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Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition


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Title: Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition

Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition
  • By Josh Ivanir

  • Three main categories that animals fall in
  • -Herbivores  eat mainly autotrophs (plants and
    algae) ex. Gorillas, cattle
  • -Carnivores eat other animals
  • ex. Sharks,hawks
  • -Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as
    plants or algae
  • ex. Humans, Bears
  • Most animals are also opportunistic feeders,
    foods that are outside their main dietary
    category when these foods are available.
  • All animals consume bacteria along with other
    types of food.

For any animal, a nutritionally adequate diet
must satisfy three nutritional needs
  •  fuel (chemical energy) which is converted into
    ATP to power cellular processes.
  • Organic building blocks, such as organic carbon
    and organic nitrogen, to synthesize a variety of
    organic molecules
  • Essential nutrients, which are required by cells
    and must be obtained from dietary sources

Concept 41.1 Homeostatic mechanisms manage an
animals energy budget
  • The flow of energy into and out of an animal's
    body can be viewed as a budget.
  • Mostly all of an animal's ATP generation is based
    on the oxidation of energy, carbohydrates,
    proteins, and fats, in cellular respiration.
  • Monomers of any of these substances can be used
    as fuel.
  • Animals burn proteins only after exhausting
    their supply of carbohydrates and fats.
  • Fats are rich in energy.
  • Biosynthesis occurs when an animal takes in more
    calories than it needs to produce ATP.
  • In humans, the liver and muscle cells store
    energy in the form of glycogen, a polymer made up
    of many glucose units.
  • Glucose is an important fuel for cells.

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  • When fewer calories are consumed, fuel is taken
    out of storage depots and oxidized.
  • This causes the animal to lose weight.
  • Most healthy people, even if they are not obese,
    have enough stored fat to sustain them through
    several weeks of starvation.
  • Caloric imbalance
  • Undernourishment If the diet of a human or other
    animal is chronically deficient in calories.
  • body begins breaking down its own proteins for
    fuel, muscles begin to decrease in size, and the
    brain can become proteindeficient.
  • Overnourishment Excessive food intake.
  • Stores excess fat molecules instead of using

Fat cells from the abdomen of a human
  • Now recognized as a major global health problem
    by The World Health Organization.
  • In the United States, the percentage of obese
    (very overweight) people has doubled to 30 in
    the past two decades.
  • Obesity contributes to a number of health
    problems, including the most common type of
    diabetes, cancer of the colon and breasts, and
    cardiovascular disease that can lead to heart
    attacks and strokes.
  • Scientists are able to control appetite-regulating
  • Inheritance is a major factor in obesity.
  • Defective genes can contribute to issues in
    weight loss.

Appetite- Regulating Hormones
Mouse on Left has defective gene that produces
Concept 41.2 An animal's diet must supply carbon
skeletons and essential nutrients
  • An animal's diet must also supply all the raw
    materials needed for biosynthesis, in addition to
    providing fuel for ATP production.
  • An animal must obtain organic precursors (carbon
    skeletons) from its food to grow, maintain
    itself, and reproduce.
  • Animals can fabricate a great variety of organic
    moleculescarbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
  • Animal's diet must also supply essential

  • Essential Nutrients materials that must be
    obtained in preassembled form because the
    animal's cells cannot make them from any raw
  • Malnourished an animal whose diet is missing one
    or more essential nutrients.
  • Four classes of essential nutrients
  •  essential amino acids
  •  essential fatty acids
  • Vitamins
  • minerals

Essential Amino Acids
  • An amino acid that an animal cannot synthesize
    itself and must be obtained from food. Eight
    amino acids are essential in the human adult.
  • Animals require 20 amino acids to make proteins.
  • protein deficiency form of malnutrition caused
    by insufficient amounts of one or more essential
    amino acids.
  • Proteins in animal products are complete, which
    means that they provide all the essential amino
    acids in their proper proportions. 
  • Most plant proteins are incomplete.

Protein deficiency in Haitian boy called
Essential Amino Acids from a Vegetarian Diet
Essential Fatty Acids
  • Certain unsaturated fatty acids that animals
    cannot make.
  • Fatty Acids have double bonds.
  • Deficiencies are rare.

  • An organic molecule required in the diet in very
    small amounts. Vitamins serve primarily as
    coenzymes or parts of coenzymes.
  •  Vitamin deficiencies can cause severe problems.
  • 13 vitamins essential to humans have been
  • Grouped into two categories
  • watersoluble vitamins 
  • fatsoluble vitamins 

Vitamin requirements in Humans
  • In nutrition, a chemical element other than
    hydrogen, oxygen, or nitrogen that an organism
    requires for proper body functioning.
  • Humans and other vertebrates require relatively
    large quantities of calcium and phosphorus for
    the construction and maintenance of bone.
  • Most people eat more salt than needed

Mineral Requirements for Humans
Concept 41.3 The main stages of food processing
are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and
  • Ingestion A heterotrophic mode of nutrition in
    which other organisms or detritus are eaten whole
    or in pieces.
  • Organic material in food consists largely of
    proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in the form of
    starch and other polysaccharides.
  • Cannot use these macromolecules directly for two
  •  polymers are too large to pass through membranes
    and enter the cells of the animal.
  • macromolecules that make up an animal are not
    identical to those of its food.
  • Digestion The process of breaking down food into
    molecules small enough for the body to absorb.

