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Chapter 2: Human Aspects of ISP Management

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Title: Chapter 2: Human Aspects of ISP Management


1
Chapter 2 Human Aspects of ISP Management
Project Management Summer 2014/2015 Dr. Nouh
Alhindawi Department of Software Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

2
Quotes and Sayings
  • Believe you can and you're halfway there. 
  • Change your thoughts and you change your world. 
  • Don't judge each day by the harvest you reap but
    by the seeds that you plant. 
  • If you can dream it, you can do it. Walt Disney 
  • If you don't design your own life plan, chances
    are you'll fall into someone else's plan. And
    guess what they have planned for you? Not much.
  • It's always too early to quit.
  • From the errors of others, a wise man corrects
    his own. 
  • Never tell people how to do things. Tell them
    what to do and they will surprise you with their
    ingenuity. 
  • Dont say things about people you wouldnt tell
    them to their face.
  • Do not tell the same thing differently to
    different people

3
People in the process (Management activities)
  • Problem solving (using available people)
  • Motivating (people who work on a project)
  • Planning (what people are going to do)
  • Estimating (how fast people will work)
  • Controlling (people's activities)
  • Organizing (the way in which people work

4
Motivation
  • Intrinsic motivation causes people to participate
    in an activity for their enjoyment like read,
    write and play.
  • Extrinsic motivation, causes people to do
    something for a reward or to avoid a penalty.
  • Motivation is a complex issue but it appears that
    their are different types of motivation based on
  • (Maslows motivation and personality 1954)
  • Physiological needs (sustain life e.g. food,
    sleep, etc.)
  • Safety needs
  • Social needs, individual is fed and safe, so
    finding social outlets is important. (friends,
    e.g. to be accepted as part of a group)
  • Esteem needs, self respect and achievement (e.g.
    public recognition of achievement)
  • Self-realization needs, responsibility for their
    work and develop their skills, growth, knowledge,
    people want to excel and work at something the
    enjoy.

5
Human needs hierarchy
6
Motivating people
  • Motivations depend on satisfying needs
  • It can be assumed that physiological and safety
    needs are satisfied
  • Social, esteem and self-realization needs are
    most significant from a managerial viewpoint
  • - Social, Provide communal facilities, Allow
    informal communications
  • - Esteem, Recognition of achievements,
    Appropriate rewards
  • - Self-realization, Training - people want
    to learn more, Responsibility

7
Motivational TheoriesMcGregors Theory X and
Theory Y
  • McGregors Theory X and Theory Y motivational
    approach identifies polar differences in
    subordinates
  • Theory X
  • -The average person dislikes work and
    will avoid it he/she can.
  • - Therefore most people must be forced with
    the threat of punishment to work towards
  • organizational objectives.
  • - The average person prefers to be
    directed to avoid responsibility is relatively
    unambitious,
  • and wants security above all else.
  • Theory Y
  • - People will apply self-control and
    self-direction without external control or the
    threat of
  • punishment.
  • - Commitment to objectives is a function
    of rewards associated with their achievement.
  • - People usually accept and often seek
    responsibility.
  • - In industry the intellectual potential
    of the average person is only partly utilized.

8
Quotes
  • No one is satisfied with his fortune, nor
    dissatisfied with his intellect.
  • Dream as if you'll live forever, live as if
    you'll die today.
  • Shoot for the moon. Even if you miss, you'll
    land among the stars.
  • Motivation is what gets you started. Habit is
    what keeps you going.
  • Trust yourself. You know more than you think you
    do.

9
Motivation balance
  • Individual motivations are made up of elements
    of each class
  • Balance can change depending on personal
    circumstances and external events
  • However, people are not just motivated by
    personal factors but also by being part of a
    group and culture.
  • People go to work because they are motivated by
    the people that they work with

10
Personality types
  • Task-oriented.
  • The motivation for doing the work is the work
    itself, This type of leadership can be described
    as autocratic. Autocratic leaders make decisions
    without consulting their team
  • Self-oriented.
  • The work is a means to an end which is the
    achievement of individual goals - e.g. to get
    rich, to play tennis, to travel etc.
  • Interaction (people)-oriented
  • The principal motivation is the presence and
    actions of co-workers. The people oriented
    approach involves supporting and developing
    people in their team. This type requires a high
    level of participation from leadership

11
Working with Team Members
  • You will encounter four types of team members in
    your role as a project manager
  • Evaders, do not like confrontation, they always
    nod their heads, smile, and scream internally.
    Never offer a different opinion or disagree with
    any suggestion. To get these individuals
    involved, try the following have each member
    offer an opinion, let them think about the
    problem and email solution to you.
  • Aggressive, love to argue, their opinions are in
    opposition of others, usually are smarts,
    intelligent, and educated than others. To deal
    with this type follow allow them to make their
    recommendation first, ask to explain their
    position clearly, speak to them privately for
    their cooperation when searching for solution.

