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Building the Capacity of Schools, Districts and States to Implement School-wide PBIS

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Title: Building the Capacity of Schools, Districts and States to Implement School-wide PBIS


1
Building the Capacity of Schools, Districts and
States to Implement School-wide PBIS
  • Rob Horner
  • University of Oregon
  • www.pbis.org

2
Goals
  • Define current status of PBIS implementation in
    the U.S.
  • Summarize features of Schools that are successful
    at implementing and sustaining PBIS with
    functional outcomes for students.
  • Define features of Districts that establish the
    capacity to implement PBIS at scales of social
    significance.
  • Define features of States that establish capacity
    to implement PBIS at scales of social significance

3
Why SWPBIS?
  • The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make
    schools more effective and equitable learning
    environments.

Predictable
Positive
Consistent
Safe
4
SWPBIS Building Effective Schools
5
Main Messages
  • PBIS works.

Effective (academic, behavior) Equitable (all
students succeed) Efficient (time, cost)
6
Main Message Build Capcity
  • Schools
  • Implement with high fidelity at all three tiers
  • Expect more from your districts and states
  • District/ Region
  • Build Training, Coaching, Evaluation and
    Technical Expertise needed
  • Build capacity to sustain PBIS
  • Adapt to geography and size
  • States
  • Provide functional leadership
  • Implement with a full slice of the educational
    system
  • Align initiatives
  • Provide the data systems, training, coaching and
    evaluation needed

7
School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions
and Supports (SWPBIS)
  • The social culture of a school matters.
  • A continuum of supports that begins with the
    whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound
    support for individual students and their
    families.
  • Effective practices with the systems needed for
    high fidelity and sustainability
  • Multiple tiers of intensity

8
What is School-wide Positive Behavior
Intervention and Support (PBIS)?
  • School-wide PBIS is
  • A multi-tiered framework for establishing the
    social culture and behavioral supports needed for
    a school to achieve behavioral and academic
    outcomes for all students.
  • Evidence-based features of SWPBIS
  • Prevention
  • Define and teach positive social expectations
  • Acknowledge positive behavior
  • Arrange consistent consequences for problem
    behavior
  • On-going collection and use of data for
    decision-making
  • Continuum of intensive, individual intervention
    supports.
  • Implementation of the systems that support
    effective practices

9
Establishing a Social Culture
Common Language
MEMBERSHIP
Common Experience
Common Vision/Values
10
School-wide PBIS
Culturally Equitable Academic Social Competence
Culturally Relevant Support for Student Behavior
OUTCOMES
Culturally Valid Decision Making
PRACTICES
DATA
SYSTEMS
Culturally Knowledgeable Staff Behavior
11
Standardized Assessments
12
Experimental Research on SWPBIS
  • SWPBIS Experimentally Related to
  • Reduction in problem behavior
  • Increased academic performance
  • Increased attendance
  • Improved perception of safety
  • Reduction in bullying behaviors
  • Improved organizational efficiency
  • Reduction in staff turnover
  • Increased perception of teacher efficacy
  • Improved Social Emotional competence
  • Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A.,
    Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate
    through school-wide Positive Behavioral
    Interventions and Supports Findings from a
    group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention
    Science, 10(2), 100-115
  • Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B.,
    Ialongo, N., Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of
    school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and
    Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of
    elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly,
    23(4), 462-473.
  • Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., Leaf, P. J.
    (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide
    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on
    student outcomes Results from a randomized
    controlled effectiveness trial in elementary
    schools. Journal of Positive Behavior
    Interventions, 12, 133-148.
  • Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D.,
    Bevans, K.B., Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation
    of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions
    and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools
    Observations from a randomized trial. Education
    Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26.
  • Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press).
    Effects of School-wide positive behavioral
    interventions and supports on child behavior
    problems and adjustment. Pediatrics.
  • Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L.,
    Nakasato, J., Todd, A., Esperanza, J., (2009).
    A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness
    trial assessing school-wide positive behavior
    support in elementary schools. Journal of
    Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145.
  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Anderson, C. M.
    (2010). Examining the evidence base for
    school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on
    Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.
  • Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., Horner, R. H.
    (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive
    behavior support.
  • Journal of Positive Behavioral
    Interventions. 14(2) 118-128.
  • Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., Leaf , P., (2012)
    The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral
    Interventions and
  • Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection
    A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.
    Archive of
  • Pediatric Adolescent Medicine.
    2012166(2)149-156
  • Bradshaw, Pas, Goldweber, Rosenberg, Leaf, 2012

13
Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since
2000 January, 2014
19,960
14
Number of Schools Implementation SWPBIS (Tier I)
by State January 2014
14 States with more than 500 schools
15
Number of PBIS schools (Green) Implementing,
(Red) measuring fidelity and (Blue) at Tier I
fidelity by state
gt75 ------------------- Connecticut Florida Illin
ois Iowa Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nort
h Carolina Oregon South Carolina Vermont Wisconsin
Total number of schools using SWPBIS
Total number of schools measuring fidelity
Schools at Tier I fidelity
16
Building Capacity Schools
  • Focus on core features that deliver valued
    outcomes.
  • PBIS is a framework for organizing practices that
    deliver core features. The core features should
    be documented to produce valued outcomes.

