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Title: A Review of American History to Understand Americas Current Cultural Status and The Implications for


1
A Review of American History to Understand
Americas Current Cultural Status and The
Implications for Evangelization(Part 1)
  • Original Edition Prepared For
  • NAMBs 2006 Leadership Summit
  • Current Revision Prepared For
  • SBC State Convention Directors of Mission
  • Missouri, Oklahoma South Carolina Staff
    Meetings in 2007
  • Prepared by Dr. James B. Slack, Missiologist of
    IMB, SBC

2
A Note To The Viewers Usersof this PowerPoint
Presentation
  • This PowerPoint presentation is supported by at
    least two other Word source documents. The major
    one of the two is Frontiers of Lostness in the US.

3
The Aim and Context of this Ethnic Immigration
History Presentation
  • The aim of this presentation is to explore and
    present a history of immigration into the USA
    from 1775 to the present with a view to exposing
    major implications concerning church planting
    then and now.

4
Section 1 Biblical Backgroundfor Evangelizers
5
Context of This Presentation
  • All that is presented in this biblical
    background section goes at least back to Abraham
    when God moved to make Abraham the father of
    ethnic peoples, ethnic evangelization and ethnic
    blessings that extended even to the families
    (phulagi in Greek).
  • Genesis 121 Now the Lord said to Abram, Go out
    from your country and from your family and from
    your father's house, into the land to which I
    will be your guide 2 And I will make of you a
    great nation ethnosan ethnic people group),
    blessing you and making your name great and you
    will be a blessing. 3 I will bless those who
    bless you, And I will curse him who curses you
    And in you all the families (tribes, clans,
    peoples) of the earth shall be blessed."
  • To bring Himself as Saviour into this world in
    an incarnate state, God chose Abraham as the
    basis for developing a distinct ethnic people
    groupIsrael (the people of God). Israel would
    be the channel through which the lineage and
    heritage of Jesus would flow and come into this
    world in the flesh.

6
Context of This Presentation
  • God promised Abraham and us through Abraham that
    He would make of Abraham a great nation (ethnic
    people group) through whom (Israel-the people of
    God) He would engage and blessn not only every
    ethnic group but also every tribe
    (phulagitranslated as tribe and family that
    follows within the lineage of a clan, a tribe, an
    ethnic group).
  • Throughout Gods developing of His ethnic
    people group Israel, God continually pleaded that
    Israel put Him first, clean up their
    life--personal and national-- and ultimately take
    His hope of salvation to the panta ta ethne
    (each and every ethnic group). All of this
    history from Abraham in Genesis is summarized in
    Christs Great Commission (Matthew 2819 20).

7
Context of Presentation
  • For Israel from its beginning in Abraham unto
    spiritual Israel now (each Christian and each
    Church), the panta ta ethne was and is the
    focus of making disciples. The panta ta
    ethne obligation can be seen in the Old
    Testament in the stranger in thy home, the
    stranger (ethnic) in thy midst.
  • On occasion in the O.T., as with Jonah, God
    called individual witnesses to take His message
    to other ethnic groups. In Jonahs eyes, Nineveh
    was a major enemy of Israel, deserving to be
    damned forever. In Gods eyes the people of
    Nineveh were a lost ethne to be evangelized.
    And, God worked to make him go.

8
Context of Title Presentation
  • The story of Jonah is one of a number of
    stories as to how God reminded Israel that their
    mission in life was to be the channel of the
    Messiah to lost ethnes. Israel was to be the
    messenger to the lost (enemy or not) concerning
    Gods promise of salvation.
  • In this case, with significant coaxing, Jonah
    came through, Nineveh was delivered, and Israel
    continued in its move toward its destiny. Even
    then, Jonahs ethnocentricity would not allow him
    to enjoy the conversion of an entire city. All
    Christians face this same issue of the ethnic
    people groups, friends or foes among us, who need
    to be evangelized.

9
Context of Title Presentation
  • However, in multiple other situations like the
    one Jonah faced, Israel did not respond to Gods
    coaxing to clean up their lives and be His
    messenger to the panta ta ethne. As a result,
    God punished Israel by allowing Israels enemies
    to occupy Israel, the Holy Land, allowed them to
    take His people into captivity. Only by means of
    a remnant that God saved and brought out of those
    in captivity did Israel survive. Throughout the
    Testament history it continued to be difficult
    for Israel to remember and respond to Gods
    mission to the panta ta ethne through themHis
    chosen people.

10
Context of Title Presentation
  • In the last two years, Acts 18 has been a
    major theme of the SBC and the focus of many SBC
    events. Southern Baptists could have no more
    biblical nor historically appropriate theme at
    this time in its history.
  • However, many fail to interpret Acts 18 in the
    context of the panta ta ethne in Matthew 2819
    20 which is telling the new Christian believers
    that they are to be conscious of, identify,
    engage and evangelize every ethnic group (panta
    ta ethne) in ones Jerusalem every ethnic group
    in ones Judea every ethnic group in ones
    Samaria and every ethnic group in ones
    uttermost. This connection is much easier to
    grasp when one reads Matthew 2819 20 followed
    immediately by Acts 1 and the illustration of the
    panta ta ethne in their Jerusalem in Acts 2.
  • My thanks goes out to my fellow presenters
    during this NAMB leaders summit for parts of
    their presentations that have laid the foundation
    for this topic. (Remember or notice that the
    first edition of this presentation was first
    developed and presented during a leadership
    summit of NAMB when multiple presenters preceded
    this presentation.)

11
Contextual Issues other Presenters Covered During
the Summit
  • I am grateful that Dr. Towns of Liberty
    University reviewed the foundation of ta ethne
    as Gods mandate from Christ and the Scripture
    for all believers of all times.
  • From the time of Gods call and promise to
    Abraham and beyond to Jesus giving His Great
    Commissions ta ethne focus, an ethnolinguistic
    people group focus has existed for all believers.
    Acts 18 and all of Acts 1 2 underlines the
    Great Commissions ethnic mandate.

12
Contextual Issues other Presenters Covered
  • I am grateful to Dr. Roy Fish for talking about
    historic awakening type growth in the 1950s and
    about the importance of Worldview awareness in
    ministering to any ethnic of any time.
  • I am also grateful to Dr. Lawless for talking
    about Exegeting the City and giving attention
    to the variety of ethnic, Great Commission,
    people groups during his Acts 18 presentations.
  • I am also committed to Dr. Fishs worldview
    emphasis because dealing with worldview is one
    of basic reasons for a biblical ta ethne focus
    and mandate.

