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US History Units: 1. Before America 2. Early America 3. Revolution 4. Learning to be America + Foreign Policy 5. Slavery and economic growth 6. Civil War – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: US%20History

US History
  • Units
  • 1. Before America
  • 2. Early America
  • 3. Revolution
  • 4. Learning to be America Foreign Policy
  • 5. Slavery and economic growth
  • 6. Civil War
  • 7. Reconstruction The Industrial Revolution
  • 8. Robber Barrons
  • 9. WWI
  • 10. Depression
  • 11. WWII
  • 12. Modern America is born
  • 13. The inspiration for all those great spy
  • 14. The birth of rock and roll
  • 15. The sixties and the rise and fall of
  • 16. Vietnam
  • 17. Excess and the 80s
  • 18. Mr. Preston becomes a teenager

  • Water Freezes
  • Glaciers form and use water, land bridge appears.
  • Nomads wander over bridge
  • Head south where it is warm
  • Nomads become
  • The Maya Big temples,
  • The Olmecs- Big temples, make calendars, dug
    ditches, irrigation
  • The Incas- mined gold, silver
  • The Aztecs-knew math, written language

  • John Cabot- England 1497
  • Amerigo Vespucci- Portugal- 1502
  • Vasca Nunez de Balboa- Spain- 1513
  • Ferdinand Magellan- Spain 1519-1522

Aztecs Destroyed
  • Killed by Henry Cortes
  • Led Army to Mexico
  • Stole gold and silver
  • Won battle because of technology

  • Jamestown, Virginia- First colony established by
  • Land filled with swamps
  • Poor Farming
  • Hardly any fresh water
  • Many settlers died from hunger and disease

  • Came on Mayflower to escape religious
    persecution, 1620
  • Pilgrims
  • separated from the Church of England
  • Mayflower Compact-Leaders of Pilgrims wrote and
    agreement saying that the laws of the new colony
    would be fair and equal. All the men on board
    agreed to it.

Plymouth cont..
  • Landed late in fall, too late to plant crops
  • Weather was cold
  • Not enough food
  • Settlers became ill
  • Native Americans helped through the first winter
  • More than ½ still died by spring
  • Native Americans showed them how to grow corn,
    hunt turkey and deer, ways to fish for food
  • By 1621 Pilgrims had made it, celebrate one full
    year with a 3 day harvest festival, people today
    think of this as the first Thanksgiving

Growing Colonies
  • Colonies start to grow
  • Massachusetts
  • Rhode Island
  • Connecticut
  • New Hampshire
  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Delaware
  • Virginia
  • Maryland
  • Carolinas
  • Georgia

  • First New England Colony
  • Included all of Massachusetts and part of Maine
  • Other colonies grew out of Massachusetts

Rhode Island
  • After Massachusetts was settled, many people who
    were unhappy with puritan life moved to other
  • Some were forced to leave
  • Roger Williams left and built settlement called
    Providence, which became Rhode Island
  • 1635- Minister named Roger Williams was kicked
  • He believed the church had to much power
  • State, government should be separate from the
    church, or religion
  • Free to practice own beliefs, religions
  • All 3 beliefs became core parts of the
    declaration of independence and bill of rights

  • Minister, Thomas Hooker, led people out of
  • Felt Puritans had become too powerful
  • Settled a new colony, Connecticut, Native
    American name meaning long river place

New Hampshire
  • 1623, King James (England) sent two fish
    merchants and others to explore the coast of
    present day New Hampshire
  • Communities established
  • People came to these fishing communities because
    they didnt want to follow the rules of the
    Puritan church
  • New Hampshire became a colony in 1741

New York
  • Land between Virginia and New Hampshire settled
    by the Dutch
  • 1609 Henry Hudson, English explorer, hired by
    Dutch to sail up river, later named for him
  • Claimed land along river and named it New
  • Largest colony settled on an island, now called
    Manhattan, named after Manhattan tribe

New Jersey
  • 1664, English forces took control of New New
    Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • Split in two, one became New York and another
    became New Jersey
  • Large town at the mouth of the Hudson was renamed
    New York

  • Quakers, led by William Penn, wanted to travel to
    America to follow beliefs
  • He asked King of England for land and was given
  • Quakers are pacifists

  • 1704, land taken over by Dutch from Sweden, then
  • Settlers asked William Penn for land to set up
    their own colony and he agreed.

  • The first colony of Virginia began with the
    Jamestown settlement in 1607
  • More settlers came from New England and other
    middle colonies

  • 1632, Lord Baltimore, rich English Catholic, was
    given a charter. He settled the colony of
  • Lord Baltimore had Toleration act passed in
    Maryland. Act guaranteed freedom of religion to
    all Christians.

  • 1663, King Charles of England gave 8 rich English
    Lords the right to settle land south of Virginia
  • Good soil, beautiful land
  • Allowed religious freedom
  • So many people came because of the good soil that
    it broke into North and South

  • Last of the 13 colonies
  • Settled as home for debtors
  • These people who had been jailed for not paying
    money owed to others
  • James Oglethorpe thought jail was unfair for
    debtors and asked for a new start in America
  • 1773, Georgia, named after king George II became
    a colony

Colonial America http//
William Penn
Native Americans
Aztec Temple
How They Made Money
  • The economies of the new world were primarily
    farming, shipping, fishing, shipbuilding
  • Flour was a big export and so was lumber
  • Ships were built on the coast, especially around
  • Flour was grown inland
  • Southern Colonies in the east used slave labor
    and grew tobacco, rise, cotton, indigo
  • Farmers started off hiring people to work but
    slaves became more profitable and as the farmers
    became more successful the amount of slaves being
    used increased until they were doing most of the

Frontier Farms
  • Europeans who arrived in the Southern Colonies in
    the late 1600s discovered that most of the good
    farmland on the coast was taken. They moved west
    to the Appalachian Mountains
  • Farms were small and run by families and friends,
    no slaves were used.