Framework Practice Core Feature Valued Outcom
es
PBIS
Selection and teaching of school-wide Expectations
School-wide Expectations
Improved Social and Academic Competence for
Students
17
Schools
  • Define and distinguish between
  • Practices
  • Core features
  • Valued outcomes

18
Procedures ? Core Features
Effective Procedure
Effective Procedure
Effective Procedure
Effective Procedure
Technology
Cultural/ Contextual Fit
Technology
Core Features
Science
Values
Valued Outcomes
19
Implications
  • Certify, and Promote core features
  • Do not certify people
  • Do not certify manuals or programs
  • Measure Core Features use for decision-making
  • Measure fidelity by assessing if core feature
    is in place
  • Provide examples of multiple practices (ways) to
    achieve core features
  • Focus on contextual fit variables that guide
    selection of effective practices.

20
Building Capacity Schools
  • Anticipate implementation error patterns

21
Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
5
Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems
for Students with At-Risk Behavior
15
Primary Prevention School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
  • Main Ideas
  • Invest in prevention first
  • Multiple tiers of support intensity
  • Early/rapid access to support

80 of Students
27
22
Math
Remember that the multiple tiers of support refer
to our SUPPORT not Students. Avoid creating a
new disability labeling system.
Behavior
Health
Reading
23
Building Capacity Schools
  • Measure fidelity of implementation
  • As a DV to assess implementation practices
  • As an IV to improve level of adoption.
  • Fidelity measures should focus on the core
    features of any practice.

24
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25
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26
October 2014
School-wide PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory OSEP
Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports
2014
Algozzine, B., Barrett, S., Eber, L., George, H.,
Horner, R., Lewis, T., Putnam, B., Swain-Bradway,
J., McIntosh, K., Sugai, G (2014). School-wide
PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. OSEP Technical
Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports. www.pbis.org.
27
PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory
  • Assesses PBIS implementation at all three tiers.

28
Building Capacity Schools
  • Focus on efficiency of practices
  • Time
  • Money
  • Expertise of personnel
  • Match with existing organizations/ systems.
  • 1. Efficiency for adoption
  • 2. Efficiency for sustained performance

NOTE Differences in Efficiency across Multiple
Tiers of Support
29
Time Cost of aDiscipline Referral(Avg. 45
minutes per incident for student 30 min for Admin
15 min for Teacher)
1000 Referrals/yr 2000 Referrals/yr
Administrator Time 500 Hours 1000 Hours
Teacher Time 250 Hours 500 Hours
Student Time 750 Hours 1500 Hours
Totals 1500 Hours 3000 Hours
30
Pre PBIS Year 1
Year 2 Year 3
31
What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and
25 suspensions mean?
Kennedy Middle School
  • Savings in Administrative time
  • ODR 15 min
  • Suspension 45 min
  • 13,875 minutes
  • 231 hours
  • 29, 8-hour days
  • Savings in Student Instructional time
  • ODR 45 min
  • Suspension 216 min
  • 43,650 minutes
  • 728 hours
  • 121, 6-hour school days

32
Building Capacity Schools
  • Use Implementation Science
  • Implementation Drivers
  • Stages of Implementation
  • Improvement Cycles

33
Implementation Drivers An Active Implementation
Framework
34
Stages of Implementation
Implementation occurs in stages
  • Exploration
  • Installation
  • Initial Implementation
  • Full Implementation
  • Innovation
  • Sustainability

Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, Wallace, 2005
35
Stages of Implementation
Focus Stage Description
Exploration/ Adoption Decision regarding commitment to adopting the program/practices and supporting successful implementation.
Installation Set up infrastructure so that successful implementation can take place and be supported. Establish team and data systems, conduct audit, develop plan.
Initial Implementation Try out the practices, work out details, learn and improve before expanding to other contexts.
Elaboration Expand the program/practices to other locations, individuals, times- adjust from learning in initial implementation.
Continuous Improvement/ Regeneration Make it easier, more efficient. Embed within current practices.
Should we do it
Getting it right
Making it better
Steve Goodman
36
Improvement Cycles
37
Main Messages
  • Sustained and High Fidelity Implementation of
    SWPBIS requires active District Support.
  • Especially for Tiers II and III
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • Student unit of impact
  • Schools unit of analysis
  • District unit of implementation

