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Systematic Planning Process


Systematic Planning Process Topic 2 Topic 2 Objectives DESCRIBE the process for defining the environmental problem statement EXPLAIN the use of the systematic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Systematic Planning Process

Systematic Planning Process
  • Topic 2

Topic 2 Objectives
  • DESCRIBE the process for defining the
    environmental problem statement
  • EXPLAIN the use of the systematic planning
    process (SPP)
  • DESCRIBE the importance of sampling design and
    the relationship to the heterogeneity of cleanup

Topic 2 Introduction
  • Systematic Planning Process (SPP)
  • Form Project Team
  • Define Environmental Problem
  • Identify Investigation Objectives
  • Implement
  • Quality assurance project plan used for
    implementation of the data collection activities
  • Ensure data are of known and documented quality
    and appropriate for their intended use

SPP Steps
  • Identify Lead Organization
  • Project Organization and Responsibilities
  • Convene Scoping Sessions
  • Define Environmental Problem and Objectives
  • Define Project Schedule
  • Determine Type of Data Needed
  • Determine Quality of Data Needed
  • Determine Quantity of Data Needed
  • Determine Data Review Needed

SPP Steps (Continued)
  • Define Sampling Design Rationale
  • Determine Sampling Requirements
  • Select Sampling SOPs with QC
  • Develop Analytical Requirements
  • Determine QA Assessments
  • Decide Data Usability Assessment Process
  • Prepare, Review and Submit QAPP for approval
  • Implement QAPP

  • Why do systematic planning?

  • Why do systematic planning?
  • Define what questions need to be answered
  • Revise questions as more information is gathered
  • Define roles and responsibilities of players
  • Define activities to answer the questions
  • Keep project focused and on target

Define Problem
Define Problem
  • Research site history and background
  • Identify secondary data sources and limitations
  • Identify decisions that need to be made
  • Identify questions that require an answer
  • Decide if formal DQO process is required
  • Identify data users needs
  • Develop if/then statements that link data results
    and possible actions

Questions to Answer
  • Who will use the data?
  • What will the data be used for?
  • What type of data are needed?
  • How good do the data need to be in order to
    support the decision?
  • How much data are needed?

Questions to Answer
  • Where, when and how should the data be
  • Who will collect and generate the data?
  • Who will determine the usability of the data?
  • How will the data be reported?
  • How will the data be archived?

Gather Information
  • Site Maps
  • Detailed map of current site with boundaries
  • Historical maps or plans
  • Map placing site in geographical context
  • Historical and current aerial photographs
  • Develop Conceptual Site Model (CSM)
  • CSM documented in QAPP

Conceptual Site Model (CSM)
  • Term used by many
  • UFP-QAPP Section 3.1.1 paragraph 2
  • Picture of a site and its environment
  • Sources of contamination
  • Actual, potentially complete or incomplete
    exposure pathways
  • Current or reasonable proposed use of site and
    potential receptors
  • Assists team in planning, data interpretation and
  • (from USACE EM 1110-1-1200 Conceptual Site Models
    for OE and HTRW Projects, 2/2003)

CSM - continued
  • Integration of all relevant information assembled
    for the purposes of investigating or remediating
    a site
  • Captures heterogeneity physical reality
  • Distinguishes different decision-driven
  • A CSM is not merely a
  • Computer modelor
  • Risk receptor model (fate and transport)or
  • Geological evaluation alone

Identify possible contaminants
Create list of possible contaminants with
rationale for inclusions
Provide rationale for exclusions
Specify release mechanisms
Conceptual Site Model (CSM)
Identify fate and transport mechanisms
List potential receptors
Problem Statement
Estimate contaminant distributions
Discuss decision drivers
Write CSM Summary Narrative
Conceptual Site Model Inputs
  • Contaminant Releases what, how, where, spatial
  • Contaminant movement migration, transport
  • Contaminant fate and degradation
  • Potential receptors human, ecological
  • Potential exposure pathways
  • Exposure mitigation (cleanup, containment)

Building a Conceptual Site Model
  • Review transport of contaminant
  • How did it get there?
  • Where did it go? Did it bind to matrix
  • Could it have gone somewhere else?
  • Review fate
  • Will it change form or composition?
  • Harm to ecology or humans?
  • What is future land use?
  • Exposure pathways?