Stages of Food Processing
  • enzymatic hydrolysis The process in digestion
    that splits macromolecules from food by the
    enzymatic addition of water.
  • Absorption The uptake of small nutrient
    molecules by an organism's own body the third
    main stage of food processing, following
  • Elimination The passing of undigested material
    out of the digestive compartment.

Digestive Compartments
  • Intracellular digestion The joining of food
    vacuoles and lysosomes to allow chemical
    digestion to occur within the cytoplasm of a
  • Begins after a cell engulfs food by phagocytosis
    or pinocytosis.
  • Extracellular digestion The breakdown of food
    outside cells.
  • Occurs within compartments that are continuous
    with the outside of the animal's body.
  • Gastrovascular cavity An extensive pouch that
    serves as the site of extracellular digestion and
    a passageway to disperse materials throughout
    most of an animal's body.
  • Animals with relatively simple body plans have a
    digestive sac with a single opening. 
  • Complete digestive tract A digestive tube that
    runs between a mouth and an anus also called an
    alimentary canal. An incomplete digestive tract
    has only one opening.

alimentary canals
Concept 41.4 Each organ of the mammalian
digestive system has specialized foodprocessing
  • The mammalian digestive system consists of the
    alimentary canal and various accessory glands
    that secrete digestive juices into the canal
    through ducts.
  • Peristalsis Rhythmic waves of contraction of
    smooth muscle that push food along the digestive
  • Sphincter A ring like valve consisting of
    modified muscles in a muscular tube, such as a
    digestive tract closes off the tube like a
  • Salivary glands Exocrine glands associated with
    the oral cavity. The secretions of salivary
    glands contain substances to lubricate food,
    adhere together chewed pieces into a bolus, and
    begin the process of chemical digestion.
  • Pancreas A gland with dual functions The
    nonendocrine portion secretes digestive enzymes
    and an alkaline solution into the small intestine
    via a duct the endocrine portion secretes the
    hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.
  • Liver The largest organ in the vertebrate body.
    The liver performs diverse functions, such as
    producing bile, preparing nitrogenous wastes for
    disposal, and detoxifying poisonous chemicals in
    the blood.
  • Gallbladder An organ that stores bile and
    releases it as needed into the small intestine.

Human Digestive System
The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus
  • During chewing, teeth of various shapes cut,
    smash, and grind food, making it easier to
    swallow and increasing its surface area.
  • Oral cavity The mouth of an animal.
  • Oral Cavity triggers a nervous reflex that causes
    the salivary glands to deliver saliva through
    ducts to the oral cavity.
  • Humans secrete more than a liter of saliva each
  • Saliva contains a slippery glycoprotein called
  • Salivary amylase A salivary gland enzyme that
    hydrolyzes starch and glycogen.
  • Bolus A lubricated ball of chewed food.
  • During swallowing, the tongue pushes a bolus to
    the back of the oral cavity and into the pharynx.
  • Pharynx  An area in the vertebrate throat where
    air and food passages cross in flatworms, the
    muscular tube that protrudes from the ventral
    side of the worm and ends in the mouth.
  • Epiglottis A cartilaginous flap that blocks the
    top of the windpipe, the glottis, during
    swallowing, which prevents the entry of food or
    fluid into the respiratory system.
  • Esophagus A channel that conducts food, by
    peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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The Stomach
  • An organ of the digestive system that stores food
    and performs preliminary steps of digestion.
  • Gastric juice A digestive fluid secreted by the
  • Converts a meal to acid chyme.
  • Gastric juice includes hydrochloric acid and the
    enzyme pepsin.

The Stomach
 The Small Intestine
  • The major organ of digestion and absorption.
  •  Acid chyme from the stomach mixes in the
    duodenum with intestinal juice, bile, and
    pancreatic juice.
  • Diverse enzymes complete the hydrolysis of food
    molecules to monomers, which are absorbed into
    the blood across the lining of the small
  • Hormones help regulate digestive juice secretions.

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The Large Intestine
  • Aids the small intestine in reabsorbing water and
    houses bacteria, some of which synthesize
  • Feces pass through the rectum and out the anus.

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Concept 41.5 Evolutionary adaptations of
vertebrate digestive systems are often associated
with diet
  • Some Dental Adaptations
  • A mammal's dentition is generally correlated with
    its diet.
  • Mammals have specialized dentition that best
    enables them to ingest their usual diet.

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 Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations
  • Herbivores generally have longer alimentary
    canals than carnivores, reflecting the longer
    time needed to digest vegetation.

Symbiotic Adaptations
  • Many herbivorous animals have fermentation
    chambers where symbiotic micro organisms digest

Works Cited
  • All Images and information from Campbell biology
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