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Title: Presentation at Parliamentary Portfolio Committee: Basic Education


1
(No Transcript)
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Improving the Quality of Education in South
Africa The Literacy and Numeracy Challenge
Research Programme Funded by the Kingdom of the
Netherlands
Presentation at Parliamentary Portfolio
Committee Basic Education 3Rs website
www.3rs.org.za
6 March 2012
Social science that makes a difference
3
Programme Objectives
  • Knowledge advancement- to identify critical areas
    for enhancing school and classroom practices in
    literacy and numeracy
  • Research capacity -to build research capacity
    among a wide range of stakeholders, including
    teachers, departmental officials and communities
  • Policy knowledge and strategies - to produce a
    set of ideas and implementation strategies for
    use by policy makers and other actors for
    improving levels of learner performance
  • Institutional and community support- to determine
    support roles of school management, local
    education districts, communities and parents in
    supporting literacy and numeracy programmes in
    schools.

4
Consortium Partners
  • Human Sciences Research Council (Grant holder)
  • Education Policy Consortium
  • JET Education Services
  • Project for the Study of Alternative Education
    in South Africa (PRAESA)

5
1. Community Literacy and Numeracy Group (CLING
Project)
Education Policy Consortium Centre for
Education Policy Development Centre for Education
Rights and Transformation Education Policy Unit
University of Fort Hare
6
CLING Project
  • Explored the effects of community mobilisation
    and participation on education in five
    communities in South Africa.
  • Aim understand whether increased community
    involvement in schools could contribute to
    improved literacy and numeracy amongst children
    in primary schools.
  •  
  • Study emanated from
  • Limited or dwindling community participation in
    public schools (urban and rural poor).
  • Low levels of literacy and numeracy amongst
    children in primary schools (systemic evaluations
    and international tests).

7
CLING Project
  • Methodology- multiple site case study approach
    combined with participatory research methods
    involving community activists, youth, adults and
    EPC researchers.
  • Achieved
  • progress in community mobilisation in support of
    school reform and community education.
  • laid the foundation to accelerate greater
    community participation based the research
    experience.

8
CLING Established
  • Relationships with government departments and
    institutions
  • Reading clubs (some communities are participating
    in the Nalibali Reading Campaign)
  • Saturday classes and aftercare (ECD)
  • Libraries
  • Examples of youth involvement in schools and
    community work and
  • Mechanisms to carry work forward.

9
Key findings and recommendations
  • Community participation in education remains of
    utmost importance and should be recognised.
  • Closer working relationships between schools and
    community groups can contribute to literacy
    education.
  • Greater support from government departments, such
    as the Departments of Education, Social
    Development and Local Government could enhance
    such work.
  • Policies that value community participation in
    education are required.
  • People in poor communities are capable of finding
    solutions to community problems.

10
Key findings and recommendations
  • Community participation in education remains of
    utmost importance and should be recognised.
  • Closer working relationships between schools and
    community groups can contribute to literacy
    education.
  • Greater support from government departments, such
    as the Departments of Education, Social
    Development and Local Government could enhance
    such work.
  • Policies that value community participation in
    education are required.
  • People in poor communities are capable of finding
    solutions to community problems.

11
2. Teaching Literacy and Numeracy in Multigrade
Classes in Rural and Farm Schools in South Africa
1111
12
Education is important, not only for its economic
benefits, but also for its social, political and
cultural benefits, as well as enhancing the
ability of citizens to participate in democratic
processesIt is crucial that all learners be
given equal opportunities to access quality
educationOne-size-fits-all policies and
strategies are not appropriate for our diverse
society and education systemMultigrade classes
are a strong indicator of the bifurcation of the
South African education system, and this needs to
be recognised by education departments in order
to meet the support needs of learners and
teachers in such settings
  • Education is important, not only for its economic
    benefits, but also for its social, political and
    cultural benefits, as well as enhancing the
    ability of citizens to participate in democratic
    processes
  • It is crucial that all learners be given equal
    opportunities to access quality education
  • One-size-fits-all policies and strategies are
    not appropriate for our diverse society and
    education system
  • Multigrade classes are a strong indicator of the
    bifurcation of the South African education
    system, and this needs to be recognised by
    education departments in order to meet the
    support needs of learners and teachers in such
    settings

