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Report Writing

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Title: Report Writing


1
Report Writing
Build Bright University
Faculty of Science of Education and Languages
Chapter 1 Introduction to Writing
Report Chapter 2 Formal Format of BBU
report Chapter 3 Introduction of Report
Chapter 4 Methodology Chapter 5 Data
Analysis, Result Discussion Chapter 6
Conclusion Recommendation Chapter 7 Reference
and Appendix
By Srun Chantha
Tel 012 34 66 82 / 010 519 599 / 097 760 37 37
E-mail srunchantha_at_yahoo.com
Webiste www.srunchanthabbu.tk
2
Chapter 1 Introduction to Writing Report
  • What is a report? What is it for?
  • Types of a report
  • Process of preparing a written report
  • The standard structure of a report
  • Report outlining

3
What is a report? What is it for?
  • A form of communication that gives
    information.
  • It is used
  • - to record routine events.
  • - to record non-routine events.
  • - as a basis for making decision
  • - as a basis for planning in the future

4
Types of a report
  • Progressive report
  • Incident report
  • Analytical report

5
Process of preparing a report
Commission
Individual/Team
Redefine
Plan
Scope Outline Tasks Scheduling
- Primary data - Secondary data
  • - Scope
  • - Outline
  • Task
  • Scheduling

First Draft
Second Draft
Edit
Accepted
Final Report
Needs Revision
6
Standard format of a report
Front Mater - Cover page - Letter of Transmittal - Title - Content page - List of illustrations - Summary/Synopsis - Abstract
Report Body - Introduction (Background of the problem) - Methodology - Results/Discussion - Conclusion/Recommendation
End Matter - Reference - Appendix
7
Report Outlining
  • Alphanumeric system
  • Decimal system

8
Chapter 2 Formal Format of BBU report
  • 1. Cover page with supervisors signature
  • 2. Declaration of originality
  • 3. Table of contents
  • 4. Acknowledgement
  • 5. Abstract
  • 6. Figures/Tables
  • 7. Abbreviation
  • 8. Introduction
  • 9. Methodology
  • 10. Results and Discussion
  • 11. Conclusions
  • 12. Recommendations
  • 13. References
  • 14. Appendix

9
  • Refer to the Handout
  • Guildelines for Formal Report Writing for
    Bachelor of Art in Teaching English as a Foreign
    Languages (TEFL)
  • You can download soft copy from the website
    http//www.srunchanthabbu.tk

10
(No Transcript)
11
Declaration of Originality Model
DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY I declare that this
report is of my original study and it has not
been submitted to any other research institutes
for any purposes. I am responsible for and accept
any fraud, cheating and copying work from other
peoples work. If those cases have been found
out, my report will be automatically considered
invalid. .......................................
.. Srun Chantha ..................................
....... Leng Chantha .............................
............ Nav Chantha ........................
................. Kaing Chantha ..................
.......................
12
Acknowledgement Sample
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A great deal of effort and time
have been invested in the preparation of this
report, but even that this report would not have
come into existence without the valuable sources
from the following people. First of all, I wish
to express my profound thank to my advisor, Mr.
Srun Chantha, for his patient assistance and
constant encouragement that have led me to be
successful in writing my report. Secondly, I
like extend my appreciation and thank to Mr. Seng
Long, vice dean of Faculty of Science of
Education and Languages, for his additional
support and comment for the improvement of my
report. Above all, I am forever grateful to my
family especially my parents for their emotional
and financial support which have led me to
achieve my educational goal.
13
Abstract
  • A summary of a longer report
  • Is different from introduction
  • Abstract should include the following
  • - Background
  • - Purposes
  • - Methods
  • - Major findings
  • - Conclusions
  • - Recommendation

14
Figure Sample
LIST OF FIGURES
Page Figure 1 Statistics of Cambodian
Students 21 Figure 2 Number of Consumer
Response 30 Figure 3 Number of
District 45 Figure 4 Consumer who refused the
brand 56 Figure 5 ...............................
............................. 66
Table Sample
LIST OF TABLES
Page Table
1 Statistics of Cambodian Students 15 Table 2
Number of Consumer Response 25 Table 3 Number of
District 47 Table 4 Consumer who refused the
brand 66 Table 5 ................................
............................ 71
15
List of Abbreviation Model
ABBREVIATION
MOEYS Ministry of Education Youth and Sport
BBU Build Bright University
STT Student Talking Time
TTT Teacher Talking Time
TESL Teaching English as Second Language
WB World Bank
ISO International Standard Organization
UN United Nation
T Teacher
S Student
FPP Final Project Paper
GDP Gross Domestic Product
16
Chapter 3 Introduction
  • Background information on the problem
  • Objectives
  • Scope and limitation
  • Methodology
  • Keyword