13
Contextual Issues Assumed As Background
  • Acts 18 has less to do with the actual or
    symbolic geographical implications related to
    Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria and the uttermost
    than to its link with the Great Commissions
    panta ta ethne focus. Thus, a panta ta ethne
    focus starts in Jerusalem and remains a priority
    in each of those geographic settings. Luke 24,
    Matthew 28 and Acts 2 present Jesus as placing
    the seeing and engaging of the panta ta
    ethne (ethnic engagement) in ones heart
    language foremost in the life of every believer.

14
Echoing a Pleading of God about His ta ethne
Focus Given to Israel Christians
  • The Great Commissions panta ta ethne mandate
    is
  • to engage every ethnolinguistic group in the
    world
  • to engage each ethne in their heart language, and
  • to engage them at their worldview belief, habits,
    values and living level--a paramount obligation
    for every Christian in the Great Commission and
    elsewhere in the Scriptures.
  • At the same time, a people group focus does not
    rule out engaging society according to other
    groupings such as students, the classes, etc., as
    long as the primary commitment is that of
    engaging every ethnic group in ones midst.

15
Echoing a Pleading of God about His ta ethne
Focus Given to Israel Christians
  • Even though other groupings of people are
    allowed, if a panta ta ethne priority has not
    been given by Christs followers to the various
    ethnics in any given geographic settingones
    Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria or uttermostthen the
    Christians in those geographic settings should
    set about to aggressively identify the ethnics
    who live there. They should establish a priority
    evangelism focus among each ethnic group to be
    true to Christs Great Commission.

16
Echoing a Pleading of God about His ta ethne
Focus
  • The issue of worldview rests upon the following
  • Every sane person has a Worldviewbeliefs,
    values, habits, and lifestyle practices common to
    the person, the persons family his ethne.
  • Worldview is laid down in the idiom of the heart
    language of each person as that person develops
    from a new born baby to an adult.
  • Engaging a worldview is most effectively done
    through the persons ethnic heart language.

17
Questions God Pleads That We Ask and Answer in
Every Generation!
  • Who are the specific ta ethne who are outside
    our doors in our current Jerusalem and beyond?
  • Have we taken the time to identify the stranger
    in our midst and the strangers (ethneethnic
    people groups) at our door in our Jerusalem?
  • What is the strangers (ethnes) purpose and
    spiritual status in our home setting, in our
    town, our county (possibly our Judea), our state
    and country (possibly our uttermost)?
  • Are our SBC churches in the USA, as Israel was in
    the Old Testament era, so engrossed in our own
    kind of peoplemainly the Anglo ta ethne--such
    that other ta ethne are seldom even seen by us?

18
Questions God Pleads That We Ask and Answer in
Every Generation!
  • If certain ta ethne in our Jerusalem, Judea,
    Samaria or the uttermost are our enemies,
    whether considered so by us or by them, or by
    both, are we engaging them with a view to
    bringing them to Christ?
  • Or, are there ethne on our list like Nineveh
    was to Jonah whom we consider as deserving only
    to die lost and condemned by God and man, and
    not deserving the chance to hear and live?
  • Can we give a positive count (numerical) and
    therefore an account (spiritual) of the ethnics
    around us?

19
The Main Question To Ask!
  • Are we sleeping like Israel slept in times when
    God asked Israel to move beyond an almost single
    focus on their own kind of God-chosen people,
    in order to engage and evangelize the ta ethne
    among them? Or, are we taking note of every
    ethnic group who moves among us, and are we
    taking steps to evangelize them?

20
The Main Consequence To Consider!
  • Israel in her life as a chosen people from the
    time of Israels entry into the Promised Land
    to the coming of Christ was often warned by
    prophets sent by God concerning their mission on
    earth as a people. Time and time again the
    prophets warned Israel that if she did not repent
    and come back from her backslidden life, then He
    would judge them by sending them into captivity.
    Most often they did not repent, and time and time
    again God sent them into physical and national
    captivity. He could do the same to people and
    nations today if they ignore the ta ethne.

21
A Historical Look at the Status, Engagement and
Implications of Immigrants (the Ta Ethne) in the
United States from 1775 to 2006
  • A Version Designed for the NAMB Leadership Summit
    and Significantly Updated for SBC State
    ConventionStaffs for Directors of Mission
    Others

22
The Three Periods that Established American as a
Nation that Resulted in Future-Altering Changes
in the USA in our Time
  • The first of the three periods occurred between
    1775 and 1924. We will extend the 1924
    immigration date to the 1940s in order to present
    a combined secular and religious picture of that
    formative period.
  • The second period of change occurred between
    1945 and 1965 which can be called the Golden Age
    of Christianity in the USA.
  • The third period of change occurred between 1965
    and 2006 A.D. This section summarizes trends
    observed to give evidence of drastic changes and
    deviations from the past. Many Christians are
    unaware of the changes and the implications of
    all the changes since 1965.

23
Section 2 A Look At Immigration in the USA from
1775 to 1940s
24
Documentation of This Look At Immigration from
1775 to 1940s
  • Every concept and all the data included is well
    documented. Almost every entry is backed by more
    than one source. Will Herberg, a major historian
    of immigration prior to and during the 1950s
    1960s is a major source. Herberg worked through
    and cited over 339 major sources in his classic
    work. This author has followed up on every one
    of those sources.
  • Oscar Handlin was quoted often by Herberg.
    Handlin also was a major, Pulitzer Prize winning,
    researcher of immigration and the formation of
    the United States of America. Handlin cited
    hundreds of other social, religious and
    statistical researchers of his era. This author,
    like Handlin did with Herbergs writing, followed
    up on most of Handlins sources. Both authors
    works are seen as classics and are highly quoted
    and respected even today. Handlins Pulitzer
    Price was for his The Uprooted. Multiple other
    religious sources beyond these two authors were
    consulted in developing the religious comments
    and interpretations in this presentation.