12
Working with team members..
  • Thinkers, Usually the are quite thru the process
    and then they offer their opinion based on what
    is been discussed. They are excellent to have on
    the project. Try to ask them for their opinion
    early in the process.
  • Idealists, they see the project is simple,
    straight path to completion. They may ignore, or
    not a ware of, the process. Usually they are well
    trained to the technology, but have a little
    practical experience. The are open to learning
    and eager to offer solution to the project.
  • Dealing with each of these personas takes
    patience, insight into their personalities. So
    you have to spend time with your team members
    develop a relationship with them, and lead by
    example.
  • You will not be an effective leading your
    project team if you only talking about project,
    assign work..and review

13
Personality types of mangers based upon
management style
  • The imaginary leader, the think that they are
    managing the project today and running the
    company next week. ( raise their hand in school
    and remind teacher if he forgot to assign
    homework), they want to lead but they do not know
    how.
  • The mouse, Afraid of doing any activity without
    explicit direction from somebody, they are afraid
    of mistakes, and need guidance. Encourage this
    type to take charge, build their confidence, and
    work together to fix some their mistakes in order
    to build their confidence.

14
Personality types of mangers
  • You favorite Uncle (or Aunt), Office clown,
    telling jokes, sharing stories around the office,
    Not only they are really fun, but also the are
    time wasters. Often this type have nothing to do
    and they think that everyone else is the same.
    Give those people more assignment and tell them
    politely- that their activities are appreciated,
    but not always necessary.
  • The cowboy, love excitement, happy to try
    anything out (rebooting a server mid-morning)
    just to see what happen. Encourage their
    enthusiasm but discourage their ability to make
    on the spot decisions without thinking.

15
Building the TEAM
  • Group feeling develop over time, it is suggested
    that teams go through five stages of development
  • Forming, meetings, introduction to the project,
    learning roles and
  • responsibilities.
  • Storming, addressing project work, technical
    decision, and the
  • project
    management approach.
  • Norming, team work together, and adjust work
    habits.
  • Performing, team function as well as organized
    unit.
  • Adjourning, completing work and getting out from
    the project.

16
Advantages of Ground rules
  • Establish clear expectations on acceptable
    behavior by team members.
  • Rules aid in providing a comfortable environment
  • Decreases misunderstanding and increase
    productivity.
  • Discussion of ground rules help understand
    values.
  • Rules take much of the responsibility of being
    the policeman off the leader and instead
    distribute it to the group.
  • All team members are responsible for enforcing
    rules.

17
Recognition and rewards
  • Recognizing and rewarding desirable behavior
  • Focus on win-win rather win-loose rewards
  • Should satisfy a need which is valued by rewarded
    individuals, consider cultural difference.
  • Generally, money is viewed by most as a very
    tangible aspect of any reward system.
  • Encouraged during the project lifecycle not after
    completion.

18
Recognition Tips
  • Be sincere
  • Be spontaneous
  • Match reward to achievement

19
Carnegies Golden Rules?????
  • - Become a Friendlier Person
  • Dont criticize, Give
    honest sincere appreciation, Become genuinely
    interested in other people, Smile, Remember that
    a persons name is the sweetest and most
    important sound in any language. Be a good
    listener, Talk in terms of other persons
    interest, Make the other person feels important.
  • - Win People to Your Way of Thinking
  • - The only way to get the best of an
    argument is to avoid it.
  • - Show respect for the other person's
    opinion. Never say, "you're wrong."
  • - If you are wrong, admit it quickly
    and emphatically.
  • - Begin in a friendly way.
  • - Get the other person saying, "yes,
    yes" immediately.
  • - Let the other person do a great deal
    of the talking.
  • - Try honestly to see things from the
    other person's point of view.
  • - Be sympathetic with the other
    person's ideas and desires.
  • - Be a Leader
  • - Begin with praise and honest
    appreciation.
  • - Talk about your own mistakes before
    criticizing the other person.
  • - Ask questions instead of giving direct
    orders.
  • - Let the other person save face.
  • - Give the other person a fine
    reputation to live up to.
  • - Use encouragement. Make the fault seem
    easy to correct.
  • - Make the other person happy about
    doing the thing you suggest.

