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U.S.%20History%20Unit%20Two

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Title: U.S.%20History%20Unit%20Two


1
U.S. History Unit Two
  • Reform, Revivals, Revolutions, and Unrest

2
Transcendentalism
  • Transcendentalism-emphasizes simple life and
    celebrate nature and emotions.
  • Meaning is found not only in observation but in
    feelings and experiences
  • Key People
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • Henry David Thoreau
  • Practice civil disobedience-peacefully disobey
    laws if you feel they are not good

3
Transcendentalism
  • Hudson River School-
  • painted pictures to glorify the Am. landscape.

4
Hudson River School-paintings that glorify
American landscapes.
5
Religious Revivals spark Reform
  • 2nd Great Awakening-religious revival.
  • Mass numbers of people becoming Christian
  • Church Memberships increase
  • Help people
  • Spread the Good News

6
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7
Reformers and Reforms
  • Dorothea Dix-
  • reform of mental hospitals and jails.
  • Horace Mann-
  • compulsory education for students of all ages.

8
Slavery reform
  • Abolition-movement to abolish (get rid of)
    slavery.
  • William Lloyd Garrison- The Liberator anti-slave
    paper.
  • Frederick Douglass-born a slave moved north read
    Liberator.
  • Nat Turner-unsuccessful slave revolt.

9
Women and Reform
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott- Seneca
    Falls Convention in New York womens rights.
  • Sarah and Angelina Grimke-SC daughters of a slave
    owner spoke out against slavery.
  • Womens Christian Temperance Union-prohibit
    alcohol.
  • Sojourner Truth-freed slave turned
    abolitionistwomens rights.

10
Industrial Revolution
11
New inventions and improvements
12
  • Charles Goodyear
  • Vulcanization of rubber

13
  • I. M. Singer-
  • Sewing machine

14
  • Samuel F. Morse
  • Telegraph, Morse Code

15
  • Francis Cabot Lowell and Samuel Slater-Factory
    System

16
  • John Deer-Steel Plow

17
  • Cyrus McCormick-mechanical reaper

18
  • Eli Whitney-Cotton Gin

19
  • Transportation
  • Roads
  • Railroads
  • Canals

20
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21
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22
Market Revolution
  • Specialization- concentration of raising one cash
    crop to sell
  • Market revolution- buying and selling of goods
    rather than making them
  • Capitalism-private businesses own means of
    production.
  • Entrepreneurs- risk takers who start their own
    businesses

23
Key Questions
  • Which region was greatly affected by the
    invention of the Cotton Gin?
  • Which region was greatly affected by the
    invention of the Steel Plow?
  • Which region was greatly affected by the creation
    of the factory system?
  • What impact did the advent of new transportations
    have on America during the antebellum period?

24
Manifest Destiny
  • MD-belief that it was our God-given right to
    expand from sea to shining sea.
  • Used to justify our treatment of Natives.
  • Oregon Trail-caravan of settlers moving west. 54
    40 or fight. Settled on 49th.

25
  • Joseph Smith-founded Mormons
  • Brigham Young-moves them to Salt Lake City,
    Utah.5

26
Rationale and Consequences of Manifest Destiny
  • God given territory
  • Lewis and Clark
  • Indian removal act 1830
  • Forced Indians to leave
  • Trail of tears
  • Westward Population explosion
  • Opportunities
  • Land ownership
  • prosperity
  • Admission of new states
  • Created sectional problems over slavery

27
Political and economics of the West
  • Politics
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Slaves or not
  • 36/30
  • Mexican War
  • Texas annexation
  • Economics
  • Trade routes
  • Santa Fe Trail
  • Wagon trains
  • Oregon Trail
  • Methodist
  • Mormons
  • Sectionalism
  • South expanding cotton kingdom
  • North benefited from new transportation

28
Missouri Compromise
29
The Mexican War
  • 1820

30
  • Mexico Wins Independence from Spain
  • Opens up lands they gained for settlement
  • CA
  • TX
  • NM

31
Stephen Austin
  • Stephen Austin given permission by Mexico to
    settle Texas.
  • Offered cheap land, ten-year tax exemption,
    protection of Mexican govt.
  • 1830 Mexico passes law prohibiting immigration
    and bans importation of slaves.

32
Tension Erupts
  • General Lopez de Santa Anna declares himself
    dictator of Mexico.
  • 1836 American settlers declare Texan freedom.
  • Santa Anna sends in Army to subdue rebellion.
  • Win famous battle at The Alamo.

33
  • William Travis, Sam Bowie, and Davy Crockett die.
  • Sam Houston organizes counterattack with the
    battle cry Remember the Alamo.
  • Win independence 1836-Republic of Texas.

34
Annex or Not?
  • Northerners feared annexing Texas
  • Take on debt
  • Constitutional issue
  • Become a slave.
  • Shift balance of power in Congress.
  • Congress annexes Texas 1845.
  • Pres. Polk offers to buy CA and NM
  • What does Mexico think about this?

35
US War with Mexico
  • Pres. Polk offers to buy CA and NM
  • Mexico refuses so Polk sends in Army under
    Zachary Taylor.
  • Claim Rio Grande as border
  • John C. Fremont organizes Bear Flag Revolt of
    California

36
Results of Mexican War
37
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • 1848 Recognize Rio Grande as border.
  • 15 million for NM and CA.
  • Gadsden Purchase 1853- southern NM and Arizona
    sold for 10 million bought to build a
    transcontinental railroad.

38
Gadsden Purchase
39
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40
Uh O! Slave issue again
  • ???HOW WE GONNA SETTLE THIS NEW LAND ISSUE???
  • Wilmot Proviso
  • bill states no slaves allowed in land gained from
    Mexico
  • defeated in Congress
  • tensions increase.

