Developmental Disabilities: A Public Health School Issue - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Developmental Disabilities: A Public Health School Issue


Developmental Disabilities: A Public Health School Issue – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Disabilities: A Public Health School Issue

Developmental Disabilities A Public Health
School Issue
What are Developmental Disabilities (DD)?
  • Severe and chronic interference of a persons
    functionality which is attributable to a mental
    or physical impairment or a combination of mental
    and physical impairment.
  • Manifested before the person attains age 22 is
    likely to continue indefinitely

What are Developmental Disabilities (DD)?
  • Results in substantial functional limitations in
    three or more of the following areas (self-care,
    receptive and expressive language, learning,
    mobility, self-direction, capacity for
    independent living, economic self-sufficiency)
  • Reflects the person's need for a combination and
    sequence of special, interdisciplinary, or
    generic care, treatment, or other services which
    are lifelong or extended duration and
    individually planned and coordinated. (Haring
    McCormick, 1986)

How Prevalent are Developmental Disabilities?
  • About 17 of U.S. children under 18 years of age
    have a developmental disability.
  • Approximately 2 of school-aged children in the
    U.S. have a serious developmental disability

What are the Major Developmental Disabilities?
  • Autism
  • Mental Retardation
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Seizure Disorder

Lets Look at these Disabilities
What Characterizes Autism?
  • Autism is diagnosed if the person exhibits
    symptoms listed within each of three domains.
    These are
  • (1) Qualitative impairments in social
  • (2) Qualitative impairment in communication, and
  • (3) Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped
    patterns of behaviors, activities, and interests

Is There an Autistic Gene?
  • Duke University Margaret Pericak-Vance and her
    collaborators have found evidence of chromosomal
    defects that may be linked to autistic spectrum

What is Mental Retardation?
  • Characterized both by a significantly
    below-average score on a test of mental ability
    or intelligence, and
  • By limitations in the ability to function in
    areas of daily life, such as communication,
    self-care, and getting along in social situations
    and school activities.
  • Mental retardation is sometimes referred to as a
    cognitive or intellectual disability. 

How Common is Mental Retardation?
  • Mental retardation is the most common
    developmental disorder
  • About 1 of children ages 3-10 years had mental
  • 1.2 of every 100 10-year-old children had mental
  • Mild mental retardation was 3 times more common
    than severe mental retardation.

What Causes Mental Retardation?
  • Mental retardation can occur at anytime in the
    course of human development
  • It can be caused by a genetic abnormality,
    injury, disease, or deprivation
  • These causes can happen while in the whom, during
    the birthing process, or during childhood

Can Mental Retardation be Prevented?
  • We do not know how to prevent most conditions
    that cause mental retardation
  • There are some causes that can be prevented
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is one such cause
  • Some metabolic conditions, such as
    phenylketonuria (PKU).

How Can We Respond to PKU?
What is the Cost of Mental Retardation?
  • During the 1995-1996 school year, about 600,000
    U.S. 6- to 21-year-old children with mental
    retardation received special educational
    services, at a cost of about 3.3 billion. 

What is Cerebral Palsy?
  • Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement or
    coordination caused by an abnormality of the
  • Almost 70 have other disabilities, primarily
    mental retardation

How Does the Law Protect School Age-Children?
What is the Lanterman Act?
  • Guarantees the right to services andsupports to
    help individuals diagnosed with developmental
    disabilities live an independent and

What are the Rights Guaranteed Under the
Lanterman Act?
  • Treatment and habilitation
  • Dignity, privacy and humane care
  • Participation in an appropriate program
  • Prompt medical care and treatment
  • Religious freedom

Lanterman Rights (Continued)
  • Social interaction and participation in community
  • Physical exercise and recreation
  • Freedom from harm
  • Choices in your own life
  • The opportunity to make decisions.  4502.1

What are Regional Centers?
  • Non-profit corporate community agencies that
    provide services to people with developmental
  • There are 21 regional centers in California and
  • The main point of contact in your community
    between service management and the end-user.

Who is Eligible for Regional Center Services?
  • People with developmental disabilities
  • People who are at high risk of giving birth to a
    child with a developmental disability and
  • Infants who have a high risk of becoming
    developmentally disabled.

