Topic 5 and Option G - Ecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Topic 5 and Option G - Ecology PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6ff477-MjhlN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Topic 5 and Option G - Ecology

Description:

Topic 5 and Option G - Ecology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:98
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 61
Provided by: Bria4181
Learn more at: http://stickrathbiology.yolasite.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Topic 5 and Option G - Ecology


1
Topic 5 and Option G - Ecology
2
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • 5.1.1
  • Define (1)
  • Ecologythe study of relationships between living
    organisms and between organisms and their
    environment.
  • Ecosystema community and its abiotic
    environment.
  • Populationa group of organisms of the same
    species who live in the same area at the same
    time.
  • Communitya group of populations living and
    interacting with each other in an area.
  • Speciesa group of organisms which can interbreed
    and produce fertile offspring.
  • Habitatthe environment in which a species
    normally lives or the location of a living
    organism.

3
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • 5.1.2
  • autotroph (producer) organisms that use an
    external energy source to produce organic matter
    from inorganic raw materials
  • Examples trees, plants, algae, blue-green
    bacteria
  • What process are they doing????

4
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • heterotroph (consumer) organisms that use the
    energy in organic matter, obtained from other
    organisms
  • Examples ????

5
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • consumers feed on other living things
  • detritivore feed on dead organic matter by
    ingesting it
  • saprotroph (decomposer) feed on dead organic
    material by secreting digestive enzymes into it
    and absorbing the products
  • So, whats the difference here???

6
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • 5.1.4
  • Describe what is meant by a food chain giving
    three examples, each with at least three linkages
    (four organisms). (2)
  • A food chain is a sequence of relationships
    between trophic levels where each member feeds on
    the previous one.
  • Dont include decomposers in your food chain in
    your notes.

7
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • 5.1.5
  • Describe what is meant by a food web. (2)
  • A food web is a a diagram that shows the feeding
    relationships in a community. The arrows
    indicate the direction of energy flow.

8
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • 5.1.6
  • Define trophic level. (1)
  • A trophic level is where an organism is
    positioned on a food web (its feeding
    relationship to other organisms).
  • Producer
  • Primary consumer
  • Secondary consumer
  • Tertiary consumer

9
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
Quaternary consumers
  • 5.1.7
  • Deduce the trophic level of organisms in a food
    chain and a food web. (3)

Carnivore
Tertiary consumers
Carnivore
Secondary consumers
Carnivore
Primary consumers
Herbivore
Primary producers
Plant
A terrestrial food chain
10
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • 5.1.9
  • State that light is the initial energy source for
    almost all communities. (1)
  • What process???

11
  • 5.1.10
  • Explain the energy flow in a food chain. (3)

12
  • 5.1.11
  • State that energy transformations are 1020
    efficient. (1)

That means used for more biomass.
Math Check!
13
  • 5.1.12
  • Explain what is meant by a pyramid of energy and
    the reasons for its shape. (3)

Notice the loss of energy with each transfer in a
food chain
14
5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • 5.1.13
  • Explain that energy can enter and leave an
    ecosystem, but that nutrients must be
    recycled. (3)
  • Energy enters as light and usually leaves as
    heat.
  • Nutrients do not usually enter an ecosystem and
    must be used again and again. Nutrients include
    Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus

15
(No Transcript)
16
Nitrogen Cycle
N2 in atmosphere
Assimilation
Denitrifying bacteria
NO3
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of
legumes
Decomposers
Nitrifying bacteria
Ammonification
Nitrification
NO2
NH4
NH3
Nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria
Nitrifying bacteria
17
G1 Community Ecology
  • G.1.1 Outline the factors that affect the
    distribution of plant species, including
    temperature, water, light, soil pH, salinity, and
    mineral nutrients.

18
G1 Community Ecology
  • G.1.2 Explain the factors that affect the
    distribution of animal species including
    temperature, water, breeding sites, food supply
    and territory.

19
Internal Assessment
  • Think about what will effect how plants are
    distributed in an ecosystem.
  • First IA pause and Statistics Pause.