20
Types of managers.
  • Mangers who wont listen, not interested or
    disrespect for others. So documents what you have
    to say to this type.
  • Mangers who are aggressive, yelling, shouting,
    rudebefriend them, and let them know what he say
    or do offends you.
  • Mangers who avoids decisions
  • Mangers who micromanage, they do the work
    themselves they do not trust anyone else.
  • Mangers who rotate the discipline, someone always
    has to be in trouble, and discipline that one to
    remind everyone that they are in charge.
  • Finally the good bosses, the individuals who are
    caring, hard working, goal oriented ones. Do not
    be mistaken when working for a passive boss
    assuming you work for a good one.

21
Time distribution
22
Quotes
  • Leaders don't create followers, they create more
    leaders. 
  • A good leader is a person who takes a little more
    than his share of the blame and a little less
    than his share of the credit.
  • Management is nothing more than motivating other
    people.  Lee Iacocca
  • Leadership should be more participative than
    directive, more enabling than performing
  • There were two kinds of people those who do the
    work and those who take the credit. He told me to
    try to be in the first group. There is much less
    competition.

23
Cooperation
  • IS projects bring diverse people together
  • Working with computers creates a machine focus in
    some
  • Working with people creates a different mindset
  • IS project managers need to make both work
    together

24
Waterfall Development Model
Stage Personnel
Feasibility analysis Systems analysts, users, finance
Software requirements Systems analysts, users
Product design Systems analysts
Detailed design Systems analysts
Coding Programmers, Testers
Integration Systems analysts, Programmers, Testers, System administrators
Implementation System administrators, Testers, users
Operation Maintenance Maintenance
25
Quotes
  • The greatest conflicts are not between two people
    but between one person and himself
  • Conflict is inevitable, but combat is optional.
  • Creativity comes from a conflict of ideas.
  • To believe in something, and not to live it, is
    dishonest
  • An eye for an eye will only make the whole
    world blind.  Mahatma Gandhi
  • Knowing when to fight is just as important as
    knowing how. 
  • All war is a symptom of man's failure as a
    thinking animal.

26
IS Group Conflict
  • a dispute or disagreement where different people f
    eel that their wants, needs, interests or
    concerns are threatened.
  • The opposition and disagreement due to
    incompatible goals, thoughts, or emotions within
    or between individuals or groups, it occurs when
    they try to block each others effort to attain
    those goals.
  • Conflict inherent in
  • Human organizations
  • information systems
  • Lack of trust understanding
  • Hostility
  • Frustration
  • The more diverse the team, the more likely that
    conflict will arise
  • Studies found that this conflict reflected in
    three levels
  • Disagreement
  • Interference
  • Negative emotion

27
Source of conflicts
  • Values of team members, disputes occur when an
    issue is viewed by two individuals with different
    value, good and bad, right or wrong.
  • Attitudes of team members
  • Goals/Expectations - the processes and expected
    outcomes
  • Roles and responsibilities of team members
  • Limited resources
  • Personalities
  • Interdependency
  • Increased interaction (frequency)

28
More about conflicts
  • Allen C. Amason, of Mississippi State University,
    has studied conflict and its role in
    decision-making. He suggests there are two types
    of conflict (These actually trace back to the
    sources listed above.)
  • Cognitive - conflict aimed at issues, ideas,
    principles, or process
  • Affective - conflict aimed at people, emotions,
    or values
  • His studies showed the presence of both types in
    any group setting but he's clear to explain that
    cognitive conflict is constructive, while
    affective is destructive 

29
More about conflicts
  • Another researcher, Thomas K. Capozzoli (1995),
    reinforces this by describing the outcomes of
    constructive and destructive conflict
  • Constructive conflicts exists when
  • - People change and grow personally from
    the conflict
  • - The conflict results in a solution to a
    problem
  • - It increase involvement of everyone
    affected by the conflict
  • - It builds cohesiveness among the members
    of the team
  • Destructive conflicts exists when
  • - No decision is reached and problem still
    exists
  • - It diverts energy away from more
    value-add activities
  • - It destroys the morale of the team
    members
  • - It polarizes or divides the team

30
IS Project Characteristics affecting
interpersonal ConflictBarki Hartwick 2001
Individual Team Project Organization
Personality Size Time pressure Culture
Background Heterogeneity Resources Form
Role status Leadership Success
Individual goals Participation Top support
History
31
Individual Characteristics
  • Personality
  • Technical people tend to dominate IS projects
  • Users need to participate as well
  • Background
  • Different education, experience
  • Organizational Role Status
  • Hierarchical power wont match expertise
  • Individual Needs Goals

32
Team Characteristics
  • Individually, we are one drop. Together, we are
    an ocean.
  • Team size
  • Larger tends to have more conflict
  • Team heterogeneity
  • More diverse tends to have more conflict
  • Team Leadership
  • Participation
  • - Many shared interests can lead to conflict
  • History, previous project clashes