25
Documentation of This Look At Immigration from
1775 to 1940s
  • The compiler of this document on immigration to
    the USA searched current sources for any who
    disputed Herbergs and Handlins findings.
    Herberg and Handlin published in the 1950s
    1960s.
  • That body of research when joined with research
    from the mid-1960s and after provides great
    clarity and vital understanding of our religious
    social situation today.
  • Those responsible for engaging and evangelizing
    the lost in this generation should pay attention
    to the lessons from the past.

26
Exploring The Ta Ethne Migration from 1775 to the
1940s
  • An old proverb says those who do not consider
    and pay attention to history are doomed to repeat
    it.
  • Again, a look at Israel in the Old Testament
    era tells us that when Israel ignored God and
    Gods work in history, God instigated their
    downfall. (See Ezekiel 1-4)

27
Will Herbergs Oscar Handlins Research Findings
  • Oscar Handlin said in the 1950s Once I thought
    to write a history of the immigrants in America.
    Then I discovered that the immigrants were
    American history The Uprooted, The Epic Story
    of the Great Migrations that Made the American
    People. (p. 3. Little Brown, 1957) (Handlins
    Pulitzer Prize work.)
  • This is the most significant and critical
    reality for America and American Christians to
    understand, then and now. We will explore the
    then first, followed by a look at the now in
    parts 2 and 3 of this document.
  • America is a nation of immigrants.

28
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • America was founded, grew and flourished in
    terms of immigrant ethnic peoples, immigrant
    religious adherents and the churches they planted
    in the emerging nation. We will explore those
    categories.
  • Herberg described America following 1607
    saying The colonists who came to these shores
    from the time of the founding of Jamestown in
    1607 to the outbreak of the Revolution were
    mostly of English and Scottish stock, augmented
    by a considerable number of settlers of Dutch,
    Swedish, German, and Irish origin. Handlin and
    Herberg said often Almost all came from
    Christian background roots.

29
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • Herberg and Handlin said in separate research
    documents in the 1950s At the time of the
    Revolution, this British-Protestant element
    (usually, though inaccurately, known as
    Anglo-Saxon) constituted at least 75 per cent
    of the 3,000,000 whites who made up the new
    nation (in 1775).
  • In addition, there were about three quarters of
    a million (750,000) African Americans in U.S.
    in 1775.
  • The great influx of ethnics came in the next
    century.

30
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • In the early 1960s Herberg, Handlin and Hansen
    said separately in their publications In three
    huge waves, stretching over something more than a
    hundred years, over 35,000,000 men and women left
    Europe to come to continental United States.
    This 35 million extended the 3 million base of
    1775.
  • In 2003, a book about the new Americans said At
    the time colonial America declared its
    independence from British rule in 1776
  • Nearly 80 of people in the colonies were white
    Europeans from England, Ireland, Scotland,
    Germany, the Netherlands, France, and Sweden.
  • Just over 20 were slaves from Africa (The
    Newest Americans. Editor Susan Madoff of Creative
    Media Applications, Greenwood Press, 2003. p.8)
  • Over the next 200 years, more than 70 million
    people from around the world would immigrate to
    the United States. (The Newest Americans, p. 8)
  • In this introduction, it should be clear that as
    American history passed, immigration continued to
    be the most defining trait of the United States.

31
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • By the time the great migrations were past, the
    British-Protestant element had been reduced to
    less than half the population, and Americans had
    become linguistically and ethnically the most
    diverse people on earth. (Herberg and Handlin).
    However, even by 1950, there were only a small
    percentage of the US population who did not come
    from Christian background settings. (Herberg,
    Handlin Hansen). Obviously, the late coming
    Catholics figured into the mix, especially in the
    1900s.

32
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • The melding force was a combination of the
    frontier, economics and the continuing waves of
    ethnic immigrant arrivals from 1775 to 1924.
  • Immigrants found plenty of opportunities to work
    on the Westward moving frontier and came in waves
    seeking frontier jobs land.
  • It is important to note that the flow of most of
    the immigrants to the frontier meant minimal
    settling by them in their own ethnic enclaves.
    The frontier caused their coming and their
    melding, their assimilation.

33
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • This flow of a majority of the immigrants who
    came in waves seeking frontier jobs, played the
    major role in shaping America linguistically and
    culturally. Again, the frontier was the
    assimilating factor and force.
  • Their basic desire was to live in their own
    ethnic enclaves and not assimilate. The frontier
    blocked them.
  • As successive waves of immigrants came to the US
    over 100 years, the push of each wave
    contributed to the rising of first generation
    immigrants from menial frontier jobs to climb to
    middle class manager/ business status on and just
    behind the frontiers leading edge. Second
    generation ethnics replaced the first generation
    as the manual laborers. The shaping and melding
    of America was in gear. It worked.

34
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • Foundationally, it is very important to
    understand that it was
  • the freedom in America,
  • the emerging democracy in America,
  • the vast Western frontier of the Continent,
  • the letters from friends and family telling them
    to come and join them on the vast frontier,
  • the Western push of the people to experience
    freedom, own land, and prayerfully have a much
    brighter future,
  • The poverty, the hopelessness, and the peasant
    status of the immigrants in Europe
  • That lured them to America and its vast Frontier
    that caused them to assimilate and meld to a
    degree.

35
The Economics of Immigrants
  • From 1830 to 1930, Irish, Bohemians, Slovaks,
    Hungarians, and many other peoples followed each
    other in the service of the pick and shovel, each
    earlier group, displaced by newcomers, moving
    upward in the occupational and social scaleif
    successive waves of immigration served as the
    push in this pattern of occupational
    advancement, education and acculturation to
    American ways provided the immigrants with the
    opportunity of making the most of it, (Herberg)

36
The Shaping of A New Nation
  • It is very important to notice in this history
    that
  • The lure and fact of the frontier that brought
    the immigrants by the millions caused the
    assimilation, the melding, of the immigrants.
    Non-assimilation was not a choice and would not
    have been their choice by many ethnic groups.
  • Historically, the immigrants would liked to have
    settled in among their own kind of people and
    produced ethnic enclaves within the USA
  • The mass of immigrants and the fact of the
    frontier minimized the peoples choice and forced
    assimilation over a 150-year period of time

37
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • In this shaping process, the second generation of
    immigrants assumed the jobs of the vacated first
    generation immigrants who moved up the job
    ladder.
  • As the frontier moved farther westward and as new
    waves of immigrants came to America, the movement
    from menial to managerial jobs continued and the
    appearance of educational opportunities on the
    frontier increased its occurrence and the varied
    status in US. Though the US frontier was not
    near 50 literate, schools tended to follow the
    frontier westward.
  • The push of the frontier and education in English
    language in schools minimized wholesale
    settlement of immigrants within ethnic enclaves,
    except where enclaves developed in a few cities.