Women and the Colonies
  • Women worked hard in the 13 colonies.
  • Worked with husbands as shipbuilders
  • Worked as Shopkeepers
  • Worked as printers Poor Richards Almanac by Ben
  • Did household jobs
  • Sewing
  • Cooking
  • Cleaning
  • hunting

Settlements - Town
  • Towns were established from Settlements
  • Many people knew each other and wanted to live
    near each other
  • Kids apprentices
  • Bartered and traded between towns (traded
    products for other products or services)
  • Imported items from other towns
  • Most imported items
  • Lots of importing between Europe and southern
  • Set up shops based on skills

Great Awakening
  • People came to America for Religion then
    abandoned it
  • Ministers tried to Awaken interest in God
  • New religious groups formed

The Enlightenment
  • Colonists interested in new ideas
  • Enlightenment was a new way of thinking that came
    from people in Europe
  • People believed that knowledge was power
  • Said that if people used reason, the government
    and society would improve
  • Encouraged people to question others and to
    believe that government should protect lives and
    liberty and property.

Political Rights
  • Political rights are rights given to people by
    the government
  • England, voters elected people to represent them
    in making laws.
  • Colonies, had the representatives but 8 of the 13
    colonies were ruled by governors chosen by the
  • Governors could throw out lawmakers who did not
    follow English laws. This was unfair
  • England had a right to trial by Jury, Colonies
    did not

Economic Rights
  • Colonists wanted to sell products for the most
    money possible and wherever they wanted to
  • England believed in mercantilism
  • The idea that a nation becomes stronger by
    building up its gold supply and increasing trade
  • England established colonies to make money and
    didnt like this
  • - Passed laws to regulate or control the trade
    in the colonies

Revolution Timeline
  • March 5, 1770 Boston Massacre
  • Colonists yell insults at British soldiers
  • Someone throws snowballs and rocks
  • Soldiers shoot and 5 men died

Revolution Timeline
  • December 1773, colonists dress as Native
    ---Americans, boarded ships in Boston Harbor
  • -Threw tea overboard
  • -angry because British passed a law saying
    only a British company could supply colonies with
  • -Colonists are now unable to meet and more
    soldiers are sent to their city

Revolution Timeline
  • 1774, colonial leaders meet in Philadelphia
  • The First Continental Congress
  • Members of every colony except Georgia met and
    wrote the Declaration of American Rights and sent
    it to Great Britain
  • It listed all of the unfair treatment
  • George Washington, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry
    and others were leading the session
  • The Declaration did not change the Britains mind

Revolution Timeline
  • Colonists become angrier
  • Patrick Henry demanded freedom from Great Britain
    and famously ended one of his speeches screaming
    Give me liberty or give me death!
  • Many colonists agreed and this became a battle cry

Revolution Timeline
  • People were ready to die for freedom
  • In Massachusetts, groups called minutemen formed
  • Minutemen- colonists between ages of 16-60 who
    could be ready to fight at a minutes notice
  • Minutemen stored guns and bullets in Concord, 2o
    miles outside of Boston

Revolution Timeline
  • British General Thomas Gage finds out about the
    guns in Concord
  • Orders troops to raid the storage area and
    destroy the guns
  • April 18,1775, 700 British soldiers marched out
    of Boston, unaware that they were being spied on
  • Colonists had a plan to warn the Minutemen
  • They lit lanterns as a warning signal on lantern
    meant the attack was on land, two meant they were
    heading north by boat
  • One if by land, two if by sea
  • One lantern lit the tower, The Minutemen had to
    be warned. A colonist by the name of Paul Revere
    jumped on to his horse and rode into the
    darkness, 16 miles, yelling The redcoats are
  • Revere was joined by William Dawes, they road
  • They were captured, Samuel Prescott continued to
    ride and warn the other towns

Revolution Timeline
  • The Battle of Lexington and Concord, April 19,
  • British arrive at Lexington Green, 70 men waiting
    for them, led by American Captain John Parker
    Stand your Ground. Dont fire unless fired upon.
    But if they want war, let it begin here.
  • 8 Minutemen killed, one British wounded,
    Minutemen scattered in defeat
  • General Gage marched British troops to Concord
  • http//

Revolution Timeline
  • British continue to Concord, feeling confident
  • When they reached a northern bridge near Concord,
    they were charged on by 450 minutemen
    shopkeepers, farmers, and others with rifles
  • They charged at the British and pushed them back
    where they were met by more Minutemen hiding
    behind trees and stone walls, They ran to Boston
    but by the time they got there 300 British were
    dead and 90 colonists were dead or wounded
  • This was the first battle of the Revolutionary
    war but war had not been declared

Revolution Timeline
  • The Second Continental Congress
  • A month after the battles of Lexington and
    Concord colonial leaders met again in
    Philadelphia, This was called the Second
    Continental Congress
  • War had not yet been declared between Great
    Britain and the colonies
  • Many leaders did not want war but they new it was
    probably going to happen because of the violence
  • They decided to petition Britain to help find a
    peaceful resolution, They called this the Olive
    Branch Petition
  • They still prepared for war and chose George
    Washington, a planter from Virginia, as a
    military leader. He had fought well during the
    French and Indian War.