17
Chapter 4 Methodology
  • Data collection techniques
  • Sampling method

18
Data Collection Techniques
Methods of Data Collection
Secondary Sources
Primary Sources
Printed Sources and Mass Media
Observation
Interviewing
Questionnaire
Govt. Publications Earlier Research Census Interne
t Journals Newspaper Magazine Book Etc
Participant
Mailed Questionnaire
Structured
Collective Questionnaire
Unstructured
Non-participant
19
Using data from secondary sources
  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarizing
  • Quoting
  • Paraphrasing, Summarizing and Quoting are
    involved with using thoughts, ideas and fact from
    other authors to explain your topic of your
    report. When you paraphrase, summarize or quote,
    you must acknowledge the source. In other words,
    you must cite the sources you took from.

20
Ways of citing the sources
  • Author Prominence
  • Information Prominence

21
Ways of citing the sources
  • Author Prominence
  • Use the author surname as part of the sentence
    with year of publication and page number in the
    parentheses.

David (2003, p. 21) has agued that It is the
responsibility of all developed nations to ease
their burden.
David and Christopher (2006, p. 99) stated, The
number of world refugees now exceeds 11 million.
David et al. (2005, p. 98) stated, The number of
world refugees now exceeds 11 million.
David et al (2005) stated, The number of world
refugees now exceeds 11 million (p. 80).
22
Ways of citing the sources
  • Information Prominence
  • Use the authors surname, year of publication
    and page number in the parentheses at the end of
    the sentence.

It has been agued that It is the responsibility
of all developed nations to ease their burden
(David 2003, p. 21).
It has been agued that It is the responsibility
of all developed nations to ease their burden
(David Christopher 2003, p. 21).
It has been agued that It is the responsibility
of all developed nations to ease their burden
(David et al. 2003, p. 21).
23
Paraphrasing
  • Use your own words to write someones idea
    without changing the meaning.
  • You paraphrase by using synonyms or expressing
    the ideas in your own sentences.
  • Is as long as the original information.
  • Contains all the details of the original

24
Paraphrasing Sample
Original text The citizens of Siem Reap are
complaining loudly about the problems and
inefficiency of the sanitation system, because
Friday the sanitation crew removed approximately
half of the refuse on the center street.
Source Abrams, K. (1982, p.23) Sanitation
System, New Jersey Prentice Hall
Paraphrase Garbage removal for people of Siem
Reap has been a problem. They are unhappy about
the way the garbage collectors have done their
job. For example, only half of the garbage was
removed on Friday. (Abrams 1982, p.23)
25
Summarizing
  • To write the main ideas of a paragraph, section
    or article.
  • To put the writers main ideas into your own
    words.
  • To shorten a large amount of material.
  • To leave out unnecessary details.

26
Summarizing Sample
Original text The citizens of Siem Reap are
complaining loudly about the problems and
inefficiency of the sanitation system, because
Friday the sanitation crew removed approximately
half of the refuse on the center street.
Source Abrams, K. (1982, p.23) Sanitation
System, New Jersey Prentice Hall
Summary ? The garbage collection crew in Siem
Reap is not working efficiently, and the people
who live there are unhappy about it (Abrams 1982,
p.23). ? Abrams said that the garbage
collection crew in Siem Reap is not working
efficiently, and the people who live there are
unhappy about it (1982, p.23). ? Abrams (1982)
said that the garbage collection crew in Siem
Reap is not working efficiently, and the people
who live there are unhappy about it (p.23). ?
Abrams (1982, p.23) said that the garbage
collection crew in Siem Reap is not working
efficiently, and the people who live there are
unhappy about it.
27
Quoting
  • To use someones exact words in your report.
  • You quote coz the author wrote clear and exact
    words that you think are valuable.
  • You quote coz the author is the one you trust and
    you want to use his or her words to explain your
    ideas.
  • You quote coz the author wrote unique words that
    will add interest in your report.
  • There are two types of quotationshort quotation
    and long quotation.

