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Nutritional Strategies to Reduce Nutrient Excretion and Odor in Beef, Dairy, and Swine Operations

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Title: Nutritional Strategies to Reduce Nutrient Excretion and Odor in Beef, Dairy, and Swine Operations


1
Nutritional Strategies to Reduce Nutrient
Excretion and Odor in Beef, Dairy, and Swine
Operations
  • Dr. Greg Lardy

2
or Precision Nutrition for Livestock Feeding
Operations
3
Outline
  • Introduction
  • What nutrients should we be concerned with?
  • Phosphorus
  • Nitrogen
  • Dietary strategies to minimize excretion

4
Nutritional Strategies in Beef Cattle Operations
5
P Metabolism in Beef Cattle
Rumen
Intestine
Fecal P
Serum (1 g)
Diet P 15-45 g/d
Saliva P 30-40 g/d
Meat Organs 450 g P
Bone 2000 g P
700-lb steer example
Source Wadsworth and Cohen, 1976
6
Dietary P in Feedlot Diets
.59
.52
.35
.27
7
P Requirements in Yearlings
Source Erickson et al., 1999
8
P Requirements in Calves
8
7
6
5
ADG or FG (lbs)
4
3
2
ADG
NRC recommendation
Industry Average
FG
1
0
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
P intake, g/d
Source Erickson et al., 1999
9
P Excretion in Calves
40
34.1
urinary P
30
fecal P
24.3
20
Total P excreted, g/d
17.9
11.6
9.7
10
0
14.2
20.2
23.4
31.7
35.50
P intake, g/d
Source Erickson et al., 2001
10
P Requirements
  • Cannot determine P requirements, too low
  • Bones, blood, performance
  • Does the requirement matter?
  • NRC recommendations for feedlot cattle are too
    high
  • Industry has markedly overfed (relative to
    requirement)
  • Progress has been made
  • Implications environment

11
P Mass Balance For a 10,000 Head Feedlot
.35 to .40 P 234,000 lb/yr
.22 to .30 P 128,000 lb/yr
8,624 acres
15,690 acres
Assume 50 of surrounding land used 30 lb/ac P
applied (agronomic) 10,000 hd feedlot, 90 acres
Assume (same)
12
Protein Requirements
Crude Protein (CP) System
  • Assumes all proteins are equal
  • Important point protein is nitrogen
  • N 6.25, protein is 16 N
  • Does not account for bacterial needs in
    ruminants
  • Is simple, but incorrect