Building a CSM (Continued)
  • Review chemistry, biology, geology, statistics,
    or other science to evaluate need for data in
    making decision
  • Can it still be there? Will it be present?
  • Can we sample it? Can we analyze for it?
  • What is the risk to receptors?

Building a CSM (Continued)
  • Highlights Physical Features of Site
  • Man-made Structures / Historically Disturbed
    Areas / Accumulation Points
  • Actual Site Data or Professional Conjecture
  • Contaminants of Concern
  • Release Mechanisms
  • Incorporates known Societal Considerations
  • Future Land Use / Community Goals
  • Potential Exposure Pathways
  • Risk Management Scenarios

Data for Building CSM
  • Related information
  • other nearby contaminated sites regulatory
  • state geological surveys
  • research by academic institutions
  • Professional judgment
  • scientific knowledge
  • conjecture

How Might a CSM Appear?
Modeled CSM-High Density
Direct-push MIP-PID sensing high areal
vertical data density (existing wells shown)
Slide adapted from Columbia Technologies, Inc.,
Jul 2000 BTEX plume
Problem Definition
  • Summarize the problem to be addressed
  • Summarize the environmental questions being
    asked/decisions to be made
  • Include observations from any site reconnaissance
  • Prepare a synopsis of existing data or
    information from prior site reports

Problem Definition
  • List possible classes of contaminants and the
    affected matrices
  • Record the rationale for inclusion of chemical
    and non-chemical analyses
  • Compile information concerning various
    environmental indicators
  • Write problem statements initially at a very
    general level (specifics to come later) get
    planning team concurrence

Problem Statement Format
  • General Format
  • In order to support decisions for site
    remediation/better understand the nature of the
    waste/establish a basis for materials management
    data are required that define the nature and
    extent of contamination/the constituents of
    concern/the source and characteristics of the

Decision Statement
  • General Format
  • Determine whether Principal Study Question 1
    requires Alternative Action A or Alternative
    Action B.
  • Example
  • Determine whether the surface soil of the Smith
    property is radiologically contaminated and
    requires further action or requires no action.

Ifthen Statement
  • General Format
  • If Principal Study Question 1 is above or
    equal to the action level then proceed with
    Alternative Action A or
  • If Principal Study Question 1 is below the
    action level then proceed with Alternative
    Action B
  • Example
  • If the surface soil of the Smith property is
    below the level defined for radiological
    contamination then no action is required.

Outcome vs Decisions
  • Desired project outcome (starting point)
  • Desired site restoration/reuse outcome
  • May have tiered options (Plan A, B,)
  • Achieving an outcome requires making project
    decisions about contaminant nature extent,
    exposure risk, cleanup potential and cost, etc.
  • How long this discussion takes depends on the
    complexity of perceived site conditions and
    participant interests

  • Why define the problem?

  • Why define the problem?
  • Ensure agreement by all parties on the data
    gathering that will resolve the problem to all
    parties satisfaction
  • Determine how much is known and how must must be
  • Understand the expectations of all parties as to
    the outcome and decisions for this phase of the

Project Quality Objectives (PQOs)
  • Define the type, quantity, and quality of data
    needed to answer specific environmental questions
    and support proper environmental decisions
  • Developed using a systematic planning process
  • Qualitative and quantitative statements

PQOs Before Iteration
  • Obtain data to locate source(s) of contamination
    or show that a major source does not exist
  • Obtain data to understand the lateral and
    vertical extent of contamination in both the
    saturated overburden and the fractured bedrock
    aquifer within the limits of the site
  • Obtain data to characterize the fractured bedrock

PQOs After Iteration
  • Identify the highest concentration of VOCs in the
    overburden soil and groundwater
  • Determine the placement of additional permanent
    saturated overburden monitoring wells, if any, to
    further evaluate risk posed to human health
  • Gather soil analytical data, if warranted, to
    evaluate risk to human health