1212
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Context of multigrade teaching in SA
  • Multigrade schools are commonly situated and
    operate within rural communities, and the
    phenomenon cannot be fully understood outside
    historical and social contexts of these
    communities
  • Rural communities evolved as a result of
    historical forces of colonialism and apartheid
    through their tools of land dispossession,
    racial discrimination and neglect leading to
    poverty and under-development of those areas
  • There is a strong relationship between rurality,
    poverty and education in that rurality and
    poverty determine the quality of educational
    experiences of learners in those settings
  • The historical forces of exclusion and neglect
    continue to frame solutions to rural development
    and rural education in the democratic era, and
    there is a need for strategies that can be
    adapted to the diverse rural conditions.

1313
14
Research Questions
  • What is the extent of the multi-grade phenomenon
    in the South African education system?
  • What are the literacy and numeracy teaching
    practices of educators in multi-grade classes?
  • How effective are these teaching practices in
    facilitating the acquisition of literacy and
    numeracy skills amongst learners?
  • How do initial professional education for
    teachers (IPET) and continuing professional
    teacher development (CPTD) programmes capacitate
    educators to deal with multi-grade classes?
  • What are the challenges and opportunities
    presented by multi-grade situations in ensuring
    that multi-grade teaching benefits learners?

1414
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Methodology
  • A quantitative desk-top analysis of EMIS data
  • 6 school case studies
  • Interviews with principals
  • Interviews with teachers
  • Lesson observation
  • Documentary analysis, e.g., work schedules,
    lesson plans, time-tables, learners work
  • Interviews with provincial and district officials
  • Interviews with teacher trainers
  • Policy review

1515
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Key research findings (1)
  • The multigrade phenomenon affects a significant
    percentage (26) of SA schools
  • No recognition of multigrade teaching
  • Schools are poorly resourced
  • No curriculum adaptation
  • Planning requirements are the same as for
    monograde classes
  • Exposure to suitable teaching strategies is
    limited
  • No teacher training on multigrade teaching
    reliance on experiential learning
  • Absence of specific support for multigrade
    teachers

1616
17
Key research findings (2)
  • High levels of workload for multigrade teachers
    due to planning and assessment requirements
  • Learners struggle with transition to English LoLT
    in Grade 4
  • Learning materials not always available in mother
    tongue, and are not made for self-study
  • Visibility of materials (i.e., reading books,
    teaching aides) in schools due to QUIDS-UP
    programme
  • Negative attitudes towards amongst teachers and
    departmental (provincial and district) officials

1717
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Conclusions
  • Lack of recognition, and general neglect of the
    multigrade question in the education system
  • Continued neglect of the multigrade question
    constitutes a furtherance of marginalisation of
    the poor and voiceless for whom multigrade is a
    reality
  • It is antithetical to social justice, and the
    transformation project in our country

1818
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Policy implications (1)
  • The Rural Education Directorate needs to be
    reinstated within the DBE as a permanent unit,
    and within it a multigrade division.
  • Policy development in multigrade teaching should
    take into account the location of the schools.
    Conditions in urban multigrade schools differ
    from those in isolated, rural areas.
  • Education policy planners should collect and use
    quantitative and qualitative data that are
    regularly updated, to monitor trends. These data
    could be used to establish the cost of special
    learning materials, teacher training and use of
    technology in these schools. They could also be
    used to better understand and track learner
    academic performance.
  • The DBE, DHET and teacher training institutions
    should work together to revise teacher training
    in the initial teacher education phase and during
    in-service training programmes, so that they
    include courses that deal with the philosophies,
    curricula, practices and pedagogies of multigrade
    teaching. Prospective teachers should be trained
    for the different contexts and types of schools.