Revolution Timeline
  • Battle of Bunker Hill
  • Fighting broke out in Boston
  • British troops had remained in the city
  • Britain ordered them to break out but they had to
    get past the Militia (emergency groups of
    colonists) that were camped out on Bunker Hill
    and Breeds Hill
  • This was one of the bloodiest battles of the war
    and Britain took control of the hill on June 17,
  • Britain won but they lost more men than the
    colonists and the King was shocked. The colonists
    were not disappointed because even though they
    lost they beat up the British
  • King George III hired German soldiers to control
    colonists and he had the navy block all shipping
  • The shipping blockade bothered the colonists and
    prevented supplies from getting into or out of
    certain areas.

Revolution Timeline
  • Watch video about Lexington and Concord
  • Read page 72-75 from the book as a class.
  • Read only the description of the 7 battles.
  • We will discuss the Declaration of Independence
    and Treaty of Paris on Friday

Declaration of Independence
  • The Introduction
  • The Introduction of the Declaration of
    Independence refers to the Laws of Nature and of
    Natures God entitling the people to assume any
    type of political independence. The introduction
    also acknowledges that the reason for
    independence must be of reasonable terms. The
    Declaration therefore must be concise and
    explained thoroughly.

Declaration of Independence
  • The Preamble
  • The Preamble contains probably the most famous
    lines of the Declaration, we hold these truths
    to be self evident, that all men are created
    equal.?? The Preamble states that there are
    certain unalienable rights that government should
    never violate. Those rights include the right to
    life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
    Should those rights be violated and the
    government fails to protect them, the people have
    the right to protect those rights themselves by
    overthrowing the government.

Declaration of Independence
  • The Indictment
  • The Indictment begins by stating the suffering of
    the American colonies and the feeling of absolute
    constraint in forming a new system of government.
    The Indictment also refers to the numerous and
    repeated injuries that King George III placed
    upon the colonies and then go on to include
    factual information as to the many things that
    King George III had committed.
  • The King is accused of twenty seven specific
    abuses interfering with colonists' rights to
    self government and a fair judicial system
    instituting legislation that affected colonies
    without their consent, increasing taxes on
    colonists requirement to quarter British
    soldiers right to trial by jury preventing them
    from trading freely, for example. Also, the King
    had refused to protect the borders of the
    colonies thus resulting in the destruction of
    American life and property. These are among the
    twenty seven accusations the colonists made in
    direct relation with King George the III in the
    Indictment portion of the Declaration of

Declaration of Independence
  • The Denunciation
  • The Denunciation portion of the Declaration of
    Independence basically covers and finishes their
    case for separating from England in the hopes for
    a peaceful resolution, but with the clear
    understanding that war is almost inevitable. This
    section of the Declaration also notes the
    attempts that had been made to peacefully work
    things out as many of the Americans still felt
    that England was their brother and had appealed
    to more prominent people among the British. Still
    to their utter disappointment and their requests
    the colonies remained ignored and unsuccessful.

Declaration of Independence
  • The Conclusion In conclusion, the
    representatives of the United States of America
    and the people of the colonies had seen existent
    conditions that required a change in government
    structure and policy. The conclusion states that
    these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to
    be Free and Independent States that they are
    Absolved from all Allegiance to the British
    Crown.?? The conclusion of the Declaration also
    contains the core of Lees Resolution that had
    been passed on July 2.
  • A summary of the Declaration of Independence will
    always take something away from the true words
    written by Thomas Jefferson, but will give you an
    idea of what the declaration is about.

Bill of Rights
  • In the United States, the Bill of Rights is the
    name by which the first ten amendments to the
    United States Constitution are known. They were
    introduced by James Madison to the First US
    Congress in 1789 as a series of articles, and
    came into effect on December 15, 1791, when they
    had been ratified by three-fourths of the States.

The Bill of Rights
  • 1 Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly,
    and petition.
  • 2 Right to keep and bear arms in order to
    maintain a well regulated militia.
  • 3 No quartering of soldiers.
  • 4 Freedom from unreasonable searches and
  • 5 Right to due process of law, freedom from
    self-incrimination, double jeopardy.
  • 6 Rights of accused persons, e.g., right to a
    speedy and public trial.
  • 7 Right of trial by jury in civil cases.
  • 8 Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual
  • 9 Other rights of the people.
  • 10 Powers reserved to the states.

  • 11th1795 Citizens cannot sue states in federal
    courts. There are some exceptions.
  • 12th1804 Changed the way the President and Vice
    President are elected.
  • 13th1865 Ended slavery in the United States.
  • 14th1868 Every person born in the United States
    is a citizen. States must follow due process of
    law before taking away any citizen's rights or
  • 15th1870 A citizen's right to vote cannot be
    taken away because of race or the color of their
  • 16th1913 Congress can put a tax on income.
  • 17th1913 The people will elect Senators. Before
    this, Senators were elected by state
  • 18th1919 Made a law against drinking alcohol,
    called Prohibition.
  • 19th1920 Gave women the right to vote.
  • 20th1933 Changed the days for meetings of
    Congress and for the start of the President's
    term of office.
  • 21st1933 Ended the Prohibition law of the
    Eighteenth Amendment. States can make laws about
    how alcohol is used in each state.
  • 22nd1951 A person may not be elected President
    more than two times
  • 23rd1961 Gave the people in the District of
    Columbia the right to vote for President.
  • 24th1964 Made it illegal to make anyone pay a tax
    to have the right to vote.
  • 25th1967 Changes what happens if a President
    dies, resigns, or is not able to do the job. Says
    what happens if a Vice President dies or resigns.
  • 26th1971 Makes 18 years old the minimum age for
    people to be allowed to vote
  • 27th1992 Limits how Congress can increase how
    much its members are paid.