13
Protein Requirements
Metabolizable Protein (MP) System
Feed protein urea, corn protein
RUMEN
UIP
DIP
DIP
SMALL INTESTINE
MP
BCP
BCP
NH3 Carbon Microbial Protein (BCP)
14
Protein Requirements
Predicted requirement over feeding period
15
Protein Requirements
Requirement compared to industry average diets
16
Protein Requirements
Change the diet to match these requirements, i.e.
PHASE FEED
17
Performance Impacts
Yearlings Calves
ITEM Con Phase Con Phase
Initial wt., lb 694 697 605 608 Final wt.,
lb 1242 1256 1264 1258 DM Intake,
lbd-1 25.2a 24.5b 20.3 20.7 ADG, lbd-1
3.98 4.07 3.45 3.40 Feed efficiency .158a .166b .
170a .164b
Source Erickson and Klopfenstein, 2001
18
N Mass Balance-Conventional Feeding Yearlings
(Summer)
Average diet N, 13.5 CP
Feedlot pen
46.0 lb (71) volatilized
7.9 lb animal
64.9 lb excreted
72.8 lb intake
2.1 lb (3) runoff
16.7 lb (26) manure
Source Erickson and Klopfenstein, 2001
19
N Mass Balance Phase-Fed Yearlings (Summer)
Feedlot pen
31.3 lb (61) volatilized
7.9 lb animal
51.5 lb excreted
59.4 lb intake
1.5 lb (3) runoff
18.7 lb (36) manure
Source Erickson and Klopfenstein, 2001
20
N Mass Balance Phase-Fed Yearlings (Summer)
Feedlot pen
31.3 lb (61) volatilized
REDUCED 32.5
REDUCED 19
7.9 lb animal
51.5 lb excreted
59.4 lb intake
1.5 lb (3) runoff
18.7 lb (36) manure
Source Erickson and Klopfenstein, 2001
21
N Mass Balance Calves Fed Conventional Diet in
Winter-Spring
Average diet N, 13.5 CP
Feedlot pen
29.3 lb (41) volatilized
10.1 lb animal
71.3 lb excreted
81.4 lb intake
2.1 lb (3) runoff
39.9 lb (56) manure
Source Erickson and Klopfenstein, 2001
22
N Mass Balance Phase-Fed Calves in the
Winter-Spring
PHASE fed
Feedlot pen
24.9 lb (40) volatilized
REDUCED 15
REDUCED 11.3
10.0 lb animal
62.2 lb excreted
72.2 lb intake
2.2 lb (3) runoff
REDUCED 12.5
35.0 lb (56.5) manure
Source Erickson and Klopfenstein, 2001
23
N Balance Summary
  • Overfeeding protein increases N losses
  • Nutrition
  • may decrease N inputs by 10 to 20
  • reduces N excretion by 12 to 21
  • reduces N volatilization by 15 to 33

24
N balance Summary (continued)
  • Volatilization is dependent on time of year
  • Summer 60 to 70 of N excreted
  • Winter/spring 40 of N excreted
  • Based on annual occupancy, lose 50 of N excreted

25
Nutritional Strategies in Dairy Operations
26
The Challenge for Dairy Producers
  • Properly formulate rations to
  • Optimize milk yield
  • Minimize N, P, and K excretion in urine/manure

27
Effect of P Intake on P Excretion
P excretion (lb)
  • Increasing P content from 0.40 to 0.60 of diet
    dry matter increases P output from 40 to 69
    lbs/cow/year!
  • Lactating cows require 0.40

70
60
50
40
Lbs of P Excreted
30
20
10
0
0.4
0.5
0.6
P in Diet
28
Protein Degradability and N Excretion
  • RDP rumen degradable protein
  • Diets with high RDP result in greater excretion
    of N in manure
  • Diets need adequate RUP (rumen undegradable
    protein), or escape protein

N excretion (lb)
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
High RDP
Low RDP
29
The Bottom Line
  • The amount of N, P, and K in the diet has a HUGE
    effect on the yearly excretion of these nutrients

30
Milk Production and Land Needed
  • As milk yield increases, so do nutrient
    requirements and nutrient excretion
  • For herds producing 70 to 100 lbs of milk, a
    100-cow group will require 140-170 acres to
    manage N
  • 1.5 acres per cow
  • Need at least 2.25 acres per cow for P

31
Dietary N and P Effect on Land Needed
  • 19.5 CP diet (alfalfa, no supplemental RUP) vs.
    17.0 CP (using RUP) results in 20 more N in
    manure and 20 more land needed
  • For 100-cow group, you would need up to 25 acres
    more land
  • Dietary P ranging from 0.43 to 0.52 results in
    30 more land needed
  • 100-cow group needs 50 more acres of land

32
Phosphorus Requirements
  • High-producing dairy cows require 0.40 P in the
    diet DM for OPTIMAL
  • Milk production
  • Reproductive performance
  • Dry cows require 0.25 P in dietary dry matter
  • However, it is not uncommon to feed 0.50 to 0.60

33
Feeding Excess P Costs
  • P is the most expensive mineral commonly
    supplemented in dairies
  • Example Feeding a diet containing 0.45 P vs. a
    diet containing 0.55 P would save about 0.05
    per cow daily
  • For 100 cows a year, that is 1,825

