of the potentially high return on the investment. 

11
Introduction
  • Explain why your topic is interesting
  • Summarize what other researchers have done about
    the topic or relevant topics
  • Make a statement of problem (It was the purpose
    of the study to examine the relationship between
    PCSA of calf and the jump performance)
  • Introduction does not have to be too technical
    and does not have to involve too field-specific
    jargons.
  • Mention your hypothesis (e.g. The increased step
    length will increase the magnitude of vertical
    ground reaction force)

12
Methods
  • Methods present all the details of the study
    methodology
  • Subject
  • Equipment
  • Experimental design
  • Statistics

13
Results
  • Results present the results of the study in a
    form which conveys their meaning
  • Consider the best way of presentation
  • Figures figures should be self-explanatory with
    the corresponding caption units, axes, and
    legends
  • Tables tables should be self-explanatory with
    the corresponding caption units
  • Word descriptions

14
  • Results present the results of the study in a
    form which conveys their meaning
  • For example, suppose you monitoring how long it
    takes to approve or disapprove a credit
    application for a customer.
  • From your control charts (assume the process is
    in control), you have estimated the process
    average to be 14 working days and the standard
    deviation to be 2 days. After constructing a
    histogram on the days to approve or disapprove a
    credit application, you discover that it is
    bell-shaped.

15
  • Since the process is in statistical control, you
    know that about 67 of the time, it will take 12
    to 16 days to process a credit application 95
    of the time it will take 10 to 18 days and 99.7
    of the time it will take 8 to 20 days.

16
Table 6 Correlation among the selected variables

17
  • For example, the three unique correlation
    coefficients show there is a positive correlation
    between employees' number of years of education
    and their current salary. This positive
    correlation coefficient (.661) indicates that
    there is a statistically significant (p lt .001)
    linear relationship between these two variables
    such that the more education a person has, the
    larger that person's salary is. Also observe that
    there is a statistically significant (p lt .001)
    negative correlation coefficient (-.252) for
    the association between education level and
    previous experience, indicating that the linear
    relationship between these two variables is one
    in which the values of one variable decrease as
    the other increases. The third correlation
    coefficient (-.097) also indicates a negative
    association between employee's current salaries
    and their previous work experience, although this
    correlation is fairly weak.

18
Chi-square goodness of fit
  • A chi-square goodness of fit test (equivalent to
    one sample t-test) allows us to test whether the
    observed proportions for a categorical variable
    differ from hypothesized proportions. 
  • For example, let's suppose that we believe that
    the general population consists of 10 Indian,
    10 Thai, 10 Chinese and 70 Bumiputra.  We want
    to test whether the observed proportions from our
    sample differ significantly from these
    hypothesized proportions. 

19
  • These results show that racial composition in our
    sample does not differ significantly from the
    hypothesized values that we supplied (chi-square
    with three degrees of freedom 5.029, p .170).

20
Table 1 Gender by Type of Schools
X2 (df1) 0.047, p .828
These results indicate that there is no
statistically significant relationship between
the type of school attended and gender
(chi-square with one degree of freedom 0.047, p
0.828).  
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22
Table 3 Demographic information of respondents
23
Data presentation
  • Easy-to-understand tables and graphics will
    greatly enhance the readability of the written
    research report. As a general rule, all tables
    and figures should contain
  • 1. Identification number corresponding to the
    list of tables and the list of figures 2. A title
    that conveys the content of the table or figure,
    also corresponding to the list of tables and the
    list of figures, and
  • 3. Appropriate column labels and row labels for
    tables, and figure legends defining specific
    elements in the figure.

24
Conclusion and Discussion
  • Summarize the findings and implications of the
    work
  • Do not present specific results which should be
    mentioned in Results
  • Present what can be concluded from the results
  • Discussion puts into context the results of the
    study
  • Highlight the key findings
  • Show the interaction with other research
  • Implication of findings
  • Possible future research arising
  • Accept or reject hypotheses

25
References
  • Give credits to whom they are due." This is where
    you cite formally all your sources of
    information. It is your formal manner of saying
    "Thank you." Moreover, "Fair is Fair." In
    addition, enumerating your sources of information
    offers your readers the opportunity to verify or
    redo your study.
  • References is a list of all the work referred to
    within the main body of the text
  • All referenced work should be listed
  • Different journals specify different formats
  • The reference format for a journal article is
    usually different from one for a book

26
Appendices
  • These are your provisions for any "excess
    baggage." Attached all relevant materials
    (tables, graphs, computations, photos, CDs, etc.)
    cited or used in the study- all those relevant
    stuff that you did not include in the body of
    your report for reasons that they would only
    clutter your presentation

27
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