Constitution- Preamble
  • Preamble
  • The Preamble says
  • We the People of the United States, in Order to
    form a more perfect Union, establish Justice,
    insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the
    common defense, promote the general Welfare, and
    secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and
    our Posterity, do ordain and establish this
    Constitution for the United States of America.
  • The Preamble is not a law. It gives the reasons
    for writing the Constitution. The Preamble is one
    of the best known parts of the Constitution. The
    first three words, "We the people," are used very
    often. There are six intensions-they are the
    goals of the constitution.
  • change Legislative power

Constitution- Article 1
  • Article One says that the U.S. Congress (the
    legislative branch) will make the laws for the
    United States. Congress has two parts, called
    "Houses," the House of Representatives and the
    Senate. The Article says who can be elected to
    each part of Congress, and how they are elected.
  • The House of Representatives has members elected
    by the people in each state. The number of
    members from each state depends on how many
    people live there. Each member of the House of
    Representatives is elected for two years. The
    Senate has two members, called Senators, for each
    state, no matter how many people live there. Each
    Senator is elected for six years. The original
    Constitution says that Senators should be elected
    by the state legislatures, but this was changed
  • Article One also says how the Congress will do
    its business and what kinds of laws it can make.
    It lists some kinds of laws the Congress and the
    states cannot make. Article One also makes rules
    for Congress to impeach and remove from office
    the President, Vice President, judges, and other
    government officers.
  • change Executive power

Constitution Article 2
  • Article Two says that the President (the
    executive branch) will carry out the laws made by
    Congress. This article says how the President and
    Vice President are elected, and who can be
    elected to these offices. The President and Vice
    President are elected by a special Electoral
    College chosen by the states, for four years. The
    Vice President takes over as President if the
    President dies, or resigns, or is unable to
    serve. Article Two also says that the President
    is in charge of the army and navy. He can make
    treaties with other countries, but these must be
    approved by two-thirds of the Senate. He appoints
    judges, ambassadors, and other officers, but the
    Senate also must approve these appointments. The
    President can also veto bills. However Congress
    can over ride the veto
  • change Judicial power

Constitution- Article 3
  • Article Three says there will be a court system
    (the judicial branch), including the Supreme
    Court. The article says that Congress can decide
    which courts, besides the Supreme Court, are
    needed. It says what kinds of "cases and
    controversies" these courts can decide. Article
    Three also requires trial by jury in all criminal
    cases, and defines the crime of treason.
  • change States' powers and limits

Constitution Article 4
  • Article Four is about the states. It says that
    all states must give "full faith and credit" to
    the laws of the other states. It also says that
    state governments must treat citizens of other
    states as fairly as they treat their own
    citizens, and must send arrested people back to
    another state if they have been charged with a
  • Article Four also says that Congress can make new
    states. There were only 13 states in 1787. Now
    there are 50 states in the United States. It says
    Congress can make rules for Federal property and
    can govern territories that have not yet been
    made into states. Article Four says the United
    States must make sure that each state has a
    republican form of government, and protect the
    states from invasion and violence.
  • change Process of amendment

Constitution Article 5
  • Article Five says how to amend, or change, the
    Constitution. Congress can write a change, if
    two-thirds of the members in each House agree.
    The state governments can call a convention to
    write changes, although this has not happened
    since 1787. Any change that is written by
    Congress or by a convention must be sent to the
    state legislatures or to state conventions for
    their approval. Congress decides whether to send
    a change to the legislatures or to conventions.
    Three-fourths of the states must approve a change
    for it to become part of the Constitution.
  • An amendment can change any part of the
    Constitution, except one no amendment can
    change the rule that each state has the same
    number of seats in the Senate.
  • change Federal power

Constitution Article 6
  • Article Six says that the Constitution, and the
    laws and treaties of the United States, are
    higher than any other laws. It also says that all
    federal and state officers must swear to
    "support" the Constitution.
  • change Ratification

Constitution Article 7
  • Article Seven says that the new government under
    the Constitution would not start until
    conventions in at least nine states approved the

Civil War
  • Expansion and Compromise
  • 1819 there were 22 states
  • 11 free states
  • 11 slave states

Civil War
  • Southern states start growing cotton because
    tobacco wasnt selling. South was poor
  • Eli Whitney invents cotton gin. Cotton becomes
    big cash crop. Cotton plantations grow and so
    does use of slave labor
  • Factories grow in North. North pulls away from
    south economically.
  • Textile plants
  • Woven cloth
  • Goods they werent able to import

Civil War
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Missouri would enter the union as a slave state
  • Maine would enter the union as a free state
  • The rest of the Louisiana Territory would be
    divided by a line. No slavery would be allowed in
    the states north of that line

Civil War
  • Compromise of 1850
  • California would join the Union as a free state
  • In the rest of the territory from Mexico, people
    would decide whether or not to allow slavery
  • The slave trade would be banned in Washington
  • Congress would pass the Fugitive Slave Law

Civil War
  • Abolitionists- Northern people who wanted to
    abolish slavery
  • Abolitionists wanted to help African Americans
    escape from slavery. Abolitionists worked
    together to set up a network of secret routes for
    enslaved African Americans to escape to freedom
    in the North or in Canada. This was called the
    Underground Railroad.

Civil War
  • Frederick Douglas was an abolitionist leader who
    had escaped from slavery.
  • He became an important writer and change a lot
    of peoples minds about slavery. He wrote about
    his own life as a slave.
  • He wrote the Narrative of the life of Frederick

Civil War
  • Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe was
    another famous anti-slavery book.
  • The book about Uncle Tom detailed an account of
    the cruelty and harshness of slavery.
  • Most Northeners had never heard the horrible
    details about what happened to slaves.

