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Developmental Disabilities: A Public Health School Issue

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Title: Developmental Disabilities: A Public Health School Issue


1
Developmental Disabilities A Public Health
School Issue
2
What are Developmental Disabilities (DD)?
  • Severe and chronic interference of a persons
    functionality which is attributable to a mental
    or physical impairment or a combination of mental
    and physical impairment.
  • Manifested before the person attains age 22 is
    likely to continue indefinitely

3
What are Developmental Disabilities (DD)?
(Continued)
  • Results in substantial functional limitations in
    three or more of the following areas (self-care,
    receptive and expressive language, learning,
    mobility, self-direction, capacity for
    independent living, economic self-sufficiency)
  • Reflects the person's need for a combination and
    sequence of special, interdisciplinary, or
    generic care, treatment, or other services which
    are lifelong or extended duration and
    individually planned and coordinated. (Haring
    McCormick, 1986)

4
How Prevalent are Developmental Disabilities?
  • About 17 of U.S. children under 18 years of age
    have a developmental disability.
  • Approximately 2 of school-aged children in the
    U.S. have a serious developmental disability

5
What are the Major Developmental Disabilities?
  • Autism
  • Mental Retardation
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Seizure Disorder

6
Lets Look at these Disabilities
7
What Characterizes Autism?
  • Autism is diagnosed if the person exhibits
    symptoms listed within each of three domains.
    These are
  • (1) Qualitative impairments in social
    interaction,
  • (2) Qualitative impairment in communication, and
  • (3) Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped
    patterns of behaviors, activities, and interests

8
Is There an Autistic Gene?
  • Duke University Margaret Pericak-Vance and her
    collaborators have found evidence of chromosomal
    defects that may be linked to autistic spectrum
    disorder

9
What is Mental Retardation?
  • Characterized both by a significantly
    below-average score on a test of mental ability
    or intelligence, and
  • By limitations in the ability to function in
    areas of daily life, such as communication,
    self-care, and getting along in social situations
    and school activities.
  • Mental retardation is sometimes referred to as a
    cognitive or intellectual disability. 

10
How Common is Mental Retardation?
  • Mental retardation is the most common
    developmental disorder
  • About 1 of children ages 3-10 years had mental
    retardation
  • 1.2 of every 100 10-year-old children had mental
    retardation.
  • Mild mental retardation was 3 times more common
    than severe mental retardation.

11
What Causes Mental Retardation?
  • Mental retardation can occur at anytime in the
    course of human development
  • It can be caused by a genetic abnormality,
    injury, disease, or deprivation
  • These causes can happen while in the whom, during
    the birthing process, or during childhood

12
Can Mental Retardation be Prevented?
  • We do not know how to prevent most conditions
    that cause mental retardation
  • There are some causes that can be prevented
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is one such cause
  • Some metabolic conditions, such as
    phenylketonuria (PKU).

13
How Can We Respond to PKU?
14
What is the Cost of Mental Retardation?
  • During the 1995-1996 school year, about 600,000
    U.S. 6- to 21-year-old children with mental
    retardation received special educational
    services, at a cost of about 3.3 billion. 

15
What is Cerebral Palsy?
  • Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement or
    coordination caused by an abnormality of the
    brain
  • Almost 70 have other disabilities, primarily
    mental retardation

16
How Does the Law Protect School Age-Children?
17
What is the Lanterman Act?
  • Guarantees the right to services andsupports to
    help individuals diagnosed with developmental
    disabilities live an independent and
    productivelife.

18
What are the Rights Guaranteed Under the
Lanterman Act?
  • Treatment and habilitation
  • Dignity, privacy and humane care
  • Participation in an appropriate program
  • Prompt medical care and treatment
  • Religious freedom

19
Lanterman Rights (Continued)
  • Social interaction and participation in community
    activities
  • Physical exercise and recreation
  • Freedom from harm
  • Choices in your own life
  • The opportunity to make decisions.  4502.1

20
What are Regional Centers?
  • Non-profit corporate community agencies that
    provide services to people with developmental
    disabilities
  • There are 21 regional centers in California and
  • The main point of contact in your community
    between service management and the end-user.

21
Who is Eligible for Regional Center Services?
  • People with developmental disabilities
  • People who are at high risk of giving birth to a
    child with a developmental disability and
  • Infants who have a high risk of becoming
    developmentally disabled.

