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Splash Screen

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Title: Splash Screen


1
Splash Screen
2
Chapter Menu
Introduction Section 1 Earth-Sun
Relationships Section 2Factors Affecting
Climate Section 3World Climate Patterns Summary
3
Chapter Intro 1
Geographers study how people, places, and
environments are distributed on Earths surface.
Climate affects where and how people live. An
understanding of Earths climates and the
factors, both physical and human, that influence
them adds to a more complete view of life on
Earth.
4
Chapter Intro 2
Section 1 Earth-Sun Relationship
How does Earths position in relationship to the
sun affect life on Earth?
5
Section 1-GTR
Earth-Sun Relationships
  • weather
  • equinox
  • solstice
  • greenhouse effect
  • global warming
  • climate
  • axis
  • temperature
  • revolution

6
Section 1
Climate and Weather
The relationship between the Earth and the sun
affects climate, which influences life on Earth
in dramatic ways.
  • Earths tilt is one reason for variations in
    sunlight.
  • The angle of tilt affects the temperature, which
    is measured in Fahrenheit or Celsius.
  • Earth rotates on its axis, making one complete
    rotation from west to east every 24 hours.

7
Section 1
Climate and Weather (cont.)
  • While Earth is rotating on its axis, it is also
    traveling in an orbit around the sunthis
    revolution takes 365 days to complete.
  • The Earths revolution and tilt cause changes in
    the angle and amount of sunlight that reach
    different locations on the planet, also known as
    seasons.

Effects of Earths Tilt
8
Section 1
Climate and Weather (cont.)
  • The Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
  • When the suns rays directly strike the Tropic of
    Cancer, this marks the beginning of summer in the
    Northern Hemisphere.
  • When the suns rays directly strike the Tropic of
    Capricorn, this marks the beginning of winter in
    the Northern Hemisphere.

9
Section 1-GTR
Earth-Sun Relationships
A. Tropic of Cancer
B. Tropic of Capricorn
10
Section 1
Climate and Weather (cont.)
  • The Poles
  • At the North Pole, the sun never sets from about
    March 20 to September 23.
  • At the South Pole, the sun never sets from about
    September 23 to March 20.

The Earths Seasons
11
Section 1
The imaginary line running from the North Pole to
the South Pole through the planets center is
known as which term? A. Equator B. Solstice C. Axi
s D. Equinox
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

12
Section 1
The imaginary line running from the North Pole to
the South Pole through the planets center is
known as which term? A. Equator B. Solstice C. Axi
s D. Equinox
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

13
Section 1
The Greenhouse Effect
The natural process of the greenhouse effect has
been influenced by human activity.
  • Like the glass in a greenhouse, the atmosphere
    traps some heat and keeps it from escaping back
    into space too quickly so that the Earth is warm
    enough to maintain life.

14
Section 1
The Greenhouse Effect (cont.)
  • Many scientists claim that in recent decades a
    rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels has
    coincided with a general rise in global
    temperatures, also known as global warming.

The Greenhouse Effect
15
Chapter Intro 3
Section 2 Factors Affecting Climate
What factors can affect how climates are
distributed on Earths surface?
16
Section 2-GTR
Factors Affecting Climate
  • prevailing wind
  • El Niño
  • windward
  • leeward
  • rain shadow effect
  • Coriolis effect
  • doldrums
  • current

17
Section 2-GTR
Factors Affecting Climate
A. low latitudes
B. high latitudes
C. Arctic Circle
D. Antarctic Circle
E. midlatitudes
18
Section 2
Factors Affecting Climate
Think about Question
Where is the most variable weather on Earth is
found in which zone? A. Low latitude
zone B. High latitude zone C. Midlatitude zone
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

19
Section 2
Latitude, Elevation, and Climate
Latitude and elevation affect the angle of the
suns rays and temperatures on Earth.
  • Low latitudes include the Tropic of Capricorn,
    the Equator, and the Tropic of Cancer.
  • The Earths polar areas are considered the high
    latitudes.

20
Section 2
Latitude, Elevation, and Climate (cont.)
  • Midlatitudes
  • Between 30 degrees N and 60 degrees N in the
    Northern Hemisphere, and between 30 degrees S and
    60 degrees S in the Southern Hemisphere, are
    considered the midlatitudes.
  • The most variable weather is found here.