28
Short quotation
  • Consists of fewer than 30 words.
  • Should be incorporated into your sentence without
    disrupting the flow of your paragraph.
  • Should have the full stop outside the reference.
  • Should keep the same font size of the paragraph.

29
Short quotation model
Short quotation The church is not the only
setting where the soul may be nurtured as the
soul also finds substance in more domestic
settings, like the family home where customs and
values have created a spirit handed down over
generations (Jones 1998, p.89).
30
Long quotation
  • Contains more than 30 words.
  • Should be begun on new line. Do not use quotation
    marks
  • Period is put at the end of quotation.
  • Put citation at the end of the sentence.
  • You should introduce sentences in your own words
    before you use long quotation.
  • Fully indented to make sure it looks distinct
    from sentences in the paragraph.
  • Use smaller font than other sentences in the
    paragraph.

31
Long quotation sample
Long quotation The church is not the only
setting where the soul may be nurtured as The
soul also finds substance in more domestic
settings, like the family home where customs
and values have created a spirit handed down over
generations. According to Thomas Moore, the
soul finds sacredness in the ordinary, and may
benefit most when its spiritual life is
performed in the context of mundane daily life.
(Jones 1998, p.89).
32
Important points about quoting
  • When you quote other peoples ideas
  • Be accurate. Do not change the original. If you
    have a good reason to omit part of a quotation,
    use an ellipsis (...) in place of the missing
    words.
  • Example
  • The first reason . . . is the inability of
    underdeveloped nations to produce enough food,
    Dr. Doom (2003, p. 32) stated.

33
Important points about quoting
  • If you have a good reason to add words to the
    original, put brackets ( ) around the added
    words.
  • Example
  • The first reason for the inevitability is the
    inability of underdeveloped nations, which have
    only thirty percent of the population, consume
    seventy percent of the food, he said.

34
Using data from primary sources
  • Observation
  • Interview
  • Questionnaire

35
Observation
  • Systematic and selective way of watching and
    listening to an interaction or phenomenon as it
    takes place.
  • Is appropriate for studying the individuals
    behavior not their perceptions.
  • Is also appropriate in situations where full and
    accurate information cannot be elicited by
    questioning.
  • Types of observation Participant Observation and
    Non-participant Observation

36
Participant Observation
  • An observation in which a researcher participates
    in the activities of the group being observed in
    the same manner as its members.

37
Non-participant observation
  • An observation in which the researcher does not
    get involved in the activities of the group being
    observed.
  • A researcher, in this type of observation,
    remains a passive observer, watching and
    listening to its activities and drawing
    conclusions from this.

38
Problems with using observation
  • Individuals may change their behavior when they
    become aware that they are being observed.
  • The interpretations drawn from observation might
    vary from one observer to another.
  • There is the possibility of incomplete
    observation and/or recording.

39
Ways of recording observation
  • Narrative recording
  • Scale recording
  • Categorical recording
  • Recording on mechanical devices

40
Narrative recording
  • The researcher records a description of the
    interaction in his or her own words.
  • He or she makes brief notes while observing and
    soon after observation makes detailed notes in
    narrative form.

41
Scale recording
  • The researcher develops a scale so as to rate
    various aspects of the interaction or phenomenon.

42
Scale recording example
43
Categorical recording
  • Observer decide to record his or her observation
    using categories.
  • The type and number of categories depend on the
    type of interaction and the observers choice
    about how to classify the observation.

44
Categorical recording example
45
Recording on mechanical devices
  • Observer use a video tape to record his or her
    observation and then analyze.

46
Interview
  • A person-to-person interaction between two or
    more individuals with a specific purpose in mind.
  • Types of interview
  • - Unstructured interview
  • - Structured interview.

47
Unstructured interview
  • Is also known as in-depth interview.
  • Interviewer formulates questions spontaneously
    during an interview.
  • It can be carried out in a one-to-one situation
    or collectively with a group of respondents
    called focused group interview.