Civil War
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Senator Stephen Douglas from Illinois wanted to
    organize Nebraska into a territory. Douglas
    wanted it organized so Illinois could have a
    railroad built from Illinois through Nebraska
  • Douglas suggested dividing the territory into
    Nebraska and Kansas territory. Douglas decided
    slavery in the territory could be decided by
    Popular Sovereignty (A system that allowed the
    people in a territory to make their own decisions)

Civil War
  • Nebraska was too far north to have plantations.
    The people of Nebraska wanted a territory without
  • Kansas was further south. They could have
    plantations. After the act was passed there was a
    land rush to Kansas
  • Some wanted slavery and some didnt. There was a
    vote to decide whether or not they would be pro

Civil War
  • 9000 people were now in Kansas
  • Population was now large enough to vote for a
  • Before election extremists rode to Kansas
  • Became violent, robbed people,

The First 16 Presidents
  • 1. George Washington
  • John Adams
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • James Madison
  • James Monroe
  • John Quincy Adams
  • Andrew Jackson
  • Martin Van Buren
  • William Harrison
  • John Tyler
  • James Polk
  • Zachary Taylor
  • Millard Fillmore
  • Franklin Pierce
  • James Buchanan
  • Abraham Lincoln

George Washington
  • First American President
  • Revolutionary War Hero
  • Elected because of popularity
  • Formed policy of non-involvement in foreign
    affairs and wars

John Adams
2nd President -George Washingtons
Vice-President -First President to live in the
White House -One of the most influential founding
fathers -Died on the 4th of July 50 years after
the constitution was signed
Thomas Jefferson
  • 3rd President
  • John Adams vice president
  • Only president to be elected unanimously
  • Wrote Declaration of Independence

James Madison
  • 4th President
  • Had 2 vice-presidents die in office
  • Was nicknamed Father of the Constitution

James Monroe
  • 5th President
  • Encouraged the growth of America
  • Set aside land for Native Americans on the great
  • He and John Adams both died on July 4th, 55 years
    to the day the constitution was signed

John Quincy Adams
  • 6th president
  • Son of John Adams
  • First son of a president to be elected
  • Did not enjoy entertaining or crowds
  • Elected by house of representatives

Andrew Jackson
  • 7th president
  • Gave parties at the White House and invited the
  • Nicknamed Old Hickory because he was tough
  • Fought duels to defend his wifes honor and
    killed at least one man

Martin Van Buren
  • 8th President
  • Headed a political group that later became the
    Democratic Party
  • Had followers known as Bucktails because they
    wore deer tails on their hats when they attended

William Henry Harrison
  • 9th President
  • The oldest president until Ronald Reagan
  • Only president for 32 days, shortest tenure for
  • Death started issues about presidential
    succession that werent in constitution, 25
    amendment later answered these questions
  • Refused to wear a coat or hat to his
    inauguration, stood in the cold and rain and gave
    the longest inaugural address ever which took
    over 2 hours, caught a cold which turned into
    pneumonia and he died. Doctors said that because
    he was so stressed and the medicine was not
    advanced, the cold accelerated and he died

John Tyler
  • 10th President
  • First president to face impeachment
  • Had himself sworn in as president after Harrison
    died, instead of asking for a new election

James Polk
  • 11th President
  • Couldnt read or write until he was 18
  • Dark Horse candidate no body knew him

Zachary Taylor
  • 12th president
  • Nicknamed Old Rough and Ready because of
    military background
  • 2nd president to die in office of stomach and
    digestive problems, conspiracy theorists say he
    was poisoned
  • Let his horse run around white house lawn
  • Never lost a battle when in the military

Millard Fillmore
  • 13th President
  • Second President to finish term of a President

Franklin Pierce
  • 14th President
  • Friends with Nathaniel Hawthorne who he convinced
    to write a book about him
  • Youngest president, age 49, considered to be one
    of the worst presidents

James Buchanan
  • 15th president
  • Nicknamed Old Buck
  • Did little to prevent civil war
  • Considered to be a lame duck president

Abraham Lincoln
  • 16th President
  • Assassinated by John Wilkes Boothe
  • Led Country through Civil War
  • Freed slaves, and fought for their rights
  • Great public speaker

  • RECONSTRUCTION The time period after the civil
  • Lincoln wanted to make it easy for the southern
    states to rejoin the union
  • 4 step plan
  • Southerners had to promise to end slavery
  • Southerners had to take a loyalty oath before
    they could be forgiven
  • Southern states could set up a new governments
    after 10 percent took the loyalty oath
  • Property but not slaves would be returned to
    former Confederates who took the loyalty oath

  • Physically reconstructing or rebuilding towns
  • Reconstructing or restructuring the constitution
  • Reconstructing national unity
  • Reconstructing government

Physically reconstructing or rebuilding towns
  • Several towns in the south were destroyed
  • Farm land was torn up
  • The south in many ways never recovered.
  • The land healed but the labor (slaves) were gone
    and they were now losing money
  • It cost money to rebuild

Reconstructing or restructuring the constitution
  • Lincoln wanted to give freed slaves the right to
  • Johnson freed slaves and followed Lincolns plan
    but did not make southern states give
    African-Americans the right to vote
  • The states were allowed to decide that for
  • Plan also required states to ratify the
    Thirteenth amendment, which ended slavery.