1919
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Policy implications (2)
  • The DBE, Department of Higher Education and
    Training and teacher training institutions should
    work together to revise teacher training in the
    initial teacher education phase and during
    in-service training programmes, so that they
    include courses that deal with the philosophies,
    curricula, practices and pedagogies of multigrade
    teaching. Training programmes should seek to
    prepare prospective teachers for the different
    contexts and types of schools for example,
    monograde/multigrade, rural/urban/township and so
    forth, as well as the pedagogical implications of
    teaching in such contexts.
  • IPET, ICS and curriculum workshops should include
    topics related to multigrade teaching and
    learning and to enhancing teacher subject
    competence. These programmes should be aligned
    with support at both school and departmental
    levels. Regular follow-up work should be
    conducted by subject advisors and APOs.
  • Teacher training institutions should require
    student teachers to complete teaching practice in
    multigrade schools.

2020
21
Policy implications (3)
  • Enhanced departmental support at schools should
    be accompanied by greater teacher accountability
    in areas such as lesson planning, teaching,
    grading learners work and continuous assessment.
    Schools and teachers should also be accountable
    and report to parents and local communities.
  • District officials supporting the schools need to
    be introduced to best practices in multigrade
    schools and classes.
  • There is a need for raising awareness on
    multigrade teaching across all levels of the
    system.
  • There is a need to strengthen language teaching
    in schools. This requires efforts on various
    fronts, including strengthening the training of
    teachers to help them teach first languages and
    additional languages systematically.

2121
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Policy implications (4)
  • Providing learning materials in relevant
    languages and supporting teachers with
    interpretation and implementation of language
    policy are also necessary. Proposals by the
    Project for the Study of Alternative Education in
    South Africa for a late-exit transition from
    first language should be seriously engaged with.
  • Learning materials should complement the
    pedagogies and teaching strategies, the
    assessment methods and the learner organisational
    strategies of multigrade teaching.
  • Special incentives, such as increasing the
    remuneration of teachers working in isolated
    multigrade schools, should be implemented to
    recruit and retain teachers in this sector and to
    increase the number of teachers at schools that
    are currently understaffed.
  • The education department needs to provide
    facilities basic to the functioning of schools
    for example, safe toilets and (spacious)
    classrooms, and staff accommodation, among
    others.

2222
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Policy implications (5)
  • Merging and closing small schools should be
    evaluated against the overall goal of enhancing
    rural development and improving the quality of
    local education.
  • The processes by which such decisions are made
    should include all the relevant stakeholders.

2323
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3. Enhancing teaching and learning in South
African schools through assessment
Education and Skills Development Research
Programme Human Sciences Research Council
6 March 2012
Social science that makes a difference
25
Focus of the Study
  • Explored the challenges in using assessment to
    enhance teaching and learning at the systemic and
    classroom levels. We ask the questions
  • What does the systemic evaluation tell us about
    the provision of quality education for all?
  • What challenges are teachers and district
    education systems encountering in their attempt
    to use assessment to improve teaching and
    learning
  • How can these challenges be addressed?

Social science that makes a difference
26
Methodologyhow the study was carried out
  • The National Assessment of Learner Achievement
    collected data from grade 9 learners across the 9
    provinces on their achievement levels and
    background characteristics (involved 9000
    learners from 300 schools)
  • District assessment systems case study in
    Gauteng and Western Cape using individual and
    focus group interviews, observations, and
    document reviews to develop an understanding of
    how their curriculum and assessment units
    function.
  • Teacher Classroom Assessment Practices case
    study of eight schools in Gauteng, Mpumalanga and
    North West using questionnaires, interviews,
    lesson observations and document reviews

27
Findings National Assessment of Learner
Achievement
  • The achievement levels of a large number of grade
    9 learners across the nine provinces are quite
    poorthe performance of a typical grade_9 learner
    is at the elementary level in Language and not
    achieved level in Mathematics.
  • Most of our learners from the poorest homes
    attend the poorest schools (Quintile_1and2
    schools) and the few of these learners who attend
    well resourced schools (Quintile_5 schools) over
    50 percent do not meet the required standards.