48
Structured interview
  • The investigator asks a pre-determined set of
    questions, using the same wording and order of
    questions as specified in the interview schedule.
  • Interview schedule is a written list of
    questions, open or closed-ended, prepared for use
    by an interview.
  • Interview can be carried out by face-to-face,
    telephone or other electronic media.

49
The advantages of the interview
  • is appropriate for complex situations
  • is useful for collecting in-depth information
  • Information can be supplemented
  • Questions can be explained
  • has a wider application
  • Can investigates motives and feelings
  • Good response rate

50
The disadvantages of the interview
  • is time-consuming and expensive
  • geographical limitation
  • the quality of data may vary when many
    interviewers are used
  • the interviewer may be biased
  • possible embarrassment

51
Planning interview
  • List the area in which you require information.
  • Decide on type of interview.
  • Transform areas into actual questions.
  • Try them out on a friend or relative.
  • Make an appointment with respondents.
  • Try and fix a venue and time.

52
Conducting interview
.
53
Questionnaire
  • A written list of questions, the answers to which
    are recorded by respondents.
  • In questionnaire respondents read the questions
    and write down the answers.
  • The difference between an interview schedule and
    a questionnaire is that, in the interview
    schedule it is the interviewer who asks and
    explains the questions and records the
    respondents replies on an interview schedule.

54
Considerable aspects when designing questionnaire
  • Questions must be clear and easy to understand
  • The layout should be easy to read and pleasant to
    respondents eyes.
  • The sequence of questions should be easy to
    follow.
  • The questionnaire should be developed in an
    interactive way.
  • A sensitive question should be prefaced by an
    interactive statement explaining the relevance of
    the question.
  • Use a different font for interactive statements
    to distinguish them from the actual questions.
  • Excessive size can only reduce response rates.
  • Short and simple questionnaire are the best.

55
The choice between a questionnaire and an
interview schedule
  • The nature of the investigation
  • The geographical distribution of the study
    population
  • The type of study population

56
Ways of administering a questionnaire
  • The mailed questionnaire
  • Collective questionnaire
  • Administration in a public place

57
The advantages of a questionnaire
  • Less expensive
  • Offers greater anonymity
  • Can cover a large number of people or
    organisation
  • Wide geographic coverage
  • No prior arrangement are needed
  • Avoids embarrassment on the part of the
    respondent
  • Respondent can consider responses
  • No interviewer bias

58
The disadvantages of a questionnaire
  • Limited application
  • A low response rate
  • Lack of opportunity to clarify issues
  • The response to a question may be influenced by
    the response to other questions
  • It is possible to consult others
  • A response cannot be added with other information

59
Designing your questionnaire
  • It is important that you write a covering letter
    with your questionnaire
  • - introduce you and the institution you are
    representing.
  • - describe in two or three sentences the main
    objectives of your study.
  • - convey any general instruction
  • - indicate that participation in the study is
    voluntary.
  • - assure respondents of the anonymity of the
    information provided by them.
  • - provide a contact number in case they have any
    questions.
  • - give a return address for the questionnaire
    and a deadline for its return.
  • - thank them for their participation in the
    study.

60
Forms of question in questionnaire
  • Open-ended questions
  • Close-ended questions
  • Attitude questions
  • Ranking questions
  • Categorical questions
  • Listing questions

61
Open-ended questions
  • the possible responses are not given.
  • the respondents write down the answers in his or
    her words.

62
Open-ended question model
  • Questionnaire
  • . What is your current age? ........... years
  • . How would you describe your current marital
    status? ............
  • . What is your average annual income?
    ...............
  • . What, in your opinion, are the qualities of a
    good administrator?
  • ..........................
  • ..........................
  • ..........................
  • ..........................
  • ..........................

63
Advantages of open-ended questions
  • provide in-depth information
  • provide respondents the opportunity to express
    themselves freely, resulting in a greater variety
    of information

64
Disadvantages of open-ended questions
  • Analysis is difficult
  • some respondents may not be able to express
    themselves, so information can be lost

65
Close-ended questions
  • the possible answers are set out in the
    questionnaire.
  • the respondent or the investigator ticks the
    category that best describes the respondents
    answer.
  • It is usually wise to provide a category other,
    please specify to accommodate any response not
    listed.