38
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • Thus, the Americanization process did produce
    in the somewhat melded population a fairly common
    English language among the ethnics.
  • In order to move up the ladder socially and
    economically, each wave of immigrant ethnics had
    to push their ethnic language into the home and
    family, while publically adopting English as the
    language of the workplace and society. Many
    ethnic languages did persist in the family for
    100 years. Traces of them exist today. For
    instance, it was the late 1970s before Swedish
    Baptists in the US renamed themselves Baptist
    General Conference.

39
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • In many of the families of the various ethnic
    groups in each successive wave, the older first
    generation families found it difficult to give up
    their homeland language for English.
  • However, pronounced (pun intended) regional, and
    some sub-regional, dialectical accents, worldview
    expressions and word choices remain even today
    within US regions. This does not mean that
    everybody learned English immediately or at all.
  • Again, some immigrants did settle in cities and
    were often able to duplicate their ethnic status
    there.

40
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • Americanization of the various European ethnics
  • Even though they learned English for economic
    reasons, this language melding did not erase all
    of their ethnic identities. Illustrations abound
    and persist even today concerning this fact.
  • A major, a key, fact of the immigrants and the
    frontier was that language melding did not erase
    their religious identity from the old country.
    Of all their ethnic qualities, their religious
    identity came over from the old country, and came
    to the fore. As public ethnic language use was
    stripped from them, they tended to hold on to and
    underline their religious heritage. For many,
    their original ethnic language persisted. Many
    Catholic parishes were established along ethnic
    language lines. This was not as common among
    Protestants.

41
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • Most of the regional dialectical and worldview
    differences in the US can be traced to ethnic
    heritages that persisted. Consider the Cajuns in
    Louisiana. Also, consider the German dairy
    communities that existed throughout the nation.
    For other examples see the DVD package entitled
    The Appalachians (A PBS video), and the Gente de
    Razon, a San Antonio, Texas Catholic Missions
    video on the five missions. This second video was
    produced by the US Parks and Historical Society.

42
A Look At 1775 to 1950America, A Nation of
Panta ta ethne Immigrants
  • American frontier history shaped and melded
    only to a degree the European ta ethne peoples.
    Irish Catholics and other ethnic groups persist
    to this day. Enclaves of them exist in many
    urban settings.
  • At the same time, due to the frontier and the
    economic push over a 150-year period, these
    multiple ethnic groups were melded mainly into an
    Anglo Saxon or Anglo-Saxon-oriented culture, at
    least in terms of language. It is out of this
    process that the WASP title aroseWhite Anglo
    Saxon Protestant. Do remember that the majority
    of the melded Americans by the end of the first
    wave of migration (1924) were Protestants.

43
A Look At 1775 to 1950American Indians and
Africans in America
  • American Indians, or more appropriately called
    Native Americans, who were the only Americans in
    the 1500s and 1600s, and who existed in many
    ethnic groupings, are said by various historians
    to have suffered the most between 1775 and 1924
    as the European ethnics came and settled the
    American frontier from the Atlantic to the
    Pacific. Included in this would be the Spanish
    migrations into Latin America which migrated into
    the Southwest and Western parts of America.

44
The American Indian from 1600 to 1900
  • The first, and earliest, change was the
    overrunning of the American Indians by the
    European immigrants. This wave pushed them
    farther inland.
  • Of an estimated 300 plus original languages
    spoken by American Indians, 175 living languages
    remain (National Museum of the American Indian,
    the Smithsonian Institute)
  • Optimum estimates of the pre-Columbian Native
    American population was 15,000,000 to 18,000,000
    (Linguistic Anthropologist R. David Edmonds of UT
    Dallas)

45
The American Indian from 1600 to 1900
  • By 1860 in the continental USA there were
    official government counts or estimates of
    339,421 American Indians (James Collins, Native
    Americans in the Census, 1860-1890)
  • By 1880 the American Indian count was 305,543.
    (Collins)
  • Like all early US Census data, this data was
    based upon a projected sample. The issue here is
    the decline from 15,000,000 to 306,543.
  • Few American Indians were evangelized from 1600
    to 1900. This does not minimize the great work
    of Brainard and others.

46
African Americans from 1600 to 1900
  • In 1619 the first known or recorded African
    Americans arrived in English colonial America
  • It is historically important to note that the
    African slaves brought mainly from West Africa,
    had in West Africa lived in complex, organized,
    structured market economies in which they
    participated as producers, traders, brokers,
    merchants, and entrepreneurs. (p. 19 African
    Americans by Juliet E.K. Walber in A Nation of
    Peoples by Greenwood Press.

47
African Imports from 1620-1870
  • 1620-1700 20,500
  • 1701-1760 188,600 (18,000 to French La.)
  • 1761-1800 212,361 (None of these to La.)
  • 1800-1870 175,290 (10,200 of these to La.)
  • (p. 20, Table 1 of A Nation of Peoples compiled
    from Philip D. Curtins The Atlantic Slave Trade
    A Census, Madison Univ. 1969)
  • Just prior to the Civil War, out of the 8
    million whites in the fifteen slave states, only
    385,000 owned slaves. (p. 24, Ibid.)
  • During this period, a majority were evangelized.

