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Guide to Network Cabling Fundamentals


Guide to Network Cabling Fundamentals Chapter 8 Chapter 8 - Testing and Troubleshooting Understand the necessity for testing your cable system Define and perform ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Guide to Network Cabling Fundamentals

Guide to Network Cabling Fundamentals
  • Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Testing and Troubleshooting
  • Understand the necessity for testing your cable
  • Define and perform tests on copper and fiber
  • Understand troubleshooting methods and general
  • Identify and use testing and troubleshooting
  • Design a disaster avoidance plan
  • Manage your documentation

Testing Your Cabling System
  • After the cabling is in place, a final critical
    step remains in the installation testing the
  • Three types of cable testing exist
  • Operational testing ensures that a system is
    working properly and includes these procedures
    checking all cables for continuity performing
    polarity tests of cable pairs running a
    connectivity test testing for cable shorts and
  • Performance testing is designed to ensure that a
    system complies with all applicable codes and

Testing Your Cabling System
  • Three types of cable testing (cont.)
  • Acceptance testing is designed to demonstrate
    functionality, prove conformity to
    specifications, and ensure performance based on
    customers measurement criteria, called
  • Acceptance testing serves to satisfy the contract
    with the customer and these requirements the
    types of cable to use for each portion of the
    installation the acceptable means for running
    the cable various types of termination
    equipment the performance expected from each
    type of cable complete documentation of the
    installation and test results

Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • Test copper UTP cable in accordance with the TIA
    TSB-67 standard, which specifies methods,
    parameters, and minimum requirements for testing
    installed Category 3, 4, and 5 cabling
  • There are several benefits of testing and
    certifying according to TSB-67
  • Verifying that no faults occurred during the
    installation, and ensure that the system will
    perform according to the users requirements
  • Protecting the installer from blame if a problem

Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • TSB-67 defines two types of tests for UTP
  • The basic link is the permanent part of a cable
    run that includes 90 meters of horizontal cable,
    the telecommunications outlet, and the first
    punch-down in the telecommunications room
  • The channel encompasses the basic link plus all
    patch cords and equipment cords
  • These tests should both be performed they are
    important in verifying proper workmanship, and
    they provide a future reference for the systems
    proper state of operation or performance (or

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Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • TSB-67 tests for copper UTP cable
  • The wire map test identifies wiring errors (opens
    and shorts, crossed-pair, reversed-pair,
    split-pair), and checks connectivity
  • The length test verifies that cable length is
    within the specifications for maximum allowable
  • The attenuation test measure a cables signal
    loss from end to end all cable pairs must be
  • The near-end crosstalk (NEXT) test measures the
    signal coupling from one pair of wires to another
    pair within the same cable

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Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • Proposed new tests for copper UTP cable are known
    as TSB-95
  • Propagation delay measures the time, in
    nano-seconds (nS), it takes a signal to travel a
  • Attenuation-to-crosstalk ratio (ACR) is the
    difference between the NEXT and attenuation
  • The power sum measurement compares the crosstalk
    effects on all pairs in a cable
  • Return loss is a measurement of the signal that
    echoes or reflects back into the transmitter

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Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • General testing rules for copper UTP cable
  • Do not move any cable or equipment during testing
  • Record pass/fail indications and always record
    the actual measured values and the date
  • If any part of the system is reconfigured, retest
  • Always perform the NEXT test and record the
    measurements from both ends of the cable
  • When performing channel tests, always test with
    the end-user cords and patch cords in place
  • If a cable barely passes a test, record this
    marginal result in the report of actual test

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Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • Test fiber-optic cable to demonstrate that any
    exhibited loss does not exceed the acceptable
    limits defined by ANSI/EIA/TIA-568-B.3
  • Testing ensures that the cabling system
  • Meets the customers attenuation specifications
  • Provides documentation of baseline readings,
    which are an essential gauge for future
  • When testing, test the power levels on the
    transmitter and receiver to ensure proper

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Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • Attenuation testing of fiber is crucial after
    installation because interruptions in the cable
    (splices and connections) provide more
    opportunities for signal loss
  • During attenuation testing, measure cables in
    both directions and at both available wavelengths
  • A wavelength is the measure of the color of
    light, expressed in nanometers (nm)
  • Spare fibers or unterminated fibers do not
    require attenuation testing, but the do need to
    be tested for continuity

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Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • Attenuation testing must be done on every link
    segment of cable
  • Link segments consist of cable, connectors, other
    connections, and splices between two fiber-optic
    termination units in the system
  • The three basic link segment types are
    horizontal, backbone, and composite
  • To compute the acceptable attenuation value for
    any link segment, use this equationacceptable
    link attenuation cable attenuation connector
    attenuation splice attenuation

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Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • Optical connectors, adapters, and cable
    assemblies must comply with the requirements of
    ANSI/EIA/TIA-604-3-1997, FOCIS 3 also test the
    system in accordance with TIA FOTP
  • Follow these procedures before testing begins
    read the equipment manufacturers testing
    instructions ensure that all connectors, jumpers
    and adapters are properly cleaned ensure that
    the light source or optical domain reflectometer
    (OTDR) operates within the range of 85030 nm for
    multimode cable and1300 20 nm for single-mode

Testing Copper and Fiber Media
  • The steps for testing end-to-end attenuation
  • Take a reference reading by connecting a test
    jumper from the power meter to the optical source
  • Take a check reading by connecting a second
    jumper to the first with an interconnection
  • Subtract the reference from the check reading
  • If attenuation is acceptable, proceed, otherwise,
    clean connectors and return to step 2
  • Take an official attenuation test reading by
    performing an end-to-end attenuation test
  • Determine end-to-end attenuation by subtracting
    the reference from the official attenuation test