28
Are our best schools good enough for our poor
children?
29
Findings Assessment at Provincial and District
Level
  • Observed significant differences in the way the
    two provinces conceptualise curriculum and
    assessment implementation processes.
  • In one province, these processes are seen as
    separate entities while in another they are
    integrated
  • Teachers seems to have greater challenges in
    integrating curriculum and assessment in the
    province where the two units are not integrated

30
Key Findings Teacher Classroom Assessment
Practices
  • Teachers have very limited understanding of how
    to use assessment to enhance teaching and
    learning
  • Teachers predominantly utilised the strategy of
    awarding marks and giving motivational comments
    to learners
  • Teachers attempt to comply with assessment policy
    demands instead of developing an understanding of
    the underlying assumptions of the theory of
    action of these policies and adapting them to
    their unique classroom situations

Social science that makes a difference
31
Addressing these challengesNational systemic
survey
  • Current targeted interventions excluding Quintile
    5 schools are missing the poor learners in these
    schools who need help
  • Improved resources to schools without an
    understanding of how these resources work to
    improve learning would not be enough
  • Need to develop an understanding of the
    conditions in schools and at home that provide
    opportunities for some learners from the poorest
    homes attending the poorest schools to succeed
  • Mobilize the public and all education
    stakeholders to develop among learners a hunger
    of learning for success
  • Use technology such as cell phones to help poor
    children access learning materials and
    communicate with mentors outside school

32
Addressing the challenges District assessment
systems
  • Integration of assessment and curriculum units at
    national and provincial levels would allow for
    assessment to feed into teaching and learning.
    This would require
  • strong synergy among assessment policies, the
    implementation structures and assessment
    practices within schools
  • a well coordinated assessment and implementation
    processes
  • a common purpose for support systems intended to
    implement curriculum and assessment

33
Addressing the challenge Classroom Assessment
Practices
  • Implementing ongoing professional development of
    teachers aimed at promoting understanding of
    assessment policy and enhancing their assessment
    and instructional practices
  • Technology can play a significant role in helping
    teachers integrate assessment to teaching and
    learning. The HSRC has developed a computerised
    assessment system (TARMII) with a
    curriculum-based assessment database comprising a
    range of cognitively challenging assessment items
    (literacy and numeracy for grades 4, 5 and 6)
    and reporting and diagnostic functions that allow
    teachers to
  • (a) Gain insights about learner strengths and
    weaknesses
  • (b) Identify relevant strategies for addressing
    learner needs
  • (c) Monitor learner performance continuously

34
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4. The National School Effectiveness Study
(NSES)
Outline and findings
  • 6 March 2012

36
Research Design
2007 2008 2009
268 schools selected at random nationally 8 383 pupils followed for 3 years ( 16 000 each year) 268 schools selected at random nationally 8 383 pupils followed for 3 years ( 16 000 each year) 268 schools selected at random nationally 8 383 pupils followed for 3 years ( 16 000 each year)
Grade 3 Learner test Home factors School management
Grade 4 Learner test Home factors School management Teacher practices
Grade 5 Learner test Home factors School management Teacher practices

3636
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38
Home educational practices
  • A consistent pattern that emerged when
    controlling for home language and poverty
  • Greater exposure to English through speaking and
    hearing English on the television was associated
    with higher achievement
  • Children who read frequently at home on their own
    also did better

3838
39
School Leadership Management Modeling
  • Factors associated with better learner
    performance
  • Low teacher absenteeism
  • Curriculum planning monitoring
  • Management of books

3939
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School Leadership Management Case Studies
  • In a well functioning school
  • Parents are incorporated into an extended
    pedagogical team
  • A division of labour integrates curriculum
    delivery across the classroom, the school and the
    home.
  • Systems regulating the flow of work are time
    management, curriculum planning, assessment, book
    procurement and retrieval
  • Innovative solutions need to be found to local
    problems endemic to poor communities learner
    hunger, poor punctuality, shortages of books and
    classrooms, and low parental engagement.

4040
41
Writing in language classes
  • Writing is thought which leaves a permanent
    trace
  • The writer to reflect upon what has been written,
    generating and refining ideas in the process.
  • Writing allows ideas and information to be
    detached from space and time ? reach a wide
    audience across continents and generations.
  • Research has firmly established the centrality of
    writing in shaping the way we think, reason, and
    learn
  • to improve the teaching of writing...is also to
    improve the quality of thinking required of
    school children.