48
The Great Migration In The USA
  • The period from 1910 to 1920 is known as the
    Great Migration in African American history. The
    era marked the beginning of the black urban
    ghetto, but it was not until 1940 that more than
    50 percent of blacks lived in places of more than
    2,500 people. (p. 30, Ibid)
  • In 1910 there were 10 million blacks, with 90
    percent living in the South and 80 percent living
    in rural areas. Between 1917 and 1920, an
    estimated 700,000 to 1 million blacks left the
    South, followed by another 800,000 to 1 million
    during the 1920s. In addition there was also the
    immigrations of blacks from the West Indiesmost
    of whom settled in New York or Florida. (p. 30,
    Ibid)

49
The Migration of African Americans within the US
  • Nevertheless, more southern blacks migrated to
    southern cities between 1900 and 1920 than to
    northern cities. In some southern cities they
    soon comprised from 25 to 50 percent of the total
    population, whereas in northern cities they never
    exceeded 10 percent. (p. 31, Ibid)
  • In the last half of the 20th Century some African
    Americans melded into traditional Anglo society,
    while others continued to live within African
    American groupings.
  • Increasingly from 1700 to the present, a distinct
    African American culture has developed in the
    USA, just as a distinct Hispanic American culture
    has been developing and escalating in the USA
    from the mid-1900s to the present.
  • African Americans to the present tend to be
    religious and tend to maintain a Protestant
    identity with the majority being affiliated with
    Methodist and Baptist churches.

50
A Look At African Americans by 1980
  • There were an estimated 25 million
    Afro-Americans in the U.S. in the mid-1970s, a
    figure making them not only the largest ethnic
    group in America, but second only to
    Afro-Brazilians in the Western Hemisphere. (p.
    5 of Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic
    Groups, Stephen Thernstrom, Editor)
  • Voluntary migration has brought a good many
    others since the 1800s. (p. 5, Ibid)
  • Not since 1880 have Afro-Americans comprised
    more than 12 percent of the nation (Ibid)

51
Immigration from 1775 to 1924
  • The epic story of the great migrations that
    made the American people came to an end
    substantially with World War I and with the
    restrictive legislation of the 1920s.
  • 35,000,000 Europeans had reached these shores
  • 4,500,000 from Ireland,
  • 4,000,000 from Great Britain,
  • 6,000,000 from central Europe,
  • 2,000,000 from the Scandinavian lands,
  • 5,000,000 from Italy,
  • 8,000,000 from eastern Europe,
  • and 3,000,000 from the Balkans.
  • (This was America. Much of Will Herbergs data
    came from Handlins study cited earlier. See
    Herberg, p. 8.)
  • Note Roman Catholic numbers and percentages came
    in the later years.

52
In Retrospect
  • Between 1492 and 1965, 82 percent of all the
    peoples on this planet who came to American
    shores came from Europe. (Professor Stephen L.
    Klineberg. Department of Sociology, Rice
    University, Houston, Texas (2005)
  • Under the notorious 1924 National Origins Quota
    Act, immigration was dramatically reduced, and
    the newcomers were restricted almost exclusively
    to northern Europeans (Klineberg of Rice
    University)
  • In 1965, the Hart-Celler Act removed the
    earlier restrictions, and established preferences
    based primarily on family reunification and
    professional skills, and later on refugee
    status. (Klineberg)

53
In Retrospect
  • In the years following 1900, for the first time,
    immigrants began coming from southern and eastern
    Europe. Of all the immigrants coming during that
    post-1900 era, those from southern and eastern
    Europe were in the majority. Many of these
    immigrants were Jewish and Catholic, in contrast
    to the predominantly Protestant groups that
    settled in the United States prior to 1900.

54
Section 3 The Religious Situation In The USA
from 1775 to 1950
55
The Religious Change from 1775 to 1950 A
Religious Perspective of History
  • This section looks at the status of
    Christianity in 1775 and the charted changes
    within the population in light of what happened
    within Christianity until 1950.

56
This Period of Change from 1775 to 1950 A
Religious Perspective
  • It is clear in early immigrant documents that the
    main migratory people were Protestant and that
    they migrated to the New World primarily for
    religious reasons and in search of religious
    freedom.
  • The percent of Christians, counted from the
    perspective of recognized church members in the
    colonies in 1775 was about 12 and a large
    majority of those were Protestants. Most people
    in the colonies beyond the 12 would say they
    were Christians.

57
The Period of Change from 1775 to 1950 A
Religious Perspective
  • American religious denominations, beginning in
    1775 and continuing until 1950, also underwent
    classic changes which were only minimally caused
    and marked by theology.
  • In the American religious landscape Protestantism
    dominated from the 1700s to the 1900s.

58
The Period of Change from 1775 to 1950 A
Religious Perspective
  • Even though the percent of recognized church
    members in 1775 in the colonies was about 12, a
    majority of the people in the colonies, when
    asked, would indicate that they came from a
    Christian, protestant-oriented heritage.
  • The Bill of Rights, heavily influenced into
    existence by Baptists, mainly in Virginia,
    events related to the Western frontier, resulted
    in a marked change in religion in America.

59
A Look At The Six (6) Leading Church Groups in
the Colonies in 1780
  • Congregational (745 churches)
  • Anglican/Episcopal (405 churches)
  • Presbyterian (490 churches)
  • Lutheran (235 churches)
  • Methodist (Less than 200 churches)
  • Baptist (About 200 churches)
  • Note Catholics are not included in this
    comparison for they were a minority until the
    1900s.

60
The Six (6) Leading Church Groups in the USA in
1850
  • Methodist
  • Baptist
  • Presbyterian
  • Lutheran
  • Congregational
  • Episcopal
  • (See Neil Brauns Laity Mobilized Masters Thesis
    for more discussion of this dynamic within US
    history.)

61
The Six (6) Leading Church Groups in the USA in
1950
  • Baptist was first
  • Methodist
  • Lutheran
  • Presbyterian
  • Episcopal
  • Congregational was last
  • (See Jim Slacks and Jim Maroneys IMB study and
    book of the principles and practices of church
    planting for documentation sources.)

62
Discerning The Lay of the Land
  • In fact, the order of the six leading
    denominations in 1775 were exactly reversed by
    1950.
  • By 1850 Methodists were the largest Protestant
    denomination in the USA and Baptists were second.
  • By 1950 Baptists were the largest of the
    original groups and Methodists were second. A
    count of Southern Baptists alone in 1950 would
    have shown them close to being largest Protestant
    denomination.

63
Discerning The Lay of the Land
  • It is very informative from a historic
    evangelization and missiological perspective to
    follow and compare the growth dynamics among the
    6 largest Protestant denominations in 1775 with
    the 6 largest Protestant denominations in 1950.
  • Baptists in 1775, who had not yet divided into
    two major Baptist groups (Northern and Southern),
    were the smallest of all seven Protestant
    denominations. Methodists were next to last.
  • What happened that caused this reversal?