Reconstructing the constitution
  • Radical Republicans wanted stronger action to
    punish south
  • Wanted to give the right to vote
  • Johnson put plan into effect when congress wasnt
    in session
  • South formed new governments and created Black
    Codes banning African-Americans from voting and
    jury duty, made it difficult to go to school.
    Johnson was blamed for letting it happen
  • Similar to old slave laws

  • Civil Rights
  • Rights that all citizens should have
  • Civil Rights Act said that African- Americans
    should have the same rights as White Americans
  • Johnson refused to sign it and vetoed it
  • Congress was able to pass the Act over his veto

  • 13th1865 Ended slavery in the United States.
  • 14th1868 Every person born in the United States
    is a citizen. States must follow due process of
    law before taking away any citizen's rights or
  • 15th1870 A citizen's right to vote cannot be
    taken away because of race or the color of their

Reconstruction Acts
  • Congress didnt like Johnson
  • Passed Acts
  • All states that did not accept the 14th were
    under military control
  • South divided in to 5 military zones
  • All adult African-American males could vote
  • Confederate officers could not votes
  • Confederate supporters could not vote
  • 1870 all former confederate states had accepted
    terms and the Union was reunited

  • Congress impeaches Johnson
  • Said he gave government more power than they
    should have
  • Johnson did not want to punish former Confederate
  • Tried to get them land back
  • Very angry at Johnson
  • Tried to Impeach him
  • Impeach to accuse a high profile official of a
  • Saved from being removed by one vote. His
    reputation was ruined.

Resistance to Reconstruction
  • Ku Klux Klan
  • The first Klan was founded in 1865 by Tennessee
    veterans of the Confederate Army. Groups spread
    throughout the South. Its purpose was to restore
    white supremacy in the aftermath of the American
    Civil War. The Klan resisted Reconstruction by
    assaulting, murdering and intimidating freedmen
    and white Republicans.
  • In 1874 and later, however, newly organized and
    openly active paramilitary organizations such as
    the White League and the Red Shirts started a
    fresh round of violence aimed at suppressing
    Republican voting and running Republicans out of
    office. These contributed to white Democrats
    regaining political power in the southern states.
  • Had military structure because most members were
    former Confederate soldiers.
  • Led by George Gordon and Nathan Bedford Forest.
    Forest was first Grand Wizard

  • Segregation The separation of people by race
  • Carpetbaggers A name for a Northerner who went
    to the south after the civil war.
  • Scalawag A name for a white Southerner who
    supported Reconstruction government

  • Carpetbaggers and Scalawags blamed for
    African-Americans holding office
  • Large African-American voter turn out
  • Mississippi sent two men to congress
  • Hiram R. Revels
  • Blanche K. Bruce

  • Freedman A person freed from slavery
  • Some slaves had skills they could use to make a
  • Most had no education or jobs
  • Congress tried to help but powerful white
    Southerners tried to limit the freedom of
    African- Americans
  • Freedmans Bureau
  • Gave food,
  • clothing
  • found jobs
  • Started schools for slaves, mostly elementary
  • gave medicine to freed slaves and poor whites

  • Former slaves left plantations and went looking
    for family members, because they were separated
    when they were sold.
  • Many married legally
  • Their children went to school and sometimes
    parents and grandparents too
  • Some found jobs in cities
  • Many had to take hard dangerous or dirty work
    such as digging wells and making sewers
  • If they could afford it, they bought their own

  • Many were too poor to buy land
  • A system called Sharecropping developed.
  • Sharecropping A person farmed the owners land
    and paid them rent with part of their crops
  • The sharecropper had to buy seed, tools, clothing
    and other stuff from the landowner
  • Lived on credit because they didnt make a profit
    and usually only had enough crop to pay rent
  • Basically it was legal slavery

Reconstruction Ends
  • Rutherford B Hayes elected president and pulls
    troops out of south
  • South stops social programs
  • Create Jim Crowe Laws
  • Laws to keep white and African-American people
  • Separated in schools, restaurants, hospitals,
    hotels, trains, drinking fountains
  • Southern state law makers create Poll Tax
  • Poll Tax a tax is a tax paid before someone can
  • African Americans cannot afford to vote

American Business
  • The north has an industrial boom
  • The south discovers oil
  • Corporations A large company formed by a group
    of investors
  • The Oil Business
  • The Steel Business
  • Andrew Carnegie Wealthy man who made a lot of
    money controlling steel. He had a monopoly
  • Monopoly The complete control of an industry by
    one company or person

American Business
  • John D. Rockefeller Business man who controlled
    almost the entire oil industry
  • Rockefeller, Carnegie, and other rich powerful
    businessmen were called Robber Barons
  • They had a huge influence over America, including
    politically, architecturally and domestically.

American Business
  • Modern business is born
  • People work 12 hour days
  • People start complaining about benefits
  • The wealthy pushed the workers as hard as they
  • Poor working conditions lead to workers rights.
    This is a continuation of the idea of civil rights

American Workers
  • Labor Unions a group of workers that tries to
    help its members
  • Poor working conditions
  • Factories were unsafe
  • Bad lighting
  • Little to no fresh air
  • Unsafe machines
  • Air pollution
  • Long hours with no breaks
  • Fire Hazards

American Workers
  • Labor Unions encourage people to strike.
  • Strike to refuse to work until certain demands,
    such as higher wages or better working
    conditions, are met
  • Entire towns were affected by strikes. Company
    towns relied on big factories.
  • Company Town a community set up and run by a
    company for its workers. Most of the town worked
    for the factories or shops to feed and cloth the
  • Companies even owned their houses.