4141
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Writing in learner books total no. exercises pa
Province Average number of exercises per learner No days to write one exercise
EC 31.2 5.8
FS 40.9 5.1
KZN 47.1 3.6
LP 38.1 4.0
MP 39.3 3.9
NW 39.6 4.9
NC 44.2 4.0
WC 63.8 2.6
TOTAL 42.1 4.3
4242
43
Paragraphs or longer total over the year
Province Half a page or less More than half a page Total
EC 1.7 0.6 2.3
FS 3.8 1.7 5.5
KZN 1.7 1.0 2.7
LP 2.1 0.3 2.4
MP 2.7 1.4 4.1
NW 1.8 0.5 2.3
NC 2.9 0.7 3.6
WC 5.8 1.8 7.6
TOTAL 2.6 1.0 3.6
4343
44
Coverage of math topics
Math Topic Grade 4 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 5
Math Topic No topics covered No topics covered
Numbers 32 35 34 38
Patterns 12 13 12 12
Geometry 15 23 14 18
Measurement 14 17 17 15
Data handling 11 12 12 10
Total 84 24 89 24
4444
45

gt95 educators qualified BUT 75 Teachers,
HODs, DPs, Principals, SAs, IMGs dont have the
competence to do their jobs
Build a professional civil service for education
Pay attention to initial teacher education
Survey and research
Start with 9 Provincial Depts Then 81 District
Offices
  • Equip educators to do the jobs theyre paid for
  • Appointments and promotions on demonstrated
    expertise
  • Equip

4545
46
5. Project For Creating Literate School
Communities The Dual Medium-Biliteracy Project
Project Findings
47
Models for a MTBBE system
  • The fundamental assumption of our research is
    that a learner-centred educational system, one
    that seeks to deliver meaningful access to
    effective learning to all learners, has to be
    based on the mother tongue(s) of the learners,
    especially of school pupils.
  • Such a shift towards basing the entire system on
    the mother tongues of the population rather than
    on a second, third or even a foreign language
    (which is what English is for a very large
    percentage of South Africas population) will
    require anything from one to two generations

48
Models for a MTBBE system
  • It will require, among other things, teacher
    re-training, professional development in line
    with a mother tongue based system, language
    development with respect to terminological
    standardisation, lexical expansion, production of
    learning and teaching support materials,
    adaptation of management approaches.
  • Although dual medium classroom practices and
    biliteracy outcomes are the focus of our model
    building research, we view these as aspects of
    the system of mother tongue based bilingual
    education, a concept that implies a much wider
    range of classroom practices, including
    especially single medium teaching accompanied by
    the learning of additional languages by means of
    excellent second language teaching approaches

49
Models for a MTBBE system
  • Tactically, our dual medium focus opens the way
    to persuading sceptical or hostile parents that
    mother tongue education is a valid and valuable
    method of educating their children as well as a
    base for the learning of an additional language
    that can, and should, be used as a complementary
    medium once the child has acquired second
    language instructional competence.
  • Given the global hegemonic significance of
    English for the foreseeable future, dual medium
    classrooms that involve English as a
    complementary medium will eventually position
    South African education in a very favourable
    international niche.

50
Models for a MTBBE system
  • We do not see mother tongue education as a silver
    bullet. Without the essential improvement in
    teaching methods and the availability of
    appropriate learning and teaching support
    materials, learners will continue to do badly
    even if they perform better than in the context
    of a second language based system.
  • The integration of this additive bilingualism
    approach to language learning and to the LOLT
    issue with the whole language approach to early
    literacy and biliteracy learning takes place on
    the basis of the assumption common to both that
    children learn best if they are taught through
    the medium of the language(s) they know best.

51
Mentorship as key to teacher education and
professional development
  • Take up of reflective practice is a complex
    developmental process rather than a linear
    process or a once off event. Our reflections
    included written as well as oral reflections.
  • Take up of approaches depended a lot on the
    presence of mentors to reinforce things and on
    their attitude and patience.
  • The need for reinforcement showed us that
    learning for adults is also a process and reminds
    us that input does not necessarily lead to
    immediate output.
  • Mentoring teachers required mentors to value
    teachers current practices while identifying
    gaps and problem areas together. This helped in
    boosting teachers morale.