64
Why Did These Groups Grow Why Did the Order End
Up Reversed?
  • Congregationalists whose congregational polity
    was thought to be best fitted for the frontier
    went though an Old Lights and New Lights
    theological controversy followed by a geographic
    comity agreement with Presbyterians concerning
    frontier locations. Most of the time of both was
    consumed by the controversy and neither of them
    recovered from those choices.
  • Yet, it had been the Congregationalists, named
    so in the USA, who brought the initial and major
    political and religious group to the New Land
    with a clearly stated religious manifesto. And,
    even as late as 1900, Congregationalists had
    1,000 missionaries on foreign fields, only to see
    them dwindle during the 1900s to a very few.

65
Why Did These Groups Grow Why Did the Order End
Up Reversed?
  • Anglican churches were identified with the
    English colonizers and with the causes of the
    Revolution. Anglicans never overcame that war
    and colonial image. So, over time, their name
    changed to The Episcopal Church to attempt to
    shed that war image.
  • Also, few realize that many of the Puritans and
    those today known as Low Church Anglicans had
    gone with Wesley, forming the foundations of the
    Methodist church in both England and in the
    Colonies/USA. That departure actually took some
    of the most conservative and evangelistic
    Anglicans into Methodism in the USA. This hurt
    the Anglicans.

66
Why Did These Groups Grow Why Did the Order End
Up Reversed?
  • Presbyterians suffered from the comity
    agreement between themselves and the
    Congregationalists. Like the Episcopal churches,
    even after their name change, their Presbyterian
    institutional polity, their preference for land
    and building, and their requirements for a
    theologically trained, denominationally chosen
    and installed pastor, kept them behind the edges
    of the frontier.
  • The institutional and non-lay led denominations
    lagged an average of 200 miles behind the
    frontier where more settled communities were like
    they were used to existed. And, only communities
    some 200 miles behind the frontier were large
    enough in population and affluent enough to
    afford the more formal pastors and their
    churches. It took established towns to support
    those more formal and institutional
    denominations.

67
Why Did These Groups Grow Why Did the Order End
Up Reversed?
  • Lutherans seem to be the strange anomaly among
    the six denominations. Lutherans did make it to
    the frontier, even to the Mississippi river and
    they did grow. However, it was persecution and
    lack of a colony base in New England that pushed
    Lutherans to the Missouri territory and northward
    into Canada where they settled grew some
    distance from persecution. They were the only
    formal and highly structured and institutional
    denomination found on the advanced edges of the
    frontier.

68
Why Did Groups Grow on the Western Frontier?
  • Roman Catholics attention to and attitude
    toward evangelization on the Western frontier can
    be seen in following ad in 1800s
  • We offer you No salary. No recompense, no
    holidays, no pensions. But hard work and a poor
    dwelling, few consolations, many disappointments,
    frequent sickness, a violent, lonely death, an
    unknown grave. (Source Exhibit at South Dakota
    Cultural Center, Pierre, SD provided by John
    Guillatt of South Dakota Baptist Convention.)

69
How did Methodists become First in 1850 and
Remain Second by 1950?
  • Methodists had a strategy, a carefully defined
    and carefully managed geographic circuit-rider
    plan that fitted them for the frontier. Their
    plan was the method found in the word
    Methodist. That plan, designed by Wesley for
    England, which was only partially accepted there,
    was a perfect fit for the US frontier, at least
    until about 1900.

70
How did Methodists become First in 1850 and
Remain Second in 1950?
  • A Quote When the rigors of circuit riding in
    the early days, as the Church moved over the
    country, are brought before the mind and
    imagination, the question is frequently asked,
    How did they stand it? The answer is They
    didnt. They died under it. No group of men
    ever lived up more fully to the truth, He that
    looseth his life shall find it. (pp. 42-43,
    Halford E. Luccock, Endless Line of Splendor. The
    Advance for Christ and His Church of The
    Methodist Church publisher, Chicago, Illinois,
    1950)

71
How did Methodists become First in 1850 and
Remain Second in 1950?
  • A Quote They died, most of them, before their
    careers were much more than begun. Of the 650
    preachers who had joined the Methodist itinerancy
    by the opening of the 19th century, about 500 had
    to locate, a term that was used for those too
    worn-out to travel further. Many of the rest had
    to take periods for recuperation. Others located
    not because of health, but by reason of lack of
    support and the desire to marry and establish a
    home. (Luccock)

72
How did Methodists become First in 1850 and
Remain Second in 1950?
  • Of the first 737 circuit riders of the
    Conferences to diethat is, all who died up to
    1847
  • 203 were between 25 and 35 years of age
  • 121 between 35 and 45.
  • Nearly half died before they were 30 years old.
  • Of 672 of those first preachers whose records
    fully exist,
  • two-thirds died before they had been able to
    render 12 years of service.
  • Just one less than 200 died within the first five
    years. (Luccock)

73
How did Methodists become First in 1850 and
Remain Second by 1950?
  • A Quote Many circuits were from 300 to 600
    miles in lengthFor instance, in 1791, Freeborn
    Garrettson was assigned to a circuit which
    included almost half of what is now the state of
    New YorkIn 1814 James B. Finley, on the Cross
    Creek Circuit, Ohio, had a circuit covering more
    than two counties, and preached 32 times on every
    round. The salary schedule has an eloquence of
    its own. Cash was almost unknown. In 1821
    Benjamin T. Crouch records receiving only 38
    toward his years allowance. The same year Peter
    Cartwright received the highest salary in the
    Kentucky Conference--238. But when he moved,
    with his wife and six children, to the Sangamon
    Circuit, Illinois, he received 40, all told, for
    the year. (pp. 44-45, Luccock)

74
How did Baptists become Second in 1850 and Grow
to First by 1950?
  • Methodism grew fast until after 1850, but
    Baptist growth from 1800 to 1960 is unparalleled.
    From a little over 100,000 in 1800, Baptists
    were approaching 20 million by 1960. (Gaustad
    1962 as quoted by Neil Braun)
  • The basic reason is that Baptist theology and
    polity fitted them better for the frontier than
    any other denomination of churches.

75
Growth Characteristics of Baptists
  • Each local church was autonomous
  • Churches were congregational in polity
  • Lay, often uneducated, Baptist church members
    going west were encouraged to plant a church at
    sites where they settled if no Baptist church
    existed there
  • Churches that did emerge met in homes, saloons,
    hardware stores, barns, stables, school rooms,
    under trees, etc.