American Workers
  • Workers protested violently for rights.
  • Attacked Scabs
  • Big businesses employ lots of people, usually
    unskilled labor. Immigrants came to America and
    were put work but paid nothing
  • Because immigrants were poor and wanted to live
    around people like them, they formed ethnic
    communities or ghettos filled with tenement
  • Ghetto a neighborhood where people of the same
    race, religion or country live
  • Tenement an apartment house with poor safety,
    sanitation, and comfort conditions
  • These were built quickly to accommodate all of
    the new people
  • Immigrants came through Ellis Island in New York.
  • Historians call America the great Melting Pot
    but the cultures did not co-exist easily and
    gangs and organized crime started, violent
    streets were held in the New York and Chicago

American Architecture
  • Modern city planning develops with the rich
    living on the outskirts of towns and coming in to
    work in skyscrapers
  • Ghettos start to fill the cities
  • Migration continues and people move out of the
    poor and racially tense south, come to the
  • Along with labor rights, civil rights becomes
    more organized. NAACP begins and fights for
    African American rights on the job, in education
    and in housing issues.

World War I
  • Vocab
  • Imperialism Imperialism is considered the
    control by one state of other territories through
    economic or military influence
  • Nationalism A belief, feeling or social action
    that focuses on a nation (National flags,
    anthems, divisions)
  • Patriotism is love of and/or devotion to one's
  • Ethnocentrism is the tendency to believe that
    your ethnic or cultural group is the most
    important, and that all other groups are measured
    next to yours

World War I
  • Imperialism, Nationalism, Patriotism and
    Ethnocentrism all created tension, and bad
    feelings around the world
  • Some countries were trying to tell other
    countries what to do
  • Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand was shot and this was
    the final thing that started the war because
    people were already upset because of the other

World War I
  • Cause of war in Europe many countries didnt
    trust each other and they each thought their own
    country was better then the others Extreme
  • Each of these countries started making as many
    weapons as fast as possible.
  • Germany built the largest army.
  • Great Britain built largest navy.

World War I
  • On April 6, 1917, the U.S. joined its
    allies--Britain, France, and Russia--to fight in
    World War I. Under the command of Major General
    John J. Pershing, more than 2 million U.S.
    soldiers fought on battlefields in France. Many
    Americans were not in favor of the U.S. entering
    the war and wanted to remain neutral. However,
    the U.S. eventually did enter the war.
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World War I
  • Disagreements in Europe over territory and
    boundaries, among other issues, came to a head
    with the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand
    of Austria by a Serbian zealot on June 28, 1914.
    Exactly one month later, war broke out. In 1915,
    the British passenger liner the Lusitania was
    sunk by a German submarine, killing 128 Americans
    and futher heightening tensions. By the end of
    1915, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the
    Ottoman Empire were battling the Allied Powers of
    Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Belgium, Serbia,
    Montenegro and Japan. In 1917, the U.S. entered
    the war. Germany formally surrendered on November
    11, 1918, and all nations agreed to stop fighting
    while the terms of peace were negotiated.
  • Enter the war after the sinking of the Lusitania
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World War I
  • Vocab
  • Arms race a contest to build weapons and
    military power as fast as possible.
  • Terrorist a person who uses violence for a
    political cause.
  • Stalemate a situation in which neither side wins
    or loses.
  • Propaganda the spreading of ideas, information
    and beliefs to help or hurt a cause.
  • Ambassador a person sent to another country to
    speak for the government of his or her country

World War I
  • Victory Garden a garden in which citizens raise
    their own food during the war.
  • Bond a paper that shows dept, or money owned.
  • Communism Economic system in which the
    government owns all property and business.
  • Armistice an agreement to stop fighting.

World War I
  • Central Powers vs. Allied Nations.
  • Germany, Austria-Hungry, Ottoman Empire were the
    major Central Powers.
  • Great Britain, France, Russia were leaders of the
  • War was to fight on land, air and the seas.
  • Airplanes were invented about ten years before
    the war started.

World War I
  • Weapons of the war.
  • Machine gun could fire up to 600 bullets per
  • Tanks Submarines Airplanes.
  • Poison gases some were very deadly and
    effective. Many people that didnt die off
    quickly, experienced the painful after effects.
    Mustard, Chlorine, Tearing gas

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World War I
  • The fighting in World War I ended when the
    ________ took effect at 1100 am GMT on November
    11, 1918. In the aftermath of the war the
    political, cultural, and social order of the
    world was drastically changed in many places,
    even outside the areas directly involved in the
    war. New countries were formed, old ones were
    abolished, international organizations were
    established, and many new and old ideas took a
    firm hold in people's minds.
  • Armistice ____________________________
  • _______________________________________

World War I
  • After the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the
    signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28,
    1919, officially ended the war. Included in the
    450 articles of the treaty were the demands that
    Germany officially accept responsibility for
    starting the war and pay heavy economic
    reparations. Germany itself was not included in
    the negotiations of the treaty and was forced to
    sign it (the alternative was continuing the war
    which would have probably led to a total
    occupation of Germany), which caused humiliation
    in the German people as the blame was shifted on
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World War I
  • The war brought about change in America. For
    example, women, many of whom had been active
    supporters of the war to preserve democracy (like
    the dedicated Moms in this photo), finally got
    the right to vote with the ratification of the
    19th Amendment in 1920.

World War I Aftermath
  • Historians have described the First World War as
    the nations first experience of total war. By
    this, they mean a war in which society is
    organised in such a way that all available
    resources are channelled into the war effort. As
    a result, total war has an impact on the lives of
    everybody in society, not simply those directly
    involved in the fighting. Some of the experiences
    of the First World War that can be said to have
    made a social, cultural and psychological impact
    are as follows.
  • The emotional trauma suffered by many men who
    were forced (because of conscription) to serve in
    the Armed Forces.
  • There was widespread bereavement because of the
    death of family and friends.
  • There were changes in diet and habits resulting
    from food rationing.
  • People lived in a society in which government
    propaganda and government controls were more
    extensive than in pre-war society.
  • The new experience that many upper and middle
    class women gained from taking up paid employment
    for the first time.
  • Societys morals changed

Roaring Twenties Key Points
  • Model T Ford- The first affordable car made in
    1908, became very popular in the 1920s and was
    discontinued in 1927. It was followed by the
    Model A

Roaring Twenties
  • Movies were very popular, especially the comedies
    of Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton
  • Serious films such as the Battleship Potemkin
    were also popular
  • People wanted to have fun and be entertained.