52
Mentorship as key to teacher education and
professional development
  • Analysis of data (researchers personal journals
    and interactive reflective journals with
    teachers) shows us that although oral reflections
    were very useful, journal writing was more
    valuable because it provided evidence of
  • follow up after workshops and demonstrations.
  • One on one/individualised training and
  • a starting point in developing teachers written
    reflections
  • Take up of literacy approaches requires on-going
    demonstrations, team teaching, discussions,
    meetings, training, reading of professional books
    and reflections by both teachers and researchers.

53
Mentorship as key to teacher education and
professional development
  • Praising teachers in their attempts, however
    small, encouraged and motivated them to take up
    some of the new approaches.
  • We made it clear that we were there to empower,
    not to inspect.
  • Our use of the inclusive we rather than you
    in both oral and written reflections showed that
    we were identifying with teachers rather than
    distancing ourselves from classroom practice and
    that we were together in this.
  • Linking our approaches with the curriculum
    documents helped with the take up of the
    curriculum.

54
Mentorship as key to teacher education and
professional development
  • Praising teachers in their attempts, however
    small, encouraged and motivated them to take up
    some of the new approaches.
  • We made it clear that we were there to empower,
    not to inspect.
  • Our use of the inclusive we rather than you
    in both oral and written reflections showed that
    we were identifying with teachers rather than
    distancing ourselves from classroom practice and
    that we were together in this.
  • Linking our approaches with the curriculum
    documents helped with the take up of the
    curriculum.

55
Mentorship as key to teacher education and
professional development
  • Owing to planned classroom activities with
    Mother-Tongue Based Bilingual Materials (MTBBM),
    there was a considerable improvement in the way
    in which the teacher at School Maroon delivered
    her lessons in both mathematics and science.
  • The teacher also developed a systematic approach
    in the use and choice of terms in both English
    and isiXhosa for teaching mathematics and
    science. Evidence to this effect has been seen in
    her lesson plans, which were developed in a
    bilingual manner.
  • The teacher has developed confidence in the use
    of isiXhosa as a LoLT but realized that a MTBBE
    approach was more practical, given the
    multicultural diversity of our South African
    classrooms.

56
Mentorship as key to teacher education and
professional development
  • Recommendations
  • Until the system is established and
    self-reproducing, it will be necessary to rely on
    a select group of mentors in each district in
    order to ensure that a consistent pedagogy is
    acquired and practised by teachers.
  • The first task in each of the provinces is,
    therefore, in conjunction with teacher educators
    and trainers to identify such initial mentors for
    each phase and subject or learning area.

57
Childrens enhanced participation
  • Children love stories and writing letters and
    journals when they have reading and writing role
    models. However, we found inconsistency among
    teachers in making stories central in childrens
    learning and in creating meaningful opportunities
    for writing.
  • Children loaned books from the libraries and from
    the researchers.
  • By Grade 3, children could read and write in two
    languages, unlike before, where they were only
    taught English in Grade 3 orally.

58
Childrens enhanced participation
  • Children are now doing extensive writing in
    different genres, including letter and journal
    writing which gives children opportunities to
    write in meaningful ways
  • The use of songs allowed children to practice
    their English in a non-threatening environment
    and had shy children engaging willingly.
  • The majority of learners in the classroom were
    very willing to participate and to engage the
    teacher in classroom activities and, thus, in the
    co-construction of their knowledge.
  • Learners were able to express their indigenous
    (folk)ways as prior knowledge in the classroom.

59
Childrens enhanced participation
  • Initially, the general passivity of learners and
    their low-level of participation was a glaring
    shortcoming in most classes. Though not sustained
    as a practice, the open learning approach
    resulted in the learners showing increased levels
    of interest and diligence.
  • The practice of rote learning among learners
    seemed to dwindle as the use of their own home
    language seemed to stimulate them to argue rather
    than being passive learners.
  • Mathematics and Science learners developed
    argumentation skills as a result of conceptual
    understanding which emanated from systematic
    bilingual teaching and learning.