What is a "substantial disability?
  • A condition that is severe enough to be a major
    impairment of cognitive and/or social
  • A condition that requires Interdisciplinary
  • A condition that requires Coordination of

What are the responsibilities of the regional
  • Search out and identify
  • Provide intake and assessment
  • Supply preventive services and
  • Develop an Individual Program Plan (IPP).

What Happens After Becoming Eligible?
  • Within 60 days after the intake and assessment a
    written Individual Program Plan (IPP) must be
  • It should focus on you and your family, where
  • It should promote community integration an
    independent, productive, and normal life and
  • A stable and healthy environment.

Why is the IPP So Important?
  • It is a contract or agreement between the family
    of the consumer and the regional center
  • It establishes what will be provided and what
    will not be provided
  • It indicates who will provide the services and
  • Who will pay for the services

How is the IPP Developed?
  • Gathering information and conducting assessments
  • Assessments may be formal or informal

What Must the Regional Center do to Make the IPP
  • Getting the services and supports
  • Providing advocacy
  • Identifying and building circles of support
  • Ensuring quality of services and
  • Developing new services

What are the Entitlement Services and Supports?
  • Assessment services
  • Habilitation and training
  • Treatment and therapy
  • Preventive services
  • An array of different living arrangements
  • Community integration
  • Employment/Day programs

Entitlement Services and Supports (Continued)
  • Family support services
  • Relationship services and supports
  • Emergency and crisis intervention services
  • Specialized equipment
  • Transportation services
  • Facilitation/Self-Advocacy
  • Interpreter/translator services
  • Advocacy

The History of Special Needs Children
  • Prior 1975, approximately 1 million children with
    disabilities were shut out of schools
  • Hundreds of thousands more were denied
    appropriate services
  • Ninety percent of children with developmental
    disabilities were housed in state institutions.

Current Status of Special Needs Children
  • Three times the number of young people with
    disabilities are enrolled in colleges or
    universities as compared to prior to 1975, and
  • Twice as many of today's 20 year olds with
    disabilities are working.

The Unfulfilled Promises to Special Needs
  • Twice as many children with disabilities drop out
    of school.
  • Drop outs do not return to school, have
    difficulty finding jobs and often end up in the
    criminal justice system.
  • Girls who drop out often become young  unwed
    mothersat a much higher rate than their
    non-disabled peers.
  • Many children with disabilities are excluded from
    the curriculum and assessments  

PL94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children
  • Assures that all handicapped children have
    available to them a free appropriate public
    education (FAPE) regardless of how, or how
    seriously, he may be handicapped
  • Mandates an individualized education program
    (IEP) for every student with a disability

PL 98-199 Education of the Handicapped Act
Amendments (1983)
  • Allows for federal funding to create parent
    training and information centers (PIC)
  • Expands services for children from birth to age 3
    and the initiatives for transition services from
    school to adult living for students with

PL 99-372 Handicapped Children's Protection Act
  • Allows parents or guardians to be reimbursed for
    reasonable legal costs if they WIN a hearing or
    court action.
  • Requires that the case and the costs of the legal
    proceedings should be discussed with the lawyer
    prior to any legal action

What IDEA Attempted To Do
  • Raise expectations for children with
  • Increase parental involvement in the education of
    their children
  • Ensure that regular education teachers are
  • Include children with disabilities
  • Support quality professional development.

IDEA Accomplishments
  • Full-inclusion has become the standard
  • Increased graduation rates
  • Increased employment
  • Greater college and University attendance
  • More support programs for education
  • Improved technology for all of us

IDEAs Areas of Weakness
  • Eligibility and over representation of racial and
    ethnic minorities
  • Funding of IDEA
  • Monitoring and enforcement and
  • Discipline

Overrepresentation of Minorities Under IDEA
  • Prevent special education placement
  • Intervene in general education
  • Increase regular educational staffing
  • Improve family centered services
  • Improved school support services
  • Increased funding for regular education

Monitoring and enforcement
  • Significant weaknesses exist in the current
    systems of monitoring and enforcement
  • More timely system focused on solid outcomes for
  • More classroom time for teachers
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