20
G1 Community Ecology
  • G.1.5 Explain what is meant by the niche concept.
  • The total of a species use of biotic and abiotic
    resources is called the species ecological
    niche.
  • Habitat
  • Feeding relationships
  • Symbiotic/other interactions with organisms

21
G1 Community Ecology
  • G.1.7 Explain the principle of competitive
    exclusion.
  • two species competing for the same limiting
    resources cannot coexist in the same place one
    must leave or becomes extinct

22
G1 Community Ecology
  • G.1.8 Fundamental vs Realized Niches
  • Fundamental where the species is designed to
    live the best
  • Realized where the species actually resides
    because of competition

23
G1 Community Ecology
  • G.1.6 Outline the following interactions between
    species competition, herbivory, predation,
    parasitism, and mutualism (with examples).

Research time!
24
G1 Community Ecology
  • G.1.9 Define biomass - each tier represents the
    dry weight of all organisms in one trophic level

25
G2 Ecosystems and biomes
  • G.2.1 Define gross production and net production.
  • Gross Production the amount of light energy
    converted to chemical energy by autotrophs in an
    ecosystem
  • Net Production Energy able to be passed on by
    producers to consumers
  • G.2.2 GP R (Respiration) NP

26
G2 Ecosystems and biomes
  • G.2.5 Construct a pyramid of energy, given
    information.

27
G2 Ecosystems and biomes
  • G.2.6 Distinguish between primary and secondary
    succession.
  • Primary succession occurs where no soil exists
    when succession begins
  • Secondary succession begins in an area where soil
    remains after a disturbance

28
G2 Ecosystems and Biomes
  • G.2.7 Outline the changes in species diversity
    and production during primary succession.
  • Not very diverse Lichen pioneer species
  • Very diverse Forest climax community

29
G2 Ecosystems and Biomes
  • G.2.8 Explain the effects of living organisms on
    the abiotic environment, with reference to the
    changes occurring during primary succession.
  • Small amount of soil formed by the lichens is
    colonized by mosses, which do not have roots and
    require little soil
  • As the seedless plants live and die
    decomposition increases the richness of the soil
  • Grasses can successfully grow

30
G2 Ecosystems and biomes
  • G.2.9 Distinguish between biome and biosphere.
  • Biome Communities on earth that contain similar
    plant and animal inhabitants
  • Biosphere part of Earth that can contain life

31
G2 Ecosystems and Biomes
  • G.2.11 Outline the characteristics (temperature,
    moisture, vegetation) of six major biomes.
  • Desert
  • Grassland
  • Shrubland
  • Temperate deciduous forest
  • Tropical rainforest
  • Tundra

Build a Biome!
32
G1 Community Ecology
  • G.1.3 Describe one method of random sampling,
    based on quadrat methods, that is used to compare
    the population size of two plant or two animal
    species.

33
  • Mark off a large 10 x 10 meter grid area
  • Toss a 1 x 1 meter square into the grid area
    randomly
  • Identify and count all the larger plant species
    first
  • Smaller plant species, like grass, divide your
    square into
  • several smaller 10 x 10 cm squares. Count the
    number of
  • individual plants in several of those smaller
    squares, average,
  • and multiply by 100 to get an estimate.
  • 5) Toss the 1 x 1 m square to obtain more data.

34
G3 Impacts of humans on ecosystems
  • G.3.1 Calculate the Simpson diversity index for
    two communities.
  • N total number of individual organisms (all
    species combined)
  • n number of individuals of a particular species

35
G3 Impacts of humans on ecosystems
  • G.3.2 Analyse the biodiversity of the two local
    communities using the Simpson index.
  • High Index (closer to one) Higher the
    biodiversity
  • This index ranges from zero to one and is
    literally a measure of the probability that two
    organisms taken at random from the sample are
    different species. A number close to zero means
    low diversity and it is likely you will get the
    same species of organism and a number close to
    one means high diversity.

36
Internal Assessment
  • Quadrat Lab

37
5.3 Populations
  • 5.3.1
  • Outline how population size can be affected by
    natality, immigration, mortality and emigration.
  • Natality offspring are produced and added to
    the population
  • Mortality individuals die and are lost from the
    population
  • Immigration individuals move into the area from
    somewhere else and add to the population
  • Emigration individuals move out of the area and
    are lost from the population

38
5.3 Populations
  • 5.3.2
  • Draw a graph showing the sigmoid (S-shaped)
    population growth curve.

39
(No Transcript)
40
5.3 Populations
  • Exponential Phase
  • Population increases exponentially because the
    natality rate is higher than the mortality rate.
    This is because there is an abundance of food,
    and disease and predators are rare.