60
Interactive Journals
  • Teachers generally find writing challenging.
    Because journal writing is an unfamiliar genre
    to them they found it difficult.
  • High administrative workload impacts on teachers
    time to write their journals.
  • Interactive journaling can be used as a tool to
    facilitate follow up after training.
  • The journal also became a strategy for
    individualised attention, for teaching and role
    modelling, for free writing, support and
    reflection

61
L2 Teaching and Learning
  • Teachers used the grammar/translation approach to
    English teaching. This means translating from
    isiXhosa directly and focussing on grammar.
  • Teachers have had no training on how to teach
    English as a second language and there is no
    support from the Department for struggling
    teachers
  • Teachers do not have a repertoire of English
    stories, rhymes or songs at their disposal.
    Teaching through stories, rhymes and songs was
    mostly left to researchers to do.

62
L2 Teaching and Learning
  • At times, the English the teacher modeled for the
    class was incorrect.
  • No planning for the English period is done.
  • Initially the English print on the walls was
    random and meaningless and we did not observe the
    teacher using it.
  • In some cases, the English period was not
    timetabled and where it was timetabled, there was
    no systematic use of it.

63
L2 Teaching and Learning
  • Even though there were many English books in the
    classrooms and libraries compared to isiXhosa
    books, teachers did not use them.
  • Teachers do not have English curriculum
    documents.
  • Where Whole Language approaches had been used for
    teaching literacy in the MT, the children quickly
    understood the processes when the same approaches
    were used to teach English (this cannot occur
    using the grammar-translation approach).

64
L2 Teaching and Learning
  • Teaching that involves combinations of movement,
    music, rhythm, enjoyment, interaction (i.e..
    Stories, songs, games) are memorable for children
    who demand similar experiences repeatedly.
  • Teachers approach to mother tongue and second
    language teaching varies. Even though we
    emphasized holistic approaches in mother tongue,
    transference of these fundamental understandings
    of how young children learn was not automatic for
    second language teaching.
  • Languages are taught separately and there is no
    coherence and understanding of how concepts
    taught in the mother tongue transfer to English.

65
Reading Clubs
  • All our RCs are based at schools and this
    maximises the impact in the community.
  • It is a model of community and intergenerational
    literacy that can and has been replicated across
    different contexts in South Africa.
  • There are ways to value the literacies children
    bring to the RC and to improve them in a relaxed
    atmosphere using childrens literature

66
Reading Clubs
  • A literacy programme based on childrens
    literature is effective and can be used to help
    children acquire reading and writing and oral
    skills in more than one language
  • Requires commitment from the volunteers, as the
    benefits can only be realised over time
  • There are not enough good quality childrens
    books available across all the genres in isiXhosa
    and this applies to other materials such as
    childrens games, audio books, movies, etc.

67
Need for technical terminology in African
languages
  • It has been found to be almost impossible to
    teach in English or in isiXhosa only because of
    the lack of LTSMs in isiXhosa as compared to
    English as well as the fact that some isiXhosa
    terms are not yet recognised in scientific
    discourse.
  • As a result, assessment in isiXhosa requires key
    scientific/technical instructional terms to be in
    both isiXhosa and in English
  • Recommendation
  • Technical glossaries of terms in English and
    isiXhosa should always be provided.

68
Bilingual Teaching and Learning
  • Code-switching occurs with more discretion and
    appropriateness and is practised to a lesser
    extent. This is a significant change, firstly
    because it is self-induced (by the teacher) and
    secondly because it represents a shift in
    awareness regarding how language ought to be used
    when teaching (and learning).
  • In relation to Mathematics and Science teaching
    and learning, code-switching happens
    unsystematically resulting in terminology which
    has no precise meaning. For example, place
    value is rendered as ipleyivelu, a word that
    does not exist in isiXhosa and which has no
    conceptual referent.
  • Well planned code mixing works well.