21
Section 2
Latitude, Elevation, and Climate (cont.)
  • Elevation
  • At all latitudes, elevation influences climate
    because of the relationship between the elevation
    of a place and its temperature.
  • As elevation increases, temperature decreases.

The Influence of Elevation on Temperature
22
Section 2
Why does thinner air retain less heat?
  1. A
  2. B

23
Section 2
Winds and Ocean Currents
Wind and water combine with the effects of the
sun to influence Earths weather and climate.
  • Wind Patterns
  • Wind blows because of temperature differences on
    Earths surface, with tropical air moving toward
    the Poles and polar air moving toward the Equator.

24
Section 2
Winds and Ocean Currents (cont.)
  • Global winds blow in fairly constant patterns
    called prevailing winds.
  • The Coriolis effect causes prevailing winds to
    blow diagonally rather than along strict
    north-south or east-west directions.

World Zones of Latitude and Wind Patterns
25
Section 2
Winds and Ocean Currents (cont.)
  • The Horse Latitudes
  • When sailors became stranded in the doldrums,
    they would lighten the load of the ships,
    including livestock, so that a light breeze could
    move them.
  • These areas then became known as the horse
    latitudes.

26
Section 2
Winds and Ocean Currents (cont.)
  • Ocean currents are caused by factors such as
  • the Earths rotation
  • changes in air pressure
  • differences in water temperature
  • The Coriolis effect is observed in ocean currents
    as well.
  • Ocean currents affect climate
    in the coastal lands
    along which they
    flow.

World Ocean Currents
27
Section 2
Winds and Ocean Currents (cont.)
  • Weather and Water Cycle
  • Wind and water work together to affect
    weatherdriven by temperature, condensation
    creates precipitation
  • El Niño can influence climates around the world.

The Influence of El Niño
28
Section 2
Review Question
A periodic change in the pattern of ocean
currents, water temperatures, and weather in the
mid-Pacific region is known as which
term? A. Doldrums B. Current C. Prevailing
Winds D. El Niño
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

29
Section 2
Landforms and Climate
Landforms and bodies of water influence Earths
climate patterns.
  • The climate of places located at the same
    latitude can be very different, depending on the
    presence or absence of certain physical features.
  • Coastal areas tend to have less changeable
    weather than do inland areas.
  • Mountain ranges have varying weather, depending
    on the area of the mountain.

The Rain Shadow Effect
30
Chapter Intro 4
Section 3 World Climate Patterns
How do geographers classify Earths climate and
vegetation?
31
Section 3-GTR
World Climate Patterns
  • mixed forest
  • prairie
  • permafrost
  • hypothesis
  • smog
  • natural vegetation
  • oasis
  • coniferous
  • deciduous

32
Section 3-GTR
World Climate Patterns
A. Tropics
B. Sahara
33
Section 3
World Climate Patterns
Discussion Question
Which climate would you prefer to
live in? A. Tropical climate B. Dry
climate C. Midlatitude climate
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

34
Section 3
Climate Regions
Geographers divide the Earth into regions that
have similar climates.
  • Each of these divisions has its own
    characteristic soils and natural vegetation.

Latitude, Climate, and Vegetation
35
Section 3
Climate Regions (cont.)
  • Climates are organized into five regions
  • Tropical climatesthese are found in or near the
    low latitudesthe Tropics.
  • Tropical wet
  • Tropical dry

36
Section 3
Climate Regions (cont.)
  • Dry climatesthere are two types of dry
    climatesthe desert and the steppewhich occur in
    low latitudes or midlatitudes.
  • Midlatitude climatesthis climate experiences
    variable weather patterns and season changes that
    give rise to a variety of
    natural vegetation.

World Climate Regions
37
Section 3
Climate Regions (cont.)
  • There are four temperate climate regions
  • Marine west coast climate
  • Mediterranean
  • Humid subtropical
  • Humid continental

38
Section 3
Climate Regions (cont.)
  • High altitude climatesfreezing temperatures are
    common throughout the year because of the lack of
    direct sunlight.
  • Three high altitude climate regions are
  • Subarctic
  • Tundra
  • Ice cap

39
Section 3
Climate Regions (cont.)
  • Highland climateshigh mountain areas, even along
    the Equator, share some of the same
    characteristics because of the thinning of the
    atmosphere at high altitudes.

