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Self-Esteem and Body Image in Adolescents


Title: Stress and Body Image Author: Faralee Shipley Last modified by: Ann Weber Created Date: 8/1/2008 1:59:52 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Self-Esteem and Body Image in Adolescents

Self-Esteem and Body Image in Adolescents
Defining Self-Esteem
  • Self-esteem
  • Individuals sense of his/her worth extent to
    which a person values, approves of, or
    appreciates himself/herself
  • Self-concept
  • more global sense of self-worth
  • Self-efficacy
  • Ones belief that one has the ability to complete
    or accomplish a particular task

Body Image
  • Linked to self-esteem and self-concept
  • Shaped by past experiences (positive or negative)
  • Boys and girls
  • More complex than weight, height or muscle mass
  • Not individual or optimal body size or weight but
    how you feel about your body and your life

What Is Body Image?
  • Formed at an early age
  • Influenced by our parents, caregivers, peers and
    life experiences
  • Relates to how you feel about your body and what
    you think your body look like to others
  • Perspectives may not be objective
  • Every body is different
  • Ideal body weight is the weight that allows us to
    feel strong and energetic and lets us lead a
    healthy life

How do I know if I suffer from Body Image issues!
  • Do you
  • Weigh or measure yourself daily or more
  • Allow the number on the scale to determine how
    you feel about yourself
  • Under eat when with others and over eat when by
  • Restrict food intake all day and overeat on
  • Have a closet full of clothes in different sizes
  • Believe that all of your lifes problems would be
    solved if only you were thin
  • Feel guilty and ashamed when you eat anything
    other than diet food
  • Find yourself constantly critical of your body or
    specific body parts
  • Are waiting to be thinner before beginning any
    new activity like exercising, dating, getting a
    part time job etc

Body Projects
  • In the 20th century, American girls have made
    their bodies projects as a form of
    self-definition and self-expression.
  • As the female body has become more and more
    exposed in the media (particularly in film) the
    demands on beauty and dietary regimens have

  • A brief history
  • 1920sthe century of svelte/slimming
  • college women began dieting,
  • flapper image in vogue
  • 1930smodern bra comes into existence
  • prior to this it was a camisole,
  • store manufacturing of clothes rather than
    homemade girls are made to adapt
  • bodies to clothes rather than the other
  • way around

  • 1960sdieting becomes a persistent preoccupation,
    rather than episodic
  • girls start dieting at 9 or 10 instead
  • of 15
  • 1980ssmaller bikinis, and the jeaning of
    America all promoted leaner thighs (NO thunder
  • hair is also a major focus

  • 1990spiercings!
  • what used to be exotic and more characteristic
    of primitive people becomes the latest form of
    self expression
  • 2000s???
  • Tattoos?
  • Lasik vision correction?
  • Teeth whitening?
  • Cosmetic Surgery?

Research on Media Exposure
  • A 2005 study showed exposure to models (ultra
    thin or average size) resulted in lower body
    satisfaction and lower self-esteem in girls aged
  • A 2003 study of female undergraduates showed that
    both magazine and TV exposure to thin ideals were
    related to body dissatisfaction. However the
    processes were very different
  • Magazine exposure was related to internalization
    but not awareness of the thin ideal standard
  • Television watching was negatively related to
    awareness, but not at all to internalization

  • In a 2005 study of the relationship between
    television viewing and body attitudes on 1,500
    eighth through eleventh grade boys and girls, the
    following was found
  • girls considered themselves as more overweight
    than boys
  • boys watched more TV than girls but watched
    sports, entertainment, and information shows for
    enjoyment while girls watched soap operas and
    music videos and did so for social learning
  • watching soap operas was related to drive for
    thinness for boys and girls
  • watching music videos was not related to any body
    image variable for girls, but was related to
    drive for muscularity for boys

Canadian Statistics on Eating Disorders
  • 27 of Ontario girls 12 to 18 years old are
    engaged in disordered food and weight behaviour
  • Third most common chronic illness in adolescent
  • Almost one in every two girls and almost one in
    every five boys in Grade 10 either was on a diet
    or wanted to lose weight

How Big Is the Body Image Problem?
  • Increases the risk for extreme body/weight
    control behaviours
  • Increased preoccupation with appearance and body
  • Increased risk for engaging in dangerous
    practices to control weight and size
  • Can lead to more harmful behaviours
  • Increased risk for developing disordered eating
    or an eating disorder.

Positive and Negative Body Image
  • People with positive body image exhibit
  • Self-confidence, energy, vitality and positive
  • Feelings of attractiveness and beauty
  • Trust and respect for their bodies
  • Freedom of expression with their bodies, not
    dependent on weight
  • People with negative body image describe
  • Dissatisfaction with their physical appearance
  • Belief that their appearance is being scrutinized
    and evaluated by others
  • Excessive emphasis on physical appearance in how
    they evaluate themselves
  • Distressing preoccupation with their bodies
  • Feelings of shame and/or embarrassment

Positive Body Image
  • Realistic perception of the body
  • Understand that healthy, attractive bodies come
    in many shapes and sizes, and that physical
    appearance says very little about character or
  • Assessment of the body is separate from a sense
    of self-esteem

Negative body image
  • Body dysmorphic disorder
  • Over-preoccupation with an imagined physical
    defect in appearance
  • Usually nose, skin, or hair
  • Anxiety and/or depression
  • Muscle dysmorphia (bigorexia)
  • Over-preoccupation with the perception or feeling
    that ones muscles are too small or too weak
  • Spend unrealistic amounts of time working out in
    the gym, and yet they dont feel good enough