Troubleshooting Methods and General Techniques
  • Successful troubleshooters must be logical,
    methodical, and good at problem solving
  • Perform the following troubleshooting steps
  • Identify the symptoms
  • Verify user competency
  • Identify the scope of the problem
  • Recreate the problem
  • Verify the physical integrity of all connections
  • Determine if due to recent system changes
  • Determine, implement, and test the solution

Tools for Testing and Troubleshooting
  • In many cases, it is more efficient to use a tool
    that can analyze and isolate system problems
  • Tools for testing copper cable include
    multimeters test shorts, opens, continuity
    verifications, attenuation measurements, and
    electrical outlets continuity testers test for
    proper wiring mapping, opens, shorts, bad
    terminations and reversed-pairs certified field
    testers test all parameters required by TSB-67
    and TSB-95 time domain reflectometer (TDR) tests
    for line impedance, attenuation, opens, shorts,
    NEXT, cable distances, and connector or
    terminator problems

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Tools for Testing and Troubleshooting
  • Tools (cont.)
  • Tools for testing fiber-optic cable include
    power meters and optical light sources, which
    measure a cables signal strength and
    attenuation, and the light source can also
    determine leakage at connectors and bends
    optical time domain reflectometers (OTDRs)
    measure a cables length and signal strength
    jumpers connect the power meter and the light
    source interconnection adapters are circuit
    administration points that provide access to a
    circuit and mates connectors

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Disaster Avoidance
  • A disaster is an event that prevents a business
    from performing its critical functions
  • Disaster avoidance, or disaster prevention, is a
    series of measures designed to prevent, detect,
    or contain potentially calamitous incidents
  • The first priority is to prevent disasters, but
    since this is impossible, the next priority is to
    develop procedures that minimize a disasters
  • Proper planning can greatly reduce the trauma of
    rebuilding and repairing systems after a
    disaster, and it can help ensure the rebuilding
    is successful

Disaster Avoidance
  • Disaster planning
  • To ensure disaster avoidance plan soundness,
    increase the amount of installed cables in the
    system, select the proper equipment, and think
    through as many what if scenarios as possible
  • One of the best and easiest disaster avoidance
    methods is redundancy, which is built into a
    system by adding duplicate parts at any or all
  • Another method involves adding diversity to the
    system, using both fiber and copper to ensure
    that service continues through the copper if
    fiber is disabled

Disaster Avoidance
  • Disaster planning (cont.)
  • Redundancy and diversity can be planned in
    backbone cables by running more than one and
    installing them along different paths
  • Other aspects of network planning and
    installation are also critical to disaster
    avoidance, including grounding, firestopping,
    and physical connectivity
  • Create redundancy for important network data and
    applications by mirroring part of the network to
    another building, city, or state

Managing Your Documentation
  • Managing test results
  • Test results are a critical part of the
  • Use the following guidelines to manage test
    results from cable testers document the
    standards used for testing ensure the latest
    software version for the cable tester and record
    that too select a labeling scheme (cable ID)
    that matches the label on the patch panel or
    outlet select the format and media to use for
    test results
  • Most newer cable testers come with the ability to
    download test results - do this every day

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Managing Your Documentation
  • Data Management Equipment
  • An important part of effective management is
    selecting the right tools for the job
  • Consider the following equipment label printers
    range from simple models that require manual
    keypad input to models that connect to test tools
    and print labels after each test is performed
    software solutions such as spreadsheets and
    databases help manage test results, and mapping
    software to provide a logical view of the network

Chapter Summary
  • Test your cable installation before activating
    the service to guarantee that the system is
    working properly. Testing also ensures that all
    installed components meet the customers
    performance specifications, as well as codes and
  • Operational testing includes continuity testing,
    verification of polarity, and connectivity
    testing to ensure that there are no shorts or
    opens. Performance testing ensures that the
    system complies with all applicable codes and
    standards. Acceptance testing is designed to
    prove conformity to specifications and ensure
    performance based on the customers measurement

Chapter Summary
  • Always test UTP cable systems in accordance with
    the TIA TSB-67 standard, which specifies methods
    and parameters for testing installed Category 3,
    4, and 5 cabling with a hand-help instrument.
    This standard also defines basic link and channel
    test configurations for UTP cable. TSB-67 tests
    that are currently required for Category 5
    certification include wire map tests, length
    tests, attenuation tests, NEXT (near-end
    crosstalk) tests, and propagation delay tests

Chapter Summary
  • You must test fiber-optic cable for attenuation
    to comply with current standards. You should also
    test for attenuation on all link segments,
    connectors, adapters, and cable assemblies
  • Even if you only perform new installations, you
    still need to know how to troubleshoot your
    system. A successful troubleshooter is logical,
    methodical, and good at problem solving.
    Troubleshooting steps include identifying
    symptoms, identifying the scope of a problem, and
    recreating the problem

Chapter Summary
  • Many of the tools you use for everyday
    installation and maintenance are the same ones
    you use to test cables or troubleshoot problems
  • Disaster avoidance is designed to ensure the
    continuous availability of critical business
    services in case of disaster. Although you cannot
    prevent all disasters, you can minimize their
    effects by planning redundancy and diversity into
    telecommunications systems

Chapter Summary
  • The documentation manual provides important
    information about your network. This information
    can assist you in troubleshooting network
    problems, and it provides an accurate hardware
    and software inventory
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