76
Growth Characteristics of Baptists
  • Local churches found their pastor within the
    maturing believers in their emerging new church
    body
  • Local churches recognized and ordained their own
    pastors
  • Often the settler who started a new church ended
    up being called by the emerging new church to
    be their pastor. Many laymen became pastors that
    way.
  • Laymen who did become pastors tended to
    itinerate, pastoring 2-4 churches

77
Growth Characteristics of Baptists
  • As churches were planted, laymen within those
    churches with a burden for the lost tended to
    emerge who preached in the outlying areas
    wherever a group of people lived
  • Consequently, lay evangelists were common in
    Baptist churches and this trend persisted well
    into the early to mid-1900s
  • As frontier towns settled in and grew, a few
    churches sought pastors from more settled
    frontier towns to the east

78
Growth Characteristics of Baptists
  • By the mid to late 1800s, requests for training
    arose among frontier pastors who settled in for a
    longer tenure in the more settled, behind the
    frontiers leading edge, towns
  • As pastors saw their churches increase in
    membership size and stability, and as they faced
    more complex pastoral duties, they called for
    training assistance
  • This led to Baptist schools being started from
    the Atlantic to the Mississippi River. This is
    why and how the many Baptist colleges and SBC
    seminaries started. These were on-demand
    schools. Local churches started them and paid
    for them. Subsidy was an unknown habit on the
    frontier for over 100 hundred years. Subsidy was
    less among Baptists than among Methodists and
    Methodist subsidy, as seen earlier, was very
    meager when it was provided.

79
The Most Common Growth Reasons
  • Sweet, Herberg, Latourette, Braun and multiple
    other social and religious historians said that
    the three most common growth factors were 1) the
    starting of churches in homes where land and
    building for a church was not a condition for
    having and being a church 2) lay preachers and
    pastors, most of whom were bi-vocational and 3)
    a congregational polity that allowed local
    churches to start and function autonomously
    without approval from a leadership hierarchy.

80
The Lay of the Land Discerned
  • Over time, for sure by the early 1900s, as new
    church starts and membership growth continued to
    occur, as religious status became the leading
    characteristic of an American, the Bible Belt had
    formed across the southern USA. The American
    culture was developing a stronger Christian
    ethic, with Christian values as its base. This
    base was in practice for some, and only in the
    awareness or conscience, ought-to stage for
    others. It is out of this base that the terms
    WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) and
    Judeo-Christian emerged in the mid-1900s.
    (Comments cited from Herberg, Handlin and others)
    Even then, the typical American by the 1900s
    favored and spoke of America as a moral Christian
    society.

81
The Major Concern of the Immigrants by the 1900s
  • Their big concern was the preservation of
    their way of life above all, the transplanting
    of their churches. (pp. 10-11, Herberg.)
  • In his footnotes Herberg quotes Marcus L.
    Hansens research in The Problem of the Third
    Generation Immigrant (Augustana Historical
    Society, Rock Island, Ill., 1938, p. 15 who said
    The church was the first, the most important,
    and the most significant institution that the
    immigrants established. Their churches went to
    the frontier with them. Those churches that fit
    the frontier and that were comfortable on the
    frontier won the frontier.

82
By 1950, Who Was an American?
  • By the early 1900s being an American came out
    of a degree of melding of three generations of
    ethnic groups into being Americans--Anglos
  • Herbergs research discovered that by the 1930s,
    A Triple Melting Pot situation in the US had
    developed as the norm. Ethnic migration saw
    their language and some of their culture receed
    somewhat to the background. English had become a
    practical acquisition of most ethnics, but their
    religion persisted to become the ethnics major
    identity.

83
By 1950, Who Was an American?
  • The singular most identifying characteristic
    among most ethnics who migrated to the USA from
    1775 to 1924 was their religious status. As
    their language became mostly English and as they
    gave up some of their cultural identity, the sum
    of their status as Americans settled into one
    of three acceptable identifying religious
    markersProtestant, Catholic or Jew. (Herberg)
  • So, by the 1950s in the USA the identification
    of an American was according to one of these
    three categoriesProtestant, Catholic or Jew. To
    not be one of these three categories was not to
    be an American.

84
Section 4A Look At Culture and Religion in the
USA1945 to 1960The Golden Age of Christianity
in USA
  • Again, the three primary researchers and authors
    of this era concerning American immigration were
    Herberg, Handlin Hansen.
  • Their works are seen as classic writings today.
  • They cited this period as the span of years when
    Christianity was at its highest peak from 1775 to
    1950.

85
By 1950, Who Was an American?
  • In review of what went before, the singular
    most identifying characteristic among most
    ethnics who migrated to the USA from 1775 to 1924
    was their religious status. As their language
    became mostly English and as they gave up some of
    their cultural identity, the sum of their status
    as Americans settled into three acceptable
    identifying religious markersProtestant,
    Catholic or Jew.
  • So, by the 1950s in the USA the identification
    of an American was according to one of these
    three categoriesProtestant, Catholic or Jew.

86
The USA Religious Scene in 1950
  • In 1775 church members were from 10 to 12 of the
    US population
  • By 1910 church members had grown to 43
  • By 1960 church members had grown to 60
    (pp.33-34, Herberg)
  • Beyond the category of church members at least
    75-80 of all Americans said they were adherents
    of Christianity
  • By the 1950s denominationalism had developed, was
    clearly established, active and very strong in
    term of loyalties and influence in America
  • Evidences of denominational solidarity follow

87
The USA Religious Scene in 1950 A Consideration
of Conversions
  • Conversions from one community (denomination
    or category) to the other take place, but they
    seem to be very small and do not appreciably
    affect the over-all picture. (Herberg, p. 160)
    (Herberg quotes the Yearbook of American
    Churches, edition for 1960, pp. 261-262 for his
    data. In the research Herberg quotes 140,414 as
    the Catholics record of conversions to
    Catholicism from Protestantism. He used The 1959
    National Catholic Almanac, p. 407 for this
    information. This data is for the year 1957.
    For a more in-depth study, see Thomas J.M.
    Burkes Did Four Million Catholics Become
    Protestants?, America, April 10, 1954.