69
Bilingual Teaching and Learning
  • Recommendation
  • The systematic use of both isiXhosa and English
    in the teaching of Maths and Science in most
    township and rural schools is an unavoidable
    transitional position, which should be
    accommodated in all relevant respects, especially
    in the provision of textbooks and learning and
    teaching support materials. On the other hand,
    the final destination must remain the development
    of technical registers in the African languages
    that will gradually render this practice
    superfluous.

70
Bilingual Teaching and Learning
  • The changes that were hard to impact on were
  • the change from English-based assessment to
    Xhosa-based assessment in Xhosa-speaking
    classrooms.
  • to adhere to a structured approach to dual medium
    teaching and learning.
  • teachers commitment to integration of their
    efforts across subjects and phases so that
    congruency in approach could be obtained and
    consensus arrived at on certain priority issues
    like language use, the conscious building of the
    self-esteem of learners etc.
  • generating organised and on-going parental
    involvement.
  • Need for more structured and intensive use of
    isiXhosa in all learning areas with a particular
    focus on reading and writing.

71
SECTION
General Recommendations
72
General Recommendations
  • Reading and writing
  • Smaller classes encourage better implementation
    of any reading and writing strategy.
  • Especially but not only foundation phase teachers
    need training in understanding how young children
    learn.
  • Emphasis needs to be on meaningful
    learning/meaning making in foundation phase.

73
General Recommendations
  • In particular, interactive writing is an
    excellent tool for getting children writing and
    reading, and we can and must find ways to meet
    the challenge of getting committed people
    (adults, teenagers etc) to write regularly with
    children.
  • Bringing community into school adults helping
    teachers in classrooms.
  • Materials districts need to offer more workshops
    and deliver quality books in all languages.
  • Second language The department needs to train
    English first additional language specialists
    (mother-tongue and non mother tongue speakers).

74
General Recommendations
  • Teacher mentoring teachers need to be trained in
    reflective journaling and curriculum advisors
    need to take this up.
  • On-site support is more effective than dishing
    out policy documents alone.
  • School management School management needs
    training.
  • The need for professional development of all
    educational personnel but especially of teachers,
    is by far the most important government-led
    intervention that is needed.

75
General Recommendations
  • The provision of opportunities for teachers to be
    apprenticed into multilingual classroom practices
    in which they can create a dynamic learning
    atmosphere would definitely improve professional
    development. In addition to such sustained and
    intensive subject specific initiatives, didactic
    courses should be made available that focus on
    multilingual approaches.
  • Mentors should understand the languages of those
    they mentor as well as the fact that their
    mentees are not empty vessels who cannot reason.
  • Demonstrations of how to implement new changes is
    a key for successful implementation.

76
General Recommendations
  • Appointment of the SMT should be strictly
    scrutinised as this body is a critical element of
    the school success.
  • Time should be set aside for lesson development
    and phases should be encouraged to plan together.
  • Meetings should be held towards the end of the
    school calendar and foundation phase and
    intermediate phase teachers should discuss things
    covered in their respective classes and the
    issues that can be expected with respect to the
    children.
  • SLP should be visible to all the school
    stakeholders and its implementation should be
    monitored.

77
SECTION
Key Recommendations
78
Key Recommendations
  • This research has confirmed our view that it is
    essential for the educational authorities of
    post-apartheid South Africa to consider urgently
    the mechanisms and modalities of shifting from
    the current English-based educational system to a
    mother tongue-based bilingual educational (MTBBE)
    system. We recommend that a special conference be
    called towards the end of 2012 in order to
    initiate this process. This could be done within
    the framework of the existing Action Plan to
    2014 Towards the Realisation of Schooling 2025).

79
Key Recommendations
  • It has become clear to us that in order to arrive
    at an understanding of the optimal conditions for
    introducing a MTBBE system, it is essential that
    demonstration schools be established in each
    district, where appropriately trained and
    selected teachers can research and demonstrate to
    others good practice with regards to subjects as
    well as all other dimensions of the learning
    process. Existing focus schools could serve as a
    point of departure for realising this
    recommendation.

80
Key Recommendations
  • Teacher education and professional development
    should be undertaken on an apprenticeship/mentorsh
    ip basis. The current bias towards academic
    training plus some practice teaching is a
    demonstrable failure
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