66
Close-ended question model
  • Questionnaire
  • . Please indicate your age by placing a tick in
    the appropriate category
  • ? under 15
  • ? 15-19 years old
  • ? 20-24 years old
  • . How would you describe your current marital
    status?
  • ? Married
  • ? Single
  • ? Divorced
  • . What, in your opinion, are the qualities of a
    good administration?
  • ? Able to make decisions
  • ? Fast decision maker
  • ? Able to listen
  • ? Other, please specify
  • ..................................................
    ............
  • ..................................................
    ............

67
Advantages of close-ended questions
  • As it provides ready made categories, it helps to
    ensure that the information needed by the
    researcher is obtained
  • Because the possible responses are already
    categorized, they are easy to analyze.

68
Disadvantages of close-ended questions
  • information obtained lacks depth and variety
  • chance of investigator bias

69
Attitude questions
  • The respondent says how much they agree or
    disagree with each one.

70
Attitude question example 1
71
Attitude question example 2
72
Ranking questions
  • Ask the respondent to place things in rank or
    order.

73
Ranking question model
74
Categorical questions
  • Each respondent's answer can fit only one
    category.

75
Categorical question example
76
Listing questions
  • Offer the respondent a list of responses, any of
    which they can choose.

77
Listing question sample
78
Considerations in formulating questions
  • Always use simple and everyday language
  • Do not use ambiguous questions
  • Do not ask double-barreled questions
  • Do not ask leading questions
  • Do not ask questions that are based on
    presumptions

79
Process of questionnaire development
80
The construction of questions in questionnaire or
interview
  • Step 1 list all the specific objectives,
    research questions or hypotheses
    to be tested.
  • Step 2 For each objective, research
    question or hypothesis, list all the
    associated questions that you want
  • to answer through your study.
  • Step 3 Take each question identified in step 2
    and list the information required to
    answer it.
  • Step 4 Formulate questions to obtain this
    information.

81
Constructing question model
82
Order of questions
  • Random order
  • Logical progression

83
Prerequisites for data collection
  • Motivation to share the required information
  • Clear understanding of the questions
  • Possession of the required information

84
Sampling methods
  • Technical terms about sampling
  • Need to do sampling
  • Steps for doing sampling
  • Types of sampling

85
Technical terms about sampling
  • Population does not necessarily mean people it
    can refer to aggregates of texts, institutions,
    or anything else being investigated.
  • A sample is simply a small group drawn from the
    survey population.
  • Sampling is the process of taking samples from
    population in order to generalize our results
    back to the population from which they were
    chosen.
  • Sampling frame is a list that should contain all
    or most of the elements of the population you
    wish to sample.
  • Quantitative data is anything that can be
    expressed in statistical or number form or can be
    measured in some way, such as age,
    qualifications, or income.
  • Qualitative data is concerned with peoples
    feelings about some issues. Data may be gathered
    from either primary sources or secondary sources.

86
Why a need to do sampling?
  • It would be impractical to survey the entire
    population
  • Your budget constraints.
  • Your time constraints.
  • You have to collect all the data but need the
    results quickly.
  • However, you can survey an entire population when
    it is of a manageable size.

87
Steps for doing sampling
88
Types Sampling
- Snowball sampling
89
Probability sampling
  • Any method of sampling that utilises some form of
    random selection.
  • Units are selected by chance.

90
Simple random sampling
  • Selecting samples at random from the sampling
    frame using either random number table or lottery
    mode.
  • In lottery method, you write number in a piece of
    paper and then put them in a box and you pick up
    the number until you reached the sample size.

91
Systematic sampling
Example 1
92
Systematic sampling
Example 2
93
Stratified random sampling
  • Involves separating the research population into
    distinct, non-overlapping groups (strata), each
    containing subjects that share similar
    characteristics.
  • Strata is plural
  • Stratum is singular
  • Stratified random sampling is also called
    proportional or quota random sampling.

94
Stratified random sampling
95
Stratified random sampling
96
Cluster or area sampling
  • Divide population into groups or clusters.
  • Randomly sample clusters
  • Measure all units within sample clusters

97
Multi-stage sampling
  • Sometimes population is too large and scattered
    for it to be practical to make a list of the
    entire population from which to draw a sample.
  • For example, when a polling organisation samples
    provinces in Cambodia. The organisation lists are
    compiled by provinces. They might first do a
    sample of provinces then samples within the
    selected provinces. These illustrate two stages.
    They might use even more stages.