34
Use Sources of Phosphorus With High Availability
  • High availability
  • Monocalcium phosphate
  • Dicalcium phosphate
  • Monosodium or ammonium phosphate
  • Medium availability
  • Steamed bone meal
  • Sodium tripolyphosphate
  • Low availability
  • Low-fluorine rock phosphate
  • Soft rock phosphate

35
Phytate Phosphorus
  • Phytate-P is not readily available to
    nonruminants such as swine
  • Generally found in plant forms of P
  • Rumen microbes produce phytase
  • Releases P from phytate
  • Phytate-P is available to ruminants

36
Potassium Requirements
  • The requirement is about 0.90 to 1.2 of diet DM
  • During heat stress, increase K to 1.5 or 1.6
  • When heat stressed, more K is lost via sweat and
    saliva
  • The maximum tolerable level is 3.0 diet DM

37
Potassium Supplementation
  • Supplementation seldom needed
  • If needed, use potassium chloride or other
    commercial premix
  • Most forages contain high K concentrations
  • Do not rely on book values
  • Often, analyzed values are much higher than
    listed in books

38
RUP and RDP Requirements
  • Lactating cows require proper balance of RUP and
    RDP to meet requirements for metabolizable
    protein (MP)
  • MP is the protein that the cow actually absorbs
    and uses for production
  • Requirement for RUP 35 to 38 of CP
  • Requirement for RDP 62 to 65 of CP

39
Feeding Strategies to Control N Excretion
  • Increase dry matter intake
  • Improve forage quality
  • Consider forage protein fractions
  • Consider feeding method
  • Consider supplemental protein sources

40
The Bottom Line
  • Are high milk yield and minimal nutrient
    excretion mutually exclusive?
  • No, you can do both!
  • Focus on
  • Testing all forages/feeds
  • Properly formulating rations
  • Soil testing
  • Proper soil fertilization
  • Maximizing feed intake
  • Cow comfort and proper grouping

41
Nutritional Strategies in Swine Operations
42
Nutrition The Simple Way to Reduce Nutrient
Excretion
  • Under field conditions, animals use nutrients
    with mediocre efficiency
  • Phosphorus 30
  • Nitrogen 30 to 35
  • Under lab conditions
  • Phosphorus almost 100
  • Nitrogen 70
  • There is a lot of potential for reducing waste

43
Feed Waste An Expensive Waste of Nutrients
  • Feed waste
  • Adherence pigs take 1.5 g feed away from feeder
    60 times per day ( 4 of intake)
  • Spillage pigs push 3.4 of feed out of feeder
    (practical range 1.5 to 20)

44
Feed Waste An Expensive Waste of Nutrients
  • Presuming 5 waste on average
  • Responsible for 7.5 of N in waste
  • Similar contribution for Cu, Zn, P
  • 35 of carbohydrates
  • Major source of odor

45
Management is Key
  • Traditional guidelines
  • Proper feeder care and adjustment can reduce feed
    waste drastically
  • Bottom of feeder should be 50 covered with FRESH
    feed
  • Pig needs to exert effort to eat
  • Feeders should be inspected at least weekly
  • Clean and adjust where necessary

46
Feeder Design May Add to the Problem
  • Feeders should be sized properly
  • Only one pig per feeder space
  • Challenge given that pigs change in size
  • Pigs should not have to step in feeder to gain
    access to feed

47
Feeder Design May Add to the Problem
  • Feeder should be deep enough to prevent pigs from
    pushing out feed
  • Catch-22, but 8 inches deep seems to work
    reasonably well
  • Problem exaggerated in wean-finish buildings
  • Feeders should not have dead corners
  • Feed gets trapped and spoils

48
Present Feed in Most Palatable Form
  • Feed should be pelleted
  • Reduces feed waste 5
  • Dry feed is not very palatable
  • Pigs move back and forth from feeder to waterer
    while eating
  • Augments feed waste