41
Sectionalism and Politics of Slavery
  • Compromise of 1820- Missouri thing
  • A NEW DEAL
  • Compromise of 1850
  • negotiated by Henry Clay
  • CA-admitted as a free state N?
  • Harsh Fugitive Slave Law S?
  • runaway and those that help were severely
    punished.
  • Popular Sovereignty ??
  • NM and AZ
  • residents decide for themselves.

42
Fugitive Slave Laws
43
Uncle Toms Cabin
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe-Uncle Toms Cabin
  • Portrayed south and slavery as evil violent.

44
Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • KA and NE would decide for themselves.
  • Popular Sovereignty.
  • Rush to populate states by south to vote
    pro-slave.
  • Bleeding Kansas

45
Election of 1856
  • Republican Party is born anti slavery
  • John Fremont as candidate
  • James Buchanan Wins Democrat
  • Supported Popular Sovereignty

46
Dred Scott
  • Overturns Miss. Compromise and Kansas-Nebraska
    Act
  • Slaves considered property-take em anywhere.

47
John Browns Raid
  • John Brown-radical abolitionist kills slave
    owners Bleeding Kansas.
  • Harpers Ferry Incident-Robert E. Lee hangs Brown
    for treason.

48
Election of 1860
  • Lincoln wins with no southern electoral votes.
  • South Carolina secedes.
  • We must preserve the Union. Abe Lincoln.

49
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50
Lincoln Douglas Debates
51
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52
  • Lincoln
  • Douglas

53
Battles of The Civil War
  • 1st Shots Fired- Fort Sumter
  • 1st Major Battle- Bull Run/Manassas
  • "There stands Jackson like a stone wall! Rally
    behind the Virginians!"
  • -- Brigadier General Barnard Bee, CSA

54
Monitor v. Merrimack Iron-Clad Naval Battle
55
Battles Continued
  • Antietam-Bloodiest single day of the war.
  • 26,000 combined casualties.
  • Emancipation Proclamation issued after facing
    pressure from abolitionists.
  • Turning Points
  • Gettysburg-Northern victory
  • Picketts Charge
  • Vicksburg, Miss.-North captures important city on
    Miss. River.

56
Picketts Charge
57
Dead Confederate Sharp Shooter
58
Civil War
  • Anaconda Plan-strangle and blockade.
  • War for the capitols-D.C. and Richmond.
  • Emancipation Proclamation-freed slaves.
  • Lincoln suspends writ of habeas corpus.
  • Arrested without a trial.
  • Northern Copperheads-wanted peace with South.
  • Conscription-draft.
  • Congress passes income tax.
  • Gettysburg Address.
  • Shermans March to Sea-burnt Atlanta to
    Savannah-Concept of Total War.

59
Advantages/Disadvantages
  • North
  • More railroads.
  • More money.
  • Bigger industrial base.
  • South
  • Better Generals.
  • Home turf.
  • Lack of supplies.
  • Lack of Railroads.

60
War Changes a Nation
  • Northern Republicans dominate Congress.
  • Southern Democrats weakened.
  • Economy booms in North during and after war
    making war supplies.
  • Lincoln reelected 1864 shot 1865 by John Wilkes
    Booth.
  • 1865-13th Amendment passed-outlaw slavery.

61
Reconstruction Period
  • 1865-1877
  • Rebuilding after the Civil War
  • Readmitting Southern States
  • Three plans emerge

62
Lincolns Assassination
  • Lincolns Civil War goal preserve the Union.
  • Abolishing slavery became a secondary goal.
  • Lincolns assassination
  • When-April 14th 1865
  • Four days after Appomattox
  • Where-Fords Theatre, DC
  • Who John Wiles Booth
  • Southern sympathizer

63
3 Plans to Reconstruct a Nation
  • Lincoln-10 plan easy plan
  • 10 take oath of allegiancepardon
  • Johnson-moderate plan
  • Withdraw secession, swear allegiance, ratify the
    13th Amendment.
  • Radical Republicans in Congress
  • 51 take oath, adopt 13th and 14th Amendments.

64
Radical Republicans
  • Blame the South for the Civil War.
  • Thought slaves should be free and EQUAL.
  • Senator Sumner and Rep. Thaddeus Stevens led
    Radicals.
  • Passed Wade-Davis Bill-said Congress should
    control Reconstruction vetoed.
  • Freedmens Bureau-provided emergency food and
    shelter for poor whites and blacks.

65
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66
Johnson Impeached
  • Johnson was a Southerner
  • Congress upset because Johnson fired Radical
    Republican cabinet members without asking the
    Senate.
  • Would not enforce laws of the reconstruction act
  • Impeached in House but not in Senate.

67
Johnsons impeachment trial
68
Politics of the Postwar South
  • Carpetbaggers
  • Northern Republicans who moved South after the
    war.
  • Took advantage of the turmoil
  • Scalawags-Southern Democrats changed to
    Republicans.

69
Changing Face on Congress
  • First blacks in congress
  • Hiram Revels-first black Senator Miss.

70
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71
Blacks gain political freedoms
  • Amendments
  • 13 Free
  • 14 citizenship
  • 15 vote

72
Southern attempts to prevent freedoms
  • Fear and intimidation
  • KKK
  • Laws passed
  • Black Codes Jim Crow
  • Grandfather clause
  • Poll tax
  • Literacy test

73
Redemption-return to power for the South.
  • Hayes v. Samuel Tilden (Dem) 1876
  • Tilden won popular vote but lost election.
  • Hayes won by one electoral vote FLA.
  • Democrats agree to let Hayes wins if he ends
    Reconstruction remove North troops.
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