Summarize Data Needs
  • Focus on data needed to address the information
    gaps identified
  • List information gaps in tables
  • Gather specific data needs from scoping
    participants data users perspectives (e.g.,
    risk assessors, remedial action planners)
  • Summarize and collate the data needs
  • Update and record throughout planning

Data Needs Table
Project Tasks
  • Sampling tasks
  • Analysis tasks
  • Quality control tasks
  • Secondary data
  • Data management tasks
  • Documentation and records
  • Assessment/audit tasks
  • Data review tasks

Sampling Tasks
Laboratory Subsample
Representative Sample
  • When sampling, what are you trying to represent
    with the data?
  • Representative of the decision to be made on
  • site
  • area
  • drum
  • an individual sample container

Sampling Design
  • Statistically based sampling design vs.
    professional judgment?
  • Sample locations numbers
  • Grab or composite (multi-increment) samples
  • Sample matrices
  • Time frequency of sample collection
  • Sample collection procedures
  • Mixing and homogenization

Complicated by contaminant variability
Within-Sample Populations
Soil Grain Size (Standard Sieve Mesh Size) Soil Fraction-ization () Pb Conc. in fraction by AA (mg/kg) Lead Distribution ( of total lead)
Greater than 3/8 (0.375) 18.85 10 0.20
Between 3/8 and 4-mesh 4.53 50 0.24
Between 4- and 10-mesh 3.65 108 0.43
Between 10- and 50-mesh 11.25 165 2.00
Between 50- and 200-mesh 27.80 836 25.06
Less than 200-mesh 33.92 1,970 72.07
Totals 100 927 (wt-averaged) 100
Adapted from ITRC (2003 ) http//
Measurement Performance Criteria
  • Determine metrics to be used to assess
    measurement performance, e.g.
  • Precision Relative percent difference
  • Bias Percent recovery
  • Other Data Quality Indicators
  • Determine criteria appropriate to your project
  • Identify QC sample and/or activity to assess
    measurement performance

Sensitivity Reference Limits
  • Summarize project action limits (AL) and the
    quantitation limit (QL) goals for each analyte in
    each matrix at each concentration level
  • Evaluate available methods and analytical
    performance against AL and QL goals

  • Why PQOs?

  • Why PQOs?
  • Specify the type and quantity of data for each
  • Ensure measurement performance criteria are
    applicable to the decision
  • Ensure measurement organization data meets the
    quality criteria for the decision
  • Ensure quality control samples are used as part
    of the decision making to reduce wasted dollars
    for unused data
  • Understand sampling and testing limitations in
    order to balance costs with decision needs

QA/QC Compendium
  • Part IIB of UFP-QAPP guidance
  • Decisions by IDQTF
  • Definitions of QA/QC activities
  • Minimum QA/QC activities
  • List of specific QA/QC activities
  • QA matrix
  • CERCLA data collection, analysis and use

Apply Compendium To
  • All phases of CERCLA process
  • Preliminary assessment
  • Site investigation
  • Remedial investigation
  • Feasibility study
  • Removal
  • Post ROD Phase
  • Project management
  • Decision making

  • Intermediate
  • screening data
  • Final
  • definitive data
  • Screening does NOT mean field data

Project Team Decisions
  • Compendium based on CERCLA phases
  • Specify minimum QA/QC activities for CERCLA phase
  • QC samples selected based on MPC
  • Data review involves completeness check through
    data usability assessment

Site-Specific Guidelines
  • Types of decisions supported by data
  • Project quality objectives
  • Acceptance criteria for DQI
  • Sampling plan
  • includes location and QC samples
  • Types of contaminants

Data Review
Environmental Question
  • What else is required in planning?

  • What else is required in planning?
  • Assessment and data review
  • Ensure resources available
  • Gather input on project activities from
    participating organizations to evaluate cost,
    schedule and quality
  • Document management and communication processes
  • Data management tools
  • Anything necessary for making the final decision
    to achieve the outcome desired by all parties

Summary - Topic 2
  • Project teams assembled
  • Develop scoping meetings
  • Define organization for project
  • Define problem
  • Identify objectives
  • Develop sampling and testing design
  • Define QA/QC for project

Does anyone have a question?
Question !
How does this improve quality?