33
Project Characteristics
  • Time pressure inherent in most IS projects
  • People react differently
  • Resource constraints
  • Often have to work with whats available
  • Success criteria
  • Expectations
  • Top management support

34
Organizational Characteristics
  • Conflict can arise over resource allocation, the
    distribution of duties, workload and benefits,
    different levels of tolerance for risk taking,
    and varying views on accountability. 
  • Organizational culture
  • Form of organization
  • Many project organizations use Matrix (multiple
    line of authority you report to functional manger
    and project manager)
  • Creates high pressure, highly dynamic environment

35
Conflict Performance
  • Conflict, in itself, does not have to be bad.
    Often, it is beneficial to hear other viewpoints.
    As in personal relationships, conflict can help
    raise issues that need to be addressed. It might
    motivate workers to help solve problems
  • Study found that conflict management had some
    positive impact on information system outcomes.
  • It is Better to avoid interpersonal conflict
  • High conflict in some high performing groups
  • Need to be able to reach closure
  • Low performing groups often had less conflict
    until the end
  • Encourage
  • Open discussion
  • High levels of personal respect
  • Cohesive supportive team leadership

36
Views of conflict(Traditional, Behavioral, and
Interactionist)
  • Negative T
  • Must be avoided T
  • Project manger job is to avoid conflict T
  • Natural and inevitable B
  • Can have a positive impact B
  • Necessary to increase performance I
  • Encourage conflict up to certain level I

37
Interpersonal conflict resolution management
strategies
  • Collaborating, I win you win, used when
  • - there is a high level of trust
  • - you don't want to have full
    responsibility
  • - you want others to also have
    "ownership" of solutions
  • - the people involved are willing to
    change their thinking as
  • more information is found and new
    options are suggested
  • - When you need to work through animosity
    and hard feelings
  • Compromising, you end I bend, used when
  • - people of equal status are equally
    committed to goals
  • - time can be saved by reaching intermediate
    settlements on individual parts of complex issues
  • - goals are moderately important

38
Interpersonal conflict resolution management
strategies
  • Accommodating, I lose you win, used when
  • - an issue is not as important to you as it
    is to the other person
  • - you realize you are wrong
  • - you are willing to let others learn by
    mistake
  • - you know you cannot win
  • - it is not the right time and you would
    prefer to simply build credit for the future
  • - harmony is extremely important
  • - what the parties have in common is a good
    deal more important than their differences
  • Competing, I win you loose, used when
  • - you know you are right
  • - time is short and a quick decision is
    needed
  • - you need to stand up for your rights

39
Ways to minimize conflict
  • Listening empathetically and to all parties
  • Thinking before speaking
  • Using persuasive ways to express your point view
  • Understanding others point of views, motive, and
    needs.
  • Admitting own mistake
  • Building trust
  • Give other what they want so you can get what you
    want.

40
Organization Culture and success rate
  • Your organization's culture has a lot to do with
    the success rate of your projects. The term
    culture generally means how we do things around
    here. Culture comes into play on projects in a
    number of areas.
  • - Process orientation, if an organization follow
    s a good, scalable project management process, it
    is more likely to be consistently successful on
    its projects. The entire project team generally
    knows how to create and follow a work plan, and
    can use standard processes to effectively handle
    risk, scope change, and issues.
  • - GovernanceMany organizations have processes
    in place, but no one follows them. This
    highlights a problem with management governance.
    In simplistic terms, governance is the management
    function that has to do with making sure people
    do what theyre supposed to do. Typically, if
    your management structure is engaged and
    interested in projects, and if managers make sure
    that your project management process is followed,
    youll be more successful.
  • - TrainingSome organizations do a poor job of
    training project managers. Typically, these
    organizations do a poor job of training in
    general. If project managers generally dont have
    the right skills, you wont be successful.
  • - Roles and responsibilitiesIn successful
    organizations, people typically know the role
    they play on projects and what is expected of
    them. This includes active sponsors, interested
    clients, and engaged management stakeholders.