88
Religion in USA in the 1950s A Consideration of
Conversions
  • Burkes article, a survey by the American
    Institute of Public Opinion (a Gallup poll) in
    1955 indicated that of an adult population of
    96,000,000, only about 4 per cent no longer
    belonged to the religious community of their
    birth of these 1,400,000 were Protestants who
    had originally been Catholics, and 1,400,000 were
    Catholics who had originally been Protestants,
    and about 1,000,000 had made changes of some
    other kind. See also John A. OBrien, You Too
    Can Win Souls (Macmillan, 1955). (Cited in
    Herbergs footnotes on pages 170-171.)

89
Religion in America from 1945-1960
  • Even beneath the surface of the American melting
    pot one could still see the persistence of
    ethnic identities when studying marriage and
    church affiliations.
  • On the surface citizens in the USA were
    Americans, known as Anglo-Saxons, but beneath the
    surface their ethne had not been totally erased.
    Notice the following data.

90
A Study of Marriage Patterns from 1870 to 1940
  • In the early 1940s, Ruby Jo Kennedy undertook
    an investigation of intermarriage trends in New
    Haven from 1870 to 1940. She published her
    findings in the American Journal of Sociology for
    January 1944 under the significant title, Single
    or Triple Melting Pot?The years 1870, 1900,
    1930, and 1940 were isolated for detailed
    examinationThe large nationality groups in New
    Haven, Mrs. Kennedy found, represent a triple
    division on religious grounds Jewish, Protestant
    (British-American, German, and Scandinavian), and
    Catholic (Irish, Italian, and Polish) In its
    early immigrant days, each of these ethnic groups
    tended to be endogamous with the years, however,
    people began to marry outside the group.
    (Herbergs quote of Kennedy data on page 33)

91
A Study of Marriage Patterns from 1870 to 1940
  • Kennedy found Irish in-marriage was 93.05
    per cent in 1870 74.75 per cent in 1900, 74.25
    per cent in 1930, and 45.06 per cent in 1940
    German in-marriage was 86.67 per cent in 1870,
    55.26 per cent in 1900, 39.84 per cent in 1930,
    and 27.19 per cent in 1940 for the Italians and
    the Poles, the comparable figures were 97.71 per
    cent and 100 per cent respectively in 1900,
    86.71 and 68.04 per cent in 1930, and 81.89 per
    cent and 52.78 per cent in 1940. But, while
    strict ethnic endogamy is loosening, religious
    endogamy is persisting (Herbergs quote of
    Kennedy data on page 33)

92
The USA Religious Scene in 1950 A Consideration
of Inter-Marriage
  • By the 1950s, religion not only divided into
    the three pools but those in each religious
    category tended to marry only within their pool.
    Hollingshead found in a study that
  • 97.1 of Jewish pool married only Jewish spouses
  • 93.8 of Catholics married only Catholic spouses
  • 74.4 of Protestants married only Protestant
    spouses (pp.33-34, Herberg. He is quoting the
    study of Hollingshead.)

93
A Study of Marriage Patterns from 1870 to 1940
  • Members of Catholic stocks married Catholics in
    95.35 per cent of the cases in 1870, 85.78 per
    cent in 1900, 82.05 per cent in 1930, and 83.71
    in 1940 members of Protestant stocks married
    Protestants in 99.11 per cent of the cases in
    1870, 90.66 per cent in 1900, 78.19 per cent in
    1930, and 79.72 per cent in 1940 Jews married
    Jews in 100 per cent of the cases in 1870, 98.82
    per cent in 1900, 97.01 per cent in 1930, and
    94.32 per cent in 1940. Future cleavages, in
    Mrs. Kennedys opinion, will therefore be along
    religious lines rather than along nationality
    lines as in the past.Cultural i.e. ethnic
    lines may fade, but religious barriers are
    holding fast.When marriage crosses religious
    barriers, as it often does, religion still plays
    a prominent role, especially among Catholics, in
    that such marriages are often conditioned upon,
    and result in, one of the partners being brought
    into the religious community of the other. (pp.
    32-33, Herberg)

94
A Study of Marriage Patterns from 1870 to 1940
  • The traditional single melting pot idea must
    now be abandoned, and a new conception, which we
    term the triple melting pot theory of American
    assimilation, will take its place, as the true
    expression of what is happening to the various
    nationality groups in the United States.The
    triple melting pot type of assimilation is
    occurring through intermarriage, with
    Catholicism, Protestantism, and Judaism serving
    as the three fundamental bulwarksThe different
    nationalities are merging, but within three
    religious compartments rather than
    indiscriminatelyA triple religious cleavage,
    rather than a multilinear nationality cleavage,
    therefore seems likely to characterize American
    society in the future. (pp. 32-33, Herberg)

95
The Breadth and Depth (Evidences) of these
Religious Characteristics
  • By 1950, ones personal identity, political
    qualification, social status, marriage, and a few
    other functional American characteristics were
    primarily determined by their identify with one
    of the three religions that was most appropriate
    for ethnic background and geographic location in
    the USA.
  • (See Will Herbergs Protestant-Catholic-Jew.)
  • At the beginning of this era Franklin
    Roosevelt regularly and publically expressed his
    religious beliefs and prayers.

96
The Consequences of this Religious Environment
  • It was beginning to be true in the late 1930s,
    increased as being true in the 1940s, throughout
    the 1950s and into the early1960s that, to be
    elected to a significant state and national
    office in the USA, the candidate had to
    represent, or make the public think they
    represented, Judeo-Christian values or he or she
    would seldom ever be elected to a significant
    political office.
  • This was especially true in the Bible Belt of
    the USA. And, except in pervasively Catholic
    areas, it was difficult for a Roman Catholic to
    be elected to a national office.
  • Religious credentials were important for
    business leaders, salesmen and community leaders.

97
The Consequences of this Religious Environment
  • Pastors, Rabbis and Priests were at the top of
    the list of the most respected persons in
    American life.
  • Those Judeo-Christian values that can be seen
    in the background of the US Constitution, had
    emerged as the broad American ideal by the
    mid-1800s and were commonly taught and nourished
    in the US public schools from the 1800s to the
    early 1970s.
  • Prayers were said in the schools, prior to the
    beginning of any sports events, Ten Commandments
    posted in public pl
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