49
Present Feed in Most Palatable Form
  • Wet-dry or liquid feeders
  • Back and forth motion is prevented
  • Reduces feed waste
  • Increases feed intake
  • Increases gain

50
Not All Nutrients in the Diet Are Digested
Feed provided
Waste
  • For a typical diet, 8 of protein and 70 of
    phosphorus is not digested
  • Indigestible proteins are fermented in large
    intestines
  • Contribute to odor
  • Remains are excreted
  • Contribute to waste

Feed waste
Inefficiencies
Intestinal secretions (enzymes, cells)
51
Select Highly Digestible Ingredients
52
New Crops May Offer Solutions As Well
  • Low-phytate corn and soybean have much higher
    phosphorus digestibility
  • Low-stacchyose soybean meal has greater protein
    and energy digestibility

53
Opportunities to Improve Digestibility
  • Processing feed properly
  • Grinding
  • Pelleting
  • Addition of exogenous enzymes to improve
    digestibility
  • Phytase
  • Xylanase or beta-glucanase
  • Wheat or barley based diets

54
Processing Can Improve Nutrient Digestibility
  • Grinding
  • Grind feed to uniform particle size of 600
    microns
  • Pelleting
  • Improves protein digestibility 3.7

55
Other Opportunities to Improve Digestibility
  • Addition of enzymes
  • Wheat and barley based diets
  • Xylanase/beta-glucanase Improve digestibility by
    2 to 9
  • Use of phytase to improve P availability
  • 30 to 50 improvement

56
Maintenance Results in Waste
  • Maintenance is obligatory
  • Basic function of life
  • Nutrients used for maintenance are ultimately
    catabolized (broken down)
  • Maintenance requirement depends on size of animal

Feed provided
Waste
Feed waste
Feed consumed
Inefficiencies
Intestinal secretions (enzymes, cells)
Undigested feed and secretions
Nutrients absorbed
Maintenance
57
Reduce Relative Maintenance Costs by Increasing
Gain
  • By improving daily lean gain, maintenance waste
    becomes relatively less important
  • Optimize production
  • Optimize management
  • Optimize animal health
  • Optimize nutrition, etc.

58
Base Formulations on Available Nutrients
  • Availability of nutrients is not uniform
  • N gt P, and Lys gt Cys in typical feed
  • Presuming all nutrients are equally available
    increases waste

Diets formulated on total or digestible amino
acids
10-58
59
Match Diet to Animals Requirement
  • Nutritional requirements change with
  • Maintenance requirement (affected by sex, age,
    and weight)
  • Gain and composition of gain
  • Health status, environmental conditions, and
    activity

60
Match Diet to Animals Requirement
  • Examples
  • Split-sex feeding
  • Barrows require more energy for maintenance than
    gilts
  • Increase energy to protein ratio of the feed for
    barrows

61
Where Does All of the Waste End Up?
  • Feces contain the remnants of the digestive
    process
  • Undigested feed
  • Endogenous losses
  • Odor
  • Excess zinc and copper
  • Excreted through bile and excreted as feces
  • Uptake of calcium and phosphorus is regulated
  • Excess is excreted in feces

Feed waste
Manure pit
Undigested feed and secretions
Feces

Maintenance
Inefficiencies enzyme prod. tissue accretion
Urine
Mismatch
62
Where Does All of the Waste End Up?
  • Urine contains the remnants of metabolism
  • Urea from protein breakdown
  • Some diverted to feces
  • Excess potassium, sodium, and chlorine

63
Summary
  • Nitrogen and phosphorus are key nutrients to
    focus on
  • Nutrient excretion can be reduced by proper
    nutrition
  • Feed to animals requirements
  • Test feedstuffs
  • Reduce feed waste

64
Questions??
65
Acknowledgements
This presentation was adapted from the LPES
curriculum which is available at http//www.lpes
.org/
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