World Natural Vegetation Regions
40
Section 3
Review Question
Which type of climate is the least arid?
A. Tundra B. Desert C. Rain forest D. Mixed
forest
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

41
Section 3
Climate Changes
Climate changes over time. Although the causes of
change are unclear, evidence suggests that human
activity has influenced some of the changes.
  • Burning fossil fuels releases gases that mix with
    water in the air, forming acids that fall in rain
    and snow.
  • This act can cause many changes in climate.
  • Dams and river diversion can also affect climate.

42
VS 1
  • Earth-Sun Relationships
  • The relationship of the Earth to the sun affects
    climate patterns around the world.
  • The Earths tilt and revolution cause the seasons
    by changing the relationship of the Earths
    surface to the sun.
  • When the sun is directly over the Tropic of
    Cancer it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere.
    When it is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn,
    it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere.

43
VS 2
  • Factors Affecting Climate
  • Latitude plays a major role in climate. The
    farther one gets from the Equator, the cooler the
    climate.
  • High elevations are generally cooler than the
    surrounding landscape.
  • Other factors that help determine climate are
    wind and water currents, recurring phenomena such
    as El Nino, and large landforms.

44
VS 3
  • World Climate Patterns
  • Geographers divide the world into major climate
    regions.
  • The major climate regions are tropical, dry,
    midlatitude, high latitude and highland climates.
    Each of these can be broken down into smaller
    categories.
  • Each climate region has its own characteristic
    natural vegetation.
  • Climate patterns change over time as a result of
    both natural processes and human activity.

45
Figure 1
46
Figure 2
47
Figure 3
48
Figure 4
49
Figure 5
50
Figure 6
51
Figure 7
52
Figure 8
53
Figure 9
54
Figure 10
55
Figure 11
56
DFS Trans 1
57
DFS Trans 2
58
DFS Trans 3
59
Vocab1
weather condition of the atmosphere in one place
during a short period of time
60
Vocab2
climate weather patterns typical for an area over
a long period of time
61
Vocab3
axis an imaginary line that runs through the
center of the Earth between the North and South
Poles
62
Vocab4
temperature degree of hotness or coldness
measured on a set scale, such as Fahrenheit or
Celsius
63
Vocab5
revolution in astronomy, the Earths yearly trip
around the sun, taking 365 ¼ days
64
Vocab6
equinox one of two days (about March and
September) on which the sun is directly above the
Equator, making day and night equal in length
65
Vocab7
solstice one of two days (about June and
December) on which the suns rays strike directly
on the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn,
marking the beginning of summer or winter
66
Vocab8
greenhouse effect the capacity of certain gases
in the atmosphere to trap heat, thereby warming
the Earth
67
Vocab9
global warming gradual warming of the Earth and
its atmosphere that may be caused in part by
pollution and an increase in the greenhouse
effect
68
Vocab10
prevailing wind wind in a region that blows in a
fairly constant directional pattern
69
Vocab11
Coriolis effect the resulting diagonal movement,
either north or south, of prevailing winds caused
by the Earths rotation
70
Vocab12
doldrums a frequently windless area near the
Equator
71
Vocab13
current cold or warm stream of seawater that
flows in the oceans, generally in a circular
pattern
72
Vocab14
El Niño a periodic reversal of the pattern of
ocean currents and water
73
Vocab15
windward being in or facing the direction from
which the wind is blowing
74
Vocab16
leeward being in or facing the direction toward
which the wind is blowing
75
Vocab17
rain shadow effect result of a process by which
dry areas develop on the leeward sides of
mountain ranges
76
Vocab18
natural vegetation plant life that grows in a
certain area if people have not changed the
natural environment
77
Vocab19
oasis small area in a desert where water and
vegetation are found
78
Vocab20
coniferous referring to vegetation having cones
and needle-shaped leaves, including many
evergreens, that keep their foliage throughout
the winter
79
Vocab21
deciduous falling off or shed seasonally or
periodically trees such as oak and maple which
lose their leaves in autumn
80
Vocab22
mixed forest forest with both coniferous and
deciduous trees
81
Vocab23
prairie an inland grassland area
82
Vocab24
permafrost permanently frozen layer of soil
beneath the surface of the ground
83
Vocab25
hypothesis a scientific explanation for an event
84
Vocab26
smog haze caused by the interaction of
ultraviolet solar radiation with chemical fumes
from automobile exhausts and other pollution
sources
85
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