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Lifetime Fitness: Ch 3- Exercising Safely


Lifetime Fitness: Ch 3- Exercising Safely PE HS 1.3 Injuries: The learner will be able to describe the prevention and treatment for exercise related injuries. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lifetime Fitness: Ch 3- Exercising Safely

Lifetime FitnessCh 3- Exercising Safely
  • PE HS 1.3 Injuries The learner will be able to
    describe the prevention and treatment for
    exercise related injuries.

Essential Question Why is safety important in
terms of exercising?
Safety first
  • About 80 of all injuries can be prevented with
    knowledge and common sense
  • 70 of injuries start out small and gradually
    become worse
  • Warm up
  • Stretch 10-15 minutes
  • Warms up muscles and Slowly increases your heart
  • Cool down
  • 10-15 minutes
  • Relaxes muscles and helps heart rate return to
  • (Does not prevent muscles soreness)

Vocabulary To Know
  • Biomechanics
  • Study of human motion and the effect of the
    forces have on the body
  • Warm-up
  • Beginning phase of the training session
  • Lactic acid
  • A body waste product found in the muscles and
  • Not true anymore (new research)
  • Diaphragm
  • Muscle separating the chest and abdominal cavity
  • Cool-down
  • Tapering off period after completing the
    conditioning phase of training

Selecting Exercise Clothing
  • Clothing not suited for the weather can cause
    serious health problems
  • Hot cotton or synthetic fibers
  • It is light and allows air movement to help
    evaporate perspiration
  • Comfortable and loose fitting
  • Exemption swimming, skiing, cycling
  • Light colored or white
  • Reflect suns rays
  • Night white or reflective clothing
  • Socks
  • Fit tightly
  • Cotton or wool absorb sweat (not the best)
  • Need to be clean to protect against athletes

  • Type of activity
  • Running shoes meant for straight
  • forward movement
  • Other shoes meant for lateral movement
  • Arch type
  • Low, medium, or high
  • Try shoes on late in afternoon since your foot
    swells throughout the day
  • Walk or run in the shoes at the store
  • Dont think they will stretch out
  • Shoes last around 300 400 miles
  • The cushion of the shoes wears out before the sole

  • Gait cycle
  • the movement of the foot from heel strike to
    midstance to toe off.
  • Heel strike
  • Initial point of contact for most people (some
    are forefoot strikers).
  • Point of highest impact, creating a force three
    to six times greater than a persons bodyweight.
  • Toe off
  • Propulsion stage

  • Pronation is the normal, natural rolling in of
    the foot.
  • The question is how you pronate?
  • Over, under, or neutral
  • Pronation tendency is related to a number of
    factors including arch type, ankle flexibility,
    foot structure, and type of pronation.
  • Over Pronation
  • Excessively rolling in of the foot.
  • unstable position puts added stress on the inside
    portion of the foot
  • Under Pronation
  • Rolling out of the foot (very uncommon)

  • Exercise in hot weather
  • Your muscles produce heat, this heat must be
    removed form you body
  • Otherwise, quick and dangerous rise in body temp.
  • As body sweats it cools down, warm blood from
    muscles are able to cool
  • After a couple of hours your body may become
    dehydrated and blood volume decreases, causing
    less blood to move to skin to be cooled.
  • Less heat is lost
  • You can increase your ability to withstand heat
    by regularly exercising in it
  • Try to plan exercise for coolest part of the day
    (sun rays most intense 11a.m. 2p.m.)
  • Cut back on length and intensity
  • Humidity makes cooling difficult
  • Never wear rubber suits
  • Use of salt tablets not recommended

Fluid replacement
  • Dont wait until you are thirsty to begin
    drinking water
  • Try to drink a couple of cups of water an hour
    before exercising
  • Try to drink every 15 minutes while exercising
  • If workout is
  • less than 90 minutes drink water
  • More than 90 minutes sport drink or gel
  • Diluting with 50 water may prevent cramps
  • High sugar sport drinks slow down absorption of
    fluid from the digestive tract
  • Avoid caffeine and alcohol
  • Speeds up urine function causing dehydration
  • Frequent trips to bathroom and clear urine
    indicate hydration
  • Dark colored urine indicate dehydration

Heat index
  • Makes the effects of the heat
  • much worse
  • Air temperature relative humidity how hot it
  • Human body normally cools itself by sweating, as
    sweat evaporates it carries heat away from the
  • but when humidity is high, water doesn't
    evaporate as quickly, so the body retains more
  • If the temp. is 85 and the humidity is at 90
    then feels like 102

(No Transcript)
Heat Related Disorders
Heat Cramps
  • Affected muscle contracts violently and
  • Symptoms
  • thirst, nausea, clammy skin,
  • chills and/or increased heart
  • rate
  • Treatment
  • stop activity, massage the muscle, replace fluids