Roaring Twenties
  • Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong and others helped
    popularize Jazz
  • Show Tunes and musicals became popular
  • Radio shows were main source of entertainment in
    the home
  • War of the Worlds radio broadcast hoax scared
    people and caused riots and 6 deaths

Roaring Twenties
  • Harlem Renaissance
  • Poets, writers, painters and scholars emerge from
    Harlem and New York and bring up modern urban
    issues and establish African- Americans as a
    valid artistic and cultural voice
  • Langston Hughes
  • Duke Ellington
  • Precursor to socially conscious hip-hop of the
    80s and early 90s

Roaring Twenties
  • In United States history, the term Red Scare
    denotes two distinct periods of strong
    anti-communism the First Red Scare, from 1917 to
    1920, and the Second Red Scare, from 1947 to
    1957. The Scares were characterized by the fear
    that communism would upset the capitalist social
    order in the United States the First Red Scare
    was about worker revolution and political
    radicalism. The Second Red Scare was focused on
    (national and foreign) communists infiltrating
    the federal government.

Roaring Twenties
  • Prohibition 18th Amendment- 1919 Made a law
    against drinking alcohol, called Prohibition.
  • 21st Amendment- 1933 Ended the Prohibition law of
    the Eighteenth Amendment. States can make laws
    about how alcohol is used in each state.

Roaring Twenties
  • Prohibition led to lots of illegal behavior
  • People went to Speakeasies (an underground bar
    or party that had alcohol, usually in closed
  • People made and sold alcohol illegally
  • People smuggled alcohol from other countries
  • Gave power to organized crime
  • Al Capone
  • New York Mafia families

1920s Review
  • First affordable car___________________________
    hint made by Ford
  • Famous silent movie actors ________________
  • This was the name of the famous radio broadcast
    prank (hoax) that fooled a bunch of people,
    caused riots, and death __________________________
  • Rock and roll or Hip Hop didnt exist in the
    20s. The popular music was __________ ,
    _________________, __________________
  • The Harlem Renaissance was _______________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • 6. People wear worried about Communism in the
    20s. They were scared of the red flags the USSR
    had. This was called the _________
  • 7. In the 20s alcohol was illegal. What number
    was the amendment that banned alcohol illegal?
    _________ What was the number of the amendment
    that made it okay to drink again? _________
  • 8. Why did people want to ban alcohol? What
    problems did this cause? _________________________
    __? What did people do to get alcohol when it
    was illegal? _____________________________________

  • 1931
  • Al Capone Imprisoned for Income Tax Evasion
  • Auguste Piccard Reaches Stratosphere
  • Christ Monument Built on Rio de Janeiro Hilltop
  • Empire State Building Completed
  • U.S. Officially Gets National Anthem
  • 1932
  • Air Conditioning Invented
  • Amelia Earhart First Woman to Fly Solo Across the
  • Lindbergh's Baby Kidnapped
  • Scientists Split the Atom
  • Zippo Lighters Introduced
  • 1933
  • Adolf Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany
  • Assassination Attempt on FDR
  • FDR Launches New Deal
  • The New Deal was the name that United States
    President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to his
    complex package of economic programs he initiated
    between 1933 and 1936 with the goals of what
    historians call the 3 Rs, of giving Relief to the
    unemployed and badly hurt farmers, Reform of
    business and financial practices, and promoting
    Recovery of the economy during the Great

  • First Nazi Concentration Camp Established
  • Loch Ness Monster First Spotted
  • Prohibition Ends in the U.S.
  • Wiley Post Flies Around the World in 8 1/2 Days
  • 1934
  • Bonnie and Clyde Killed by Police
  • Cheeseburger Created
  • The Dust Bowl
  • Mao Zedong Begins the Long March
  • Parker Brothers Sells the Game "Monopoly"
  • 1935
  • Alcoholics Anonymous Founded
  • Germany Issues the Anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws
  • The Nuremberg Laws (German Nürnberger Gesetze)
    of 1935 were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany
    which were introduced at the annual Nazi Party
    rally in Nuremberg. The laws classified people as
    German if all four of their grandparents were of
    "German or kindred blood", while people were
    classified as Jews if they descended from three
    or four Jewish grandparents. A person with one or
    two Jewish grandparents was a Mischling, a
    crossbreed, of "mixed blood".1 The Nuremberg
    Laws deprived Jews of citizenship and prohibited
    marriage between Jews and other Germans.
  • John Maynard Keynes Suggests New Economic Theory
  • Social Security Enacted in U.S.

World War II
  • World War II Quick Facts
  • Germany, Italy and Japan were being awful to the
    people who lived in their countries.
  • Germany tried to take over most of Europe except
  • Adolf Hitler was a popular German military leader
    and leader of the Nazi political party. He was
    well liked and convinced a lot of people to take
    his point of view. He was also crazy.
  • Hitler wanted control over Europe. He also had
    secret plans.
  • Hitler wanted to create a perfect race of people.
    He wanted pretty people everywhere. He was an
    average sized, black haired ugly guy.
  • Hitler had his soldiers attack people who didnt
    fit this image. He