22
What is a "substantial disability?
  • A condition that is severe enough to be a major
    impairment of cognitive and/or social
    functioning.
  • A condition that requires Interdisciplinary
    planning
  • A condition that requires Coordination of
    Services

23
What are the responsibilities of the regional
center?
  • Search out and identify
  • Provide intake and assessment
  • Supply preventive services and
  • Develop an Individual Program Plan (IPP).

24
What Happens After Becoming Eligible?
  • Within 60 days after the intake and assessment a
    written Individual Program Plan (IPP) must be
    developed
  • It should focus on you and your family, where
    appropriate.
  • It should promote community integration an
    independent, productive, and normal life and
  • A stable and healthy environment.

25
Why is the IPP So Important?
  • It is a contract or agreement between the family
    of the consumer and the regional center
  • It establishes what will be provided and what
    will not be provided
  • It indicates who will provide the services and
  • Who will pay for the services

26
How is the IPP Developed?
  • Gathering information and conducting assessments
    and
  • Assessments may be formal or informal

27
What Must the Regional Center do to Make the IPP
Work?
  • Getting the services and supports
  • Providing advocacy
  • Identifying and building circles of support
  • Ensuring quality of services and
  • Developing new services

28
What are the Entitlement Services and Supports?
  • Assessment services
  • Habilitation and training
  • Treatment and therapy
  • Preventive services
  • An array of different living arrangements
  • Community integration
  • Employment/Day programs

29
Entitlement Services and Supports (Continued)
  • Family support services
  • Relationship services and supports
  • Emergency and crisis intervention services
  • Specialized equipment
  • Transportation services
  • Facilitation/Self-Advocacy
  • Interpreter/translator services
  • Advocacy

30
The History of Special Needs Children
  • Prior 1975, approximately 1 million children with
    disabilities were shut out of schools
  • Hundreds of thousands more were denied
    appropriate services
  • Ninety percent of children with developmental
    disabilities were housed in state institutions.

31
Current Status of Special Needs Children
  • Three times the number of young people with
    disabilities are enrolled in colleges or
    universities as compared to prior to 1975, and
  • Twice as many of today's 20 year olds with
    disabilities are working.

32
The Unfulfilled Promises to Special Needs
Children
  • Twice as many children with disabilities drop out
    of school.
  • Drop outs do not return to school, have
    difficulty finding jobs and often end up in the
    criminal justice system.
  • Girls who drop out often become young  unwed
    mothersat a much higher rate than their
    non-disabled peers.
  • Many children with disabilities are excluded from
    the curriculum and assessments  

33
PL94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children
(1975)
  • Assures that all handicapped children have
    available to them a free appropriate public
    education (FAPE) regardless of how, or how
    seriously, he may be handicapped
  • Mandates an individualized education program
    (IEP) for every student with a disability

34
PL 98-199 Education of the Handicapped Act
Amendments (1983)
  • Allows for federal funding to create parent
    training and information centers (PIC)
  • Expands services for children from birth to age 3
    and the initiatives for transition services from
    school to adult living for students with
    disabilities

35
PL 99-372 Handicapped Children's Protection Act
(1986)
  • Allows parents or guardians to be reimbursed for
    reasonable legal costs if they WIN a hearing or
    court action.
  • Requires that the case and the costs of the legal
    proceedings should be discussed with the lawyer
    prior to any legal action

36
What IDEA Attempted To Do
  • Raise expectations for children with
    disabilities
  • Increase parental involvement in the education of
    their children
  • Ensure that regular education teachers are
    involved
  • Include children with disabilities
  • Support quality professional development.

37
IDEA Accomplishments
  • Full-inclusion has become the standard
  • Increased graduation rates
  • Increased employment
  • Greater college and University attendance
  • More support programs for education
  • Improved technology for all of us

38
IDEAs Areas of Weakness
  • Eligibility and over representation of racial and
    ethnic minorities
  • Funding of IDEA
  • Monitoring and enforcement and
  • Discipline

39
Overrepresentation of Minorities Under IDEA
  • Prevent special education placement
  • Intervene in general education
  • Increase regular educational staffing
  • Improve family centered services
  • Improved school support services
  • Increased funding for regular education

40
Monitoring and enforcement
  • Significant weaknesses exist in the current
    systems of monitoring and enforcement
  • More timely system focused on solid outcomes for
    students
  • More classroom time for teachers
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