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Arms Control

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Title: Arms Control


1
Arms Control Disarmament
2
  • AC D two different concepts
  • AC refers to curbs on acquiring new
  • Weapons or reduction in some existing
  • weapon types
  • Disarmament refers to quantitative
  • reduction in total number of existing
  • Weapons i.e. elimination of specific armaments
    or GCD

3
  • UN Charter itself undermines GCD
  • System of Collective Security Mly Staff Comm etc
    as well as legitimisation of Collective Defence
  • War not made illegal in system.

4
  • AC seems to have two purposes
  • One For developed states AC has evolved
  • primarily in terms of economic efficiency and
  • cost effectiveness
  • Two For developing states AC has been
  • Imposed as a means of technology control
  • rather than a means to reduce overall level of
  • arms

5
  • Nowhere is this more prevalent than in the
  • nuclear weapons field.
  • Nuclear weapons issue area also has
  • recognised a duality that has to be
  • considered nuclear weapons vs peaceful uses
  • of nuclear energy.
  • From Baruch Plan to creation of IAEA to
  • NPT, this duality recognised.

6
  • Irish Resolution and the Non Proliferation Treaty
  • The creation of distinction between horizontal
    and vertical proliferation
  • Can identify 2 tracks relating to Nuclear AC
  • One US-centric discriminatory approach
  • premised on distinction between horizontal
  • vertical non proliferation

7
  • Two A universal, non-discriminatory approach
    towards non proliferation which seeks to slow
    down proliferation at the global level.
  • Major instrumentalities of the US-centric
    discriminatory approach
  • Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) 1963
  • NPT

8
  • The Supplier Cartels
  • London Suppliers Club to Nuclear Suppliers
    Group - NSG
  • Missile Technology Control Regime MTCR
  • Australia Group
  • The Wassenaar Arrangement

9
  • Major Instrumentalities of universal
    non-discriminatory approach
  • Nuclear Weapon Free Zones
  • Tlatelolco Treaty Rarotonga Treaty Bangkok
    Treaty Pelindaba Treaty
  • Committee on Assurances of Supply
  • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty - CTBT

10
  • The Fissile Material issue FMT vs FMCT
  • Shift in Non proliferation focus post-9/11
  • From non proliferation per se to nuclear
    programmes fo specific countries.
  • Indo-US nuclear deal 2005 - the 123 Agreement
    passed by US Congress

11
  • Indias Nuclear Doctrine
  • Premised on a triad of forces
  • Second strike capability
  • Development of ICBMs
  • Development of space-based
  • systems
  • Missile Defence acquisition
  • Retraction of NFU

12
What it means- In military terms - Expansive
reach across Asia - Naval reach threatens
entire Indian Ocean region - Missile Defence
will start nuclear missile race in region -
No commitment to reduce conventional forces
13
  • In political terms
  • Indian nuclear intent
  • Push for great power status
  • Negates measures for nuclear restraint in
    Pak-India Feb 1999 nuclear MOU
  • Makes it difficult for Pakistan to sustain
    nuclear restraint

14
  • Pakistan ACD
  • FMT not FMCT
  • CTBT Supported in principle
  • Other initiatives Pre-1998
  • NWFZ mutual renunciation of nuclear capability
    the 5, 52, 522 proposals Zero-Missile regime

15
  • Pakistan ratified the International Convention
    on Nuclear Safety in Sept. 1997

16
  • Post-May 1998
  • Unilateral moratorium on testing offer of
    regional test ban treaty to India
  • Nuclear restraint regime as well as nuclear risk
    reduction proposal for non-induction of ABM
    SLBM systems

17
  • Ensuring non-proliferation norms
    post-nuclearisation
  • Pakistan created its Nuclear Regulatory
    Authority for civilian nuclear matters in 2001
  • In September 2004, Pakistans Parliament passed
    a bill on tightening controls on nuclear
    materials, equipment and technology as well as
    biological weapons by imposing a ban on their
    unauthorised transfer outside Pakistan.

18
NATIONAL COMMAND AUTHORITY (NCA)
Chairman Prime Minister
Secretariat SPD
Development Control Committee
Employment Control Committee
Deputy Chairman - CJCSC
  • Deputy Chairman - Foreign Minister
  • Members
  • Minister for Defence
  • Minister for Interior
  • Minister for Finance
  • Chairman JCSC
  • Services Chiefs
  • Secretary, Director General
  • Strategic Plans Division
  • By Invitation. Others as required
  • Members
  • Services Chiefs
  • Heads of concerned strategic
    organizations i.e Scientists
  • Secretary, Director General
  • Strategic Plans Division
  • Services Strategic Forces
  • (Operational Control - NCA)

Army
Navy
Air Force
(Technical, Training, Administrative Control)
19
  • Future Course
  • Has to be through mutual agreement recognition
    of a move away from a zero sum situation
  • Establishment of a strategic stability
  • regime
  • Nuclear risk reduction
  • Balance in terms of missile
  • deployments numbers
  • Conventional force reductions
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