98
Non-probability sampling
  • Any method of sampling that utilises some form of
    non-random selection.
  • Usually, researchers purposively select sample
    units.

99
Convenient sampling
  • is also known as grab, accidental or opportunity
    sampling.
  • involves the sample being drawn from that part of
    the population which is close to hand.
  • a sample population selected because it is
    readily available and convenient.
  • the researcher using such a sample cannot
    scientifically make generalizations about the
    total population from this sample because it
    would not be representative enough.

100
Convenient sampling example
  • Interviewing people at a shopping mall as they
    walk by. This is easy because you just choose it,
    without any random mechanism. You just choose the
    people that walk by you as your standing there.
  • Or if you want to choose 5 people from a class of
    50. You could choose First 5 students who raise
    their hand. First 5 students in the first row. 5
    tallest students .

101
Judgment sampling
  • is also known as purposive sampling.
  • A method of choosing a data sample drawn from a
    larger population based on one's own judgment,
    grounded in relevant experience.
  • is used when you want a quick sample and you
    believe you are able to select a sufficiently
    representative sample for your purposes.
  • use your own judgment to select what seems like
    an appropriate sample.
  • For example, market researchers might judge a
    particular town centre shopping centre to be
    representative of their target market.

102
Quota sampling
  • It is similar to stratified random sampling.
    However, the selection within strata is
    non-random.
  • In quota sampling, the population is first
    segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups,
    just as in stratified sampling. Then judgment is
    used to select the subjects or units from each
    segment based on a specified proportion.
  • Quota sampling is useful when time is limited,
    sampling frame is not available, research budget
    is very tight or when detailed accuracy is not
    important. you can also choose how many of each
    category is selected.

103
Quota sampling example
104
Snowball sampling
  • Use when you do not have access to sufficient
    people with the characteristics you are seeking.
  • Find people to study. Ask them to refer you other
    people who fit your study requirements, then
    follow up with these new people. Repeat this
    method of requesting referrals until you have
    studied enough people.

105
Snowball sampling example
  • A researcher is studying environmental engineers
    but can only find five. She asks these engineers
    if they know any more. They give her several
    further referrals, who in turn provide additional
    contacts. In this way, she manages to contact
    sufficient engineers.

106
Chapter 5 Data analysis, Result Discussion
  • Processing Data
  • Result Section (Displaying Data)
  • Discussion Section

107
Processing data
  • - Editing data
  • - Integrating data
  • - Analysis

108
Steps in Data Processing
109
Editing Data
  • scrutinizing the completed research instruments
    to identify and minimize errors, incompleteness,
    misclassification in the information obtained
    from the respondents.

110
Why editing data?
  • forget to ask questions
  • forget to record a response
  • wrongly classify a response
  • write only half a response
  • write illegibly

111
Ways of minimizing such problems
  • By inference
  • By recall
  • By going back to the respondents

112
Ways of editing data
  • Examine answers to one question or variable at a
    time
  • Examine answers to all questions at the same
    time, this is examine the responses given by a
    respondent.

113
Integrating and analyzing data
  • Use SPSS program to integrate data.
  • SPSS stands for Statistical Package for Social
    and Science.
  • SPSS is used to integrate, analyze and display
    the data.

114
  • You can download SPSS program from the website
    http//www.srunchanthabbu.tk
  • Call to the number, 012 346 682, if you have any
    questions.

115
Result section (Displaying data)
  • This section is the analysis of the result you
    have obtained from the field.
  • In this case, tell the readers what you have
    searched or found, and what the results mean.
  • Graphs and tables are good methods for presenting
    data.

116
Result section consist of 3 points
  • Presenting the result
  • Analyzing the result
  • Drawing conclusion

117
Presenting the result
  • Presenting result through tables.
  • Presenting result using graphs.

118
Chapter 6 Conclusion Recommendation
  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation

119
Summary
  • the highlight of the important findings.
  • In the result part in the report writing, you
    meticulously introduce the results
    point-by-point, but in summary you are now
    writing bigger chunk of information.