41
Some Organizational Forces hamper (work
against) IS Project Success
  1. Project scope objectives rarely communicated to
    project team, assuming everyone should
    automatically rally behind the project after
    officially adopted.
  2. Business rationale for project rarely
    disseminated (circulated)
  3. Project budgets inaccurate (or skipped)
  4. Lack of project support
  5. Project control contested or not firmly
    established
  6. Rules changed during project execution

42
Project Communication (all stakeholders)
  • Constant, effective communication among
    all project stakeholders ranks high among the
    factors leading to the success of a project. It
    is a key prerequisite of getting the right things
    done in the right way. As knowledge is power,
    sharing knowledge empowering every project
    stakeholder.
  • Good communication is a major factor in
    successful PM.
  • Communications barriers naturally arise
  • Within or across organizations
  • In traditional more permanent organizations,
    people cope with it (develop ways to find what
    they need)
  • In Projects, high degree of change and
    uncertainty, people dont know ropes (a great
    amount of change in personnel)
  • (projects are new, different environment, dynamic
    and complex project activities under a time
    pressure )

43
Communication methods
  • Face to face meeting are most effective
  • Telephone call, emails, and other tools can be
    useful when face to face is not possible.
  • When you communicate with people
  • Look at the other person
  • Ask questions
  • Do not interrupt
  • Do not change the subject
  • Express emotion with control
  • Respond appropriately

44
Listening to body language
  • pointing
  • sighing
  • Concealing mouth
  • Bending forward
  • No eye contact
  • Crossed arms
  • Scratching nose, Rejection, doubt, lying
  • Scratch eyebrow, Doubt, disbelief
  • Open arms and palms, Sincerity, openness
  • . Biting nails, Insecurity, nervousness
  • Pulling or tugging ear, Indecision

45
Getting the info you want
  • It usually takes three questions
  • - start with a question
  • - follow up with question from answer
  • - follow up with so? Or and.
  • Repeat what you heard by saying let me make sure
    I heard you correctly ..

46
Tips for effective communication
  • Talk in terms of other persons interest
  • Ask question instead of giving direct orders
  • Be a good listener
  • Become genuinely interested in others.
  • Stick to the point
  • Use persuasive language
  • Show confidence
  • Avoid jargon

47
Winning people to your way of thinking (Carnegie)
  • Avoid argument
  • Show respect for the others opinion
  • If you are wrong, admit it
  • Begin in friendly way
  • Get the other person saying yes
  • Let the other person do most of the talking
  • Let the other person feel the idea is his
  • Try honestly to see the others point of view
  • Be sympathetic with other persons ideas

48
Negotiation skills
  • Start out with an ideal and end up with a deal.
  • Be firm yet polite when making a stand.
  • Emphasize advantages and disadvantages of your
    approach
  • Put ego aside and concentrate on the matter on
    hand
  • Aim for solutions
  • Value time, schedules, and deadlines

49
Interpersonal and management skills (PMBOK)
  • Interpersonal skills
  • - building trust
  • - resolving conflict
  • - active listening
  • Management skills
  • - presentation
  • - negotiating, analyze the situation,
    differentiate between wants and needs, ask high
    and offer low, but be realistic, do not just give
    in, and make sure both parties feel as if they
    have won.
  • - writing
  • - public speaking
  • What to negotiate? Technical and management
    approaches, price, schedule, payment, contract
    financing, responsibilities, authorities, and
    applicable laws.

50
Management and leadership
  • There is a profound difference between management
    and leadership, and both are important "To
    manage" means "to bring about, to accomplish, to
    have charge of or responsibility for, to
    conduct." "Leading" is "influencing, guiding in
    direction, course, action, opinion." The
    distinction is crucial.
  • Management is...                             
          Leadership is....
  • Coping with complexity                        
    Coping with and promoting change
  • Planning and Budgeting                         Set
    ting a Direction
  • Organizing and Staffing                         Al
    igning People
  • Controlling and Problem Solving           Motivati
    ng and Inspiring People
  • Effective Action                                  
         Meaningful Action

51
Ten Tips for Being a BetterProject Manager
  • Successful project management depends not just on
    what you do, but also on how you do it. Your
    attitudes and behaviors toward people affect how
    they respond to you. This can help you
    successfully win peoples support.
  • - Be a Why Person, look for the reasons
    behind requests and actions.
  • - Be a Can-Do Person. look at all problems
    as challenges and find ways to overcome them
  • - Say What You Mean, Mean What You Say,
    Communicate clearly, be specific
  • - View People as Allies, Not Adversaries,
    focus on common goals, not individual agendas

52
Ten Tips for Being a BetterProject Manager
  • - Respect Other People, focus on peoples
    strengths rather than their weaknesses.
  • - Think Big Picture, keep events in
    perspective.
  • - Think Detail
  • - Assume Cautiously
  • - Acknowledge Good Performance
  • - Be a Manager and a Leader

53
Summary
  • Information systems projects very valuable
  • Many difficulties in managing personnel
  • New activities
  • Diverse people
  • Dynamic environment
  • Pressure (time, budget)
  • IS Project Managers need special abilities
  • Get things done without authority
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