41
5.3 Populations
  • Transitional Phase
  • Difference between natality and mortality rates
    are not as great, but natality is still higher so
    population continues to grow, but at a slower
    rate.
  • Food is no longer as abundant due to the increase
    in the population size. May also be increase
    predation and disease.

42
5.3 Populations
  • Plateau Phase
  • Natality and mortality are equal so the
    population size stays constant.
  • Limiting Factors
  • shortage of food or other resources
  • increase in predators
  • more diseases or parasites
  • If a population is limited, then it has reached
    its carrying capacity

43
5.3 Populations
  • Define carrying capacity.
  • The maximum population size that can be supported
    by the environment

44
5.3 Populations
  • In a random sample, every individual in a
    population has an equal chance of being selected.
  • Describe one technique used to estimate the
    population size of an animal species based on a
    capture-mark-release-recapture method. (2)
  • Various mark and recapture methods exist.
  • Knowledge of the Lincoln index (which involves
    one mark, release and recapture cycle) is
    required.

45
5.3 Populations
  • population size
  • where . . .
  • n1 number of individuals initially caught,
    marked and released
  • n2 total number of individuals caught in the
    second sample
  • n3 number of marked individuals in the second
    sample

46
5.3 Populations
  • IA Mark and Recapture

47
5.2 Greenhouse effect
  • 5.2.1
  • Draw the carbon cycle to show the processes
    involved.
  • The details of the carbon cycle should include
    the interaction of living organisms and the
    biosphere through the processes of
    photosynthesis, respiration, fossilization and
    combustion. Recall of specific quantitative data
    is not required.

48
(No Transcript)
49
5.2 Greenhouse Effect
  • 5.2.2
  • Analyze the changes in concentration of
    atmospheric carbon dioxide using historical
    records.
  • Whats happening to carbon dioxide levels?

50
5.2 Greenhouse effect
  • Explain the relationship between rises in
    concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide,
    methane and oxides of nitrogen and the enhanced
    greenhouse effect.

51
(No Transcript)
52
Greenhouse Effect
  • Causes
  • Light from the sun has short wavelengths and can
    pass through most of the atmosphere.
  • This sunlight warms the earth which in turn emits
    long wave radiation.
  • This long wave radiation is bounced back by the
    greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide,
    methane, water vapour, and sulphur dioxide

53
(No Transcript)
54
5.2 The greenhouse effect
  • 5.2.6 Outline the consequences of a global
    temperature rise on artic ecosystems.
  • Loss of ice habitat
  • Increased success of pests

55
G3 Impacts of humans of ecosystems
  • Ozone layer absorbs UV radiation
  • CFCs are causing a hole in the ozone layer
  • Excessive UV radiation can cause
  • Skin cancer
  • Vital bacteria would die

56
G3 Impacts of humans on ecosystems
  • G.3.4/5 List 3 examples of introduced/alien
    species and discuss the impact.
  • Purple Loosestrife
  • spread alarmingly fast,
  • removed from their natural controlling agents.
  • dramatic disruption in water
  • flow in rivers and canals,
  • - Native food and cover plant species, notably
    the cattails, are crowded out.

57
G3 Impacts of humans on ecosystems
  • Zebra mussels were first detected in the Great
    Lakes in 1988 and have caused widespread damage
    in the ecosystem.
  • Zebra Mussels are edible, but most experts advise
    against eating any found in areas of pollution
    concern since zebra mussels accumulate
    contaminants and toxins from the water that they
    filter.

58
G3 Impacts of humans on ecosystems
  • - Round Goby
  • - Survives well in degraded environmental
    conditions
  • Competitive advantage compared to native species.
  • Heavy feeding on invasive mussels
  • (zebra and quagga) results in greater
    biomagnification
  • - No predators due to defensive mechanism

59
Define biomagnification At each trophic level,
toxic substances (Hg, pesticides, TCDD, etc.)
become more concentrated
60
G3 Impacts of humans on ecosystems
  • How can we keep invasive species in check via a
    biological mechanism?
  • Decide on a local area that is currently being
    impacted negatively by an invasive species.
  • Find out what that negative impact is and which
    of the invasive species is causing it.
  • Research a BIOLOGICAL means of controlling that
    species in order to stop the negative impact.
  • Put together a proposal illustrating your method
    of restoring the ecosystem.
About PowerShow.com