120
Conclusion
  • Researcher judge the conclusion upon the
    completion of the projection implementation and
    report writing.
  • Abstract drawn from the summary of findings.

121
Recommendation
  • Recommendations are geared toward education and
    practical utility.

122
Chapter 7 Reference Appendices
  • Reference
  • Appendices

123
Reference
  • Reference is written to recognize the sources
    from where you have quoted.
  • Reference is written at the end of the paper.
  • Reference must be alphabetically in logical
    order.

124
How to write reference from books
125
Books Referencing
Single author David, A 2000, A good Age, Mitchell Beazley, London.
2 or 3 authors David, R John T 2001, the Definition of Disability in Australia, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra.
4 or more authors Leder, R, Dobsin, N, Gibber G, Msthrew S, and Mariot, F 1997, The Australian Film Industry, Dminion Press, Adelaide.
No author Advertising in the Western Cape 1990, ABC Publisher, Cape Town.
Multiple works by same author Brown, P 1982, coral in the Caprincom group, Central Queensland University, Rockhamton. Brwon, P 1989, the effects of anchor on corals, Central Queensland University.
126
Books Referencing
Multiple works published in the same year by same author Napier, A 1993a, Fatal Storm, Allen Unwin, Sydney. Napier, A 1993b, Survival at sea, Allen Unwin, Sydney.
Editor Kasam, R (ed) 1994, Encyclopedia of adult development, Oryx Press, Phoenix.
Different editions Renton, N 2004, compendium of good writing, 3rd edn, John Wiley Sons.
Encyclopedia or dictionary Sadie, S (ed.) 1980, the Headway dictionary, 6thedn, McMillon, London.
Brochure Research and Training Centre on Independent Living 1993, Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disability Brochure, 4th edn, Research and Training Centre, Lawrence, KS.
127
Books Referencing
Thesis Jones, F 1998, The mechanism of Byer residue flocculation, PhD Thesis, ABC University. Retrieved December 21, 2005, from ABC University Digital Theses.
Conference proceeding Debono, C 2000, the National Trust into the new millennium, Proceedings of the ninth meeting of the International National Trust, Australian Council of National Trust, Alice Spring, NT, pp. 44-6. Retrieved January 20, 2006, from Inform it Online database.
Annual Report of an organization Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001, Annual Report 2001-2002, Canberra.
128
Print Journal Referencing
article Wharton, N 1996, Health and safety in outdoor activity centers, Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 8-9.
Article no author Anorexia nervosa 1969, British Medical Journal, vol. 1, pp. 529 -30.
Newspaper/magazines article Towers, K 2000, Doctor not at fault coroner, Australia, 18 January, p.3.
Press Release Smith, C 2000, BHP enters new era, media release, BHP Limited, Melbourne, 1 March.
129
E-Journal Referencing
Full text Madden, G 2002, Internet economies and policy an Australian perspective, Economic Record, vol. 78, no. 242, pp.343 58. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from ABI/INFORM Global database.
Full text no author Internet economies and policy an Australian perspective, Economic Record, vol. 78, no. 242, pp.343 58. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from ABI/INFORM Global database.
Full text from the Internet Byrne, A 2004, The end of history censorship and librarie, The Australian Library Journal, vol. 53, no. 2. http//www.alia.org.au/publishing/alj/53.2/full.text/byrne.html (accessed 27 November 2009)
130
Govt Publication Referencing
Australian Bureau of Statistics Bulletin Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999, Disability, ageing and careers summary of findings, cat. No. 4430.0, ABS, Canberra. Retrieved October 14, 2002, from AusStats database.
Census Information Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001, Census of population and housing B01 selected characteristics (First release processing) postal area 6050. Retrieved November 20, 2002, from AusStats database.
Govt Report Resource Assessment Commission 1991, Forest and timber inquiry draft report, vol. 1, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
131
Other sources Referencing
Film and video recordings Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992, video recording, Australia Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney. Featuring the Sydney Symphony Orchestra.
Television and radio programs What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television programs, SBS Television, Sydney, 8 August.
132
Appendices
  • Appendix is used to attach any copies of any
    research instruments questionnaire, interview
    sheets, complex figures, etc.) that have been
    used.
  • All of these should be included in appendix.

133
  • Many thanks for your attention !
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