Heat Exhaustion
  • Fatigue, weakness and collapse
  • Symptoms
  • pale, wet skin, heavy perspiration, nausea, and
    rapid, shallow breathing
  • Treatment
  • stop activity, move to cool, shaded area, apply
    wet towels, drink large amount of fluids, seek
    medical attention

  • Can be life-threatening
  • Brain shuts down the sweating mechanism to
    prevent additional water loss
  • Symptoms
  • hot, dry skin, very high body temperature, sudden
    collapse and possible unconsciousness
  • Treatment
  • seek medical attention, apply ice packs to head,
    remove clothing and apply ice, cold water, wet

Group Activity!
  • The row you are sitting in is your group
  • Each group needs one sheet of paper
  • The last person in the row (against the wall)
    will write a sentence about the information weve
    discussed so far and will pass the paper forward
    to the next person in the row
  • The second person adds a sentence to the previous
    one and passes it on.
  • This continues until all students in the group
    have written a statement.

Exercise in cold weather
  • Try to conserve body heat
  • Air temp., wind chill, dampness
  • Fatigue
  • Lower bodys temperature
  • Hypothermia
  • Breakdown in the bodys ability to produce heat
  • Body temp. below 95 degrees
  • TIPS
  • Wear several layers of light clothing
  • Wear a head covering
  • Try wearing a mask or scarf
  • Wear sunglasses when exercising in the snow on a
    bright day
  • Get used to exercising in cold weather gradually
  • Easier to pull a muscle in the cold

Other Cautions
  • Skin cancer
  • Wear sunscreen
  • Wear a sunscreen of at least 15 SPF
  • Sunburns increase risk
  • ABCD
  • (Asymmetry, Bleeding/unevenness on edges,
  • Color, Diameter or size)
  • Pollution
  • Schedule your exercise route to pass through
    major intersections before traffic builds up or
    the sun gets too high
  • Monitor reports on air quality
  • When pollutants are too high, move your workout
  • Lightning strikes
  • Dont stand near metal object under isolated
    tree, open field, lake, or mountain top
  • Stay in automobile or shelter
  • Count second between flash of lightening and

Using hand, ankle, and vest weights
  • Walking with weights increases intensity of
    effort and calories burned per minute.
  • Do not use them while
  • running or aerobics
  • Can increase risk of bone, joint, and connective
    tissue injuries

Common injuries
  • Muscle soreness
  • Tiny tears in muscle and connective tissue and
    some swelling
  • Gentle stretching and limit usage
  • Muscle cramps
  • Powerful involuntary muscle contractions
  • Causes
  • Dehydration
  • Electrolyte imbalance (loss of potassium and
    sodium from excessive sweating)
  • Injury (surrounding muscles may contract to
    protect injured muscle/joint)
  • Inadequate physical conditioning
  • Overexertion
  • Solutions
  • Stretching, ice, massage

Injury treatment
  • R.I.C.E.
  • R rest injured part
  • I ice reduces inflammation
  • and pain
  • C compression or pressure
  • reduce blood flow and swelling
  • E elevation decreases internal
  • bleeding and swelling
  • Heat can be used after 48 hours
  • Usually for tight muscles or joints before

Side stitch
  • Sharp pain in upper abdomen
  • Usually when you first begin a workout regime
  • Causes
  • Muscle cramp vigorous exercise before abs
    muscles can warm up and/or breathing incorrectly.
    Thus, muscles do not get enough oxygen, and
    lactic acid builds. Muscle then goes into spasm
  • A spasm in the diaphragm caused by rapid
    breathing due to uncommon activity.
  • Reduced blood flow to the area because of other
    body demands
  • Solution
  • Slow down or stop
  • Take deep breaths
  • Stretch muscles on side of abs

Heel pain
  • A.k.a. stone bruise
  • Causes
  • Pounding of heel on hard surfaces
  • Causing swelling
  • Standing for long periods at a time or being over
    weight adds to pressure
  • Solutions
  • Wear adequately cushioned shoes
  • Avoid running on hard surfaces
  • Heel cup
  • Low impact exercising
  • Ice

Shin Splints
  • Prolonged running on hard surfaces sometimes
    cause an inflammation and tearing of muscles and
    soft tissues of the lower leg.
  • Solutions
  • RICE
  • Stretching
  • Complete rest
  • Wear cushioned shoes

  • Injuries to the ligaments or capsule like sac
    that surrounds a joint
  • Causes
  • Movement of the joint beyond
  • normal range of motion
  • Trauma, which overstretches the
  • tissue
  • Treatment
  • Time off
  • RICE
  • Sometimes you may not be able to distinguish a
    sprain form a more serious injury (like a
    fracture) except by x-ray

Muscle Strains
  • If muscles are forced into unaccustomed exercise,
    they may overstretch, causing a pull or strain.
    Sometimes tearing muscle fibers.
  • The muscle will contract, swell, and stiffen
  • If fibers are torn completely, surgical repair
    and physical therapy are often necessary
  • Solutions
  • RICE, followed with moist heat, and stretching
  • If pain continues see a Dr.
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