What Are Some Factors That Affect Body Image?
  • Standards set by society and the culture that
    surrounds us
  • Comments from family, friends, and others about
    our bodies, their bodies, and other peoples
  • Self-esteem (view our bodies and evaluate
  • History of abuse, teasing, life changes, and
    physical changes that may be a result of puberty,
    medical problems, surgery or sports injuries
  • Images of idealized versus normal bodies

Eating Disorders
  • Negative body image and body dissatisfaction
    increase risk
  • Anorexia or bulimia nervosa
  • Perceive themselves as being larger than they
    actually are
  • Increase in dieting behaviour
  • depression, decreased self-confidence, increased
    feelings of anxiety, feelings of unattractiveness
    and persistent concern about weight
  • People with negative body image may
  • Engage in excessive body checking
  • Camouflage their size and shape with loose and
    bulky clothing
  • Avoid social situations that trigger physical
  • Avoid exposing their bodies

How Do Eating and Body Image Go Together?
  • Eating disorders are internal conflicts about
    food and/or body size and shape
  • Healthy eating behaviours are associated with
    feeling confident about body shape and size
  • Disordered eating behaviours are associated with
    a preoccupation with appearance and an attempt to
    change body size through a focus on diets

Eating disorders
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Fear of weight gain and severe restriction of
    food intake, which can result in significant
    weight loss
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Attempt to avoid weight gain or to manage weight
    through frequent compensation by purging
  • Binge eating disorder
  • pattern of binge eating (feeling out of control
    while eating) without purging
  • May take a variety of forms (mild to severe)

Boosting a Body Image?
  • What are three ways to boost body image?
  • How can you change your body type?
  • If you know people who are always comparing
    themselves to others in terms of appearance, what
    could you do or say to help?
  • How could participating in physical activity
    contribute to positive body image?

Exposure to Mass Media and Weight Concerns
  • Girls between Grades 5 and 12
  • 69 reported that magazine pictures influence
    their idea of the perfect body shape
  • 47 reported wanting to lose weight because of
    magazine pictures
  • Girls who were frequent readers of fashion
    magazines were two to three times more likely
    than infrequent readers
  • To diet to lose weight because of a magazine
  • To exercise to lose weight because of a magazine
  • To feel that magazines influence what they
    believe is the ideal body shape

Dove Self-Esteem Fund
  • Think critically about the media and about how
    much the media work to influence people of all

The Power of Advertising
  • Advertising is the most influential media in our
  • It reflects our daydreams, affects what we eat,
    what we wear, how we look and play.

Women in Advertising
  • Media portrays women in debilitating, demeaning
    and inaccurate ways
  • It presents women as flawless, decorative
    objects, and creates unrealistic expectations for

Women are Decorative/Sex Objects
Cultivating Images of Thinness
  • In advertising, women receive more messages
    about slimness and staying in shape than men do
  • thinness is associated with good health and
  • In fact, images of thinness are a major cause of
    the eating disorders of bulimia and anorexia.

Thin is BeautifulThinness is Associated with
Magazine Models
  • Dont believe everything that you see and read!

Real or Not?
  • 32 of female TV network characters are
    underweight 3 overweight
  • 5 of females in North America are underweight
    25 overweight
  • 90 of people with eating disorders are women
  • According to Health magazine, Apr 2002

  • there are 3 BILLION women who dont look like
    super models and only 8 who do
  • Marilyn Monroe wore a size 12 (that would make
    her a PLUS size model today)
  • If shop mannequins were real women, theyd be
    too thin to menstruate
  • models in magazines are airbrushed theyre not
  • 20 years ago, models weighed 8 less than the
    average women. Today, they weigh 23 less

Image Changes
4 years of age My mommy can do anything! 8
years of age My mom knows a lot. A whole
lot! 12 years of age My mom knows a lot,
but not everything. 14 years of age
Naturally, mother doesnt know that either. 16
years of age Mother! Shes totally
outdated 18 years of age Mom! Arggg! She
doesnt know todays stuff! 25 years of age
Maybe mom knows more than I gave her credit
for. 35 years of age Before we make this
big decision, lets see what mom
thinks! 45 years of age I wonder what mom
would think!??! 65 years of age I really
wish I could talk it over with my mom! Funny
how image changes over time! Dont get so caught
up with today!
How to improve body image
  • Celebrate our natural sizes enjoy the diversity
    of our body shapes
  • Become informed and recognize and challenge myths
    and misperceptions about body image
  • Challenge weight prejudice. Challenge the media.
  • Boycott the diet industry
  • Educate others around the issues of weight
    prejudice and set point theory
  • Surround yourself with a range of realistic body
  • Surround yourself with positive people who build
    you up, not tear you down
  • Positive affirmations learning to love yourself
    is a process, it takes time to truly love the
    skin you are in ?

Body Myths
  • Myth 1 Overeating Causes Overweight
  • Animal research suggests at least 51 causes of
    overweight, including genetic, metabolic and
    other environmental factors.
  • Myth 2 Dieting is Effective
  • Clinical studies show that up to 95 of dieters
    regain the weight lost, usually within the first
    year. (yo-yo dieters)
  • Myth 3 Dieting is Healthy
  • In addition to inadequate nutrition, dieting has
    been implicated in the development of weakness,
    fatigue, binge eating, bulimia, weight gain and
    obesity. (Dont diet, make lifestyle changes!!!)
  • Myth 4 Everyone Can Be Slim
  • Many researchers are suggesting that the body has
    a "set point" or biological control for the
    amount fat in the body weight is determined
    predominately by genetics and early nutrition.
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