38
Visibility
Political Support
Funding
Policy
Leadership Team Active Coordination
Training
Coaching
Evaluation
Behavioral Expertise
Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations
Sugai et al., www.pbis.org
39
Implications for Schools
  • Build commitment from Administration, Faculty,
    Students and Families that attention to social
    culture is important
  • Implement SCHOOL-WIDE, multi-tiered systems.
  • Build on what you already do well
  • Never stop doing what already works
  • Always implement the smallest change that
    produces the largest effect.
  • Never adopt something new without defining what
    you will STOP doing to create the resources
    needed for new adoption.
  • Measure fidelity of implementation as well as
    impact
  • Measure fidelity frequently, and use the
    information to guide improvement.
  • Report outcomes to families, faculty, community
    and administration.

40
Implications for Schools
  • Expect more support from your district (or
    regional unit)
  • Initial personnel orientation
  • Data systems
  • Fidelity
  • Universal Screen and Progress Monitor
  • Standardized Assessments
  • Support for Tier II, and Tier III implementation
  • Role of school psychologist, counselor, social
    worker

Tier II Tier III
Increased structure Assessment FBA, Mental Health, Academic, Physical
Increased frequency of recognition/ feedback Comprehensive support plan
Self-assessment Fidelity measures
Link home and school Outcome measures

41
Building Capacity Districts/ Regions
42
Building Capacity Districts/ Regions
  • Three different conditions
  • Stand alone district
  • Urban district
  • Clusters of rural / small districts

Common Goals Different Organizational Challenges
43
Building Capacity Districts/ Regions
  • Initial Implementation
  • Build commitment (focus on valued outcomes)
  • Establish leadership team
  • Invest in Exemplars but build capacity as you do
    this
  • Invest in building district capacity to
  • Implement with fidelity
  • Implement with depth
  • Implement with breadth (scale)
  • Implement with sustainability
  • Full Implementation
  • Use of evaluation data
  • Iterative commitment events.

44
Building Capacity District/ Region
  • Real implementation means providing the technical
    assistance to establish durable systems.
  • Selection of Personnel
  • Training
  • Coaching
  • Performance Feedback
  • Data systems for effective decision-making
  • Problem solving by teams and administration
  • Effective engagement of families and community

Preference is given for individuals with
demonstrated knowledge and skill in
implementation of school-wide academic and
behavior supports
Position Description Faculty Evaluation Annual
Orientation
45
Building Capacity District/ Region
  • Data systems
  • Fidelity of implementation
  • Universal Screening
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Standardized student outcomes
  • Stages of Implementation
  • Exploration
  • Installation
  • Initial implementation
  • Full implementation

Measure District Capacity District Capacity
Assessment www. Scalingup.org
46
Building Capacity States
  • Lead with clarity
  • Establish a leadership team with the goal of
    improving the capacity for implementation
  • Implement to change the full system
  • Focus on a slice of the full system as your
    implementation target
  • Guide adoption of practices
  • Define core features expected in schools
  • Align initiatives to avoid competition and
    conflict
  • Braid initiatives at the point of common budget
  • Provide that data systems needed for capacity
    development
  • Fidelity, and Impact at the school level
  • Implementation capacity at the district level
  • Invest in functional capacity for implementation
  • Training, Coaching, Evaluation, Technical
    Expertise

47
Building Capacity States
  • State Implementation Stages
  • Exploration
  • Initial Implementation (Exemplars).
  • Scaling paper (100-200 schools)
  • Evaluation data
  • Reinvestment
  • State capacity
  • Evaluation data
  • Policy change

State
District/ Region
Schools
48
Building Capacity States
  • 1. Selection of effective practices
  • 2. Establish expectations
  • Schools should create a coherent social culture
    that promotes learning.
  • Students should graduate with academic AND social
    skills
  • 3. Establish iterative improvement system
  • Report on social culture of school
  • 4. Build the training, coaching and evaluation
    capacity at the state level.
  • 5. Align initiatives and expectations to promote
    efficiency and outcomes.

49
Oregon Promising Practices
  • Criteria for Selection an Educational Practice
  • Practice addresses a major educational goal
  • Procedures are operationally defined
  • Practice include a professional development
    protocol
  • Practice include a measure of fidelity and
    procedures for improvement
  • Practice has been validated as effective in a
    peer-reviewed publication
  • Practice has been demonstrated as feasible and
    effective in at least 50 schools in Oregon
  • Practice is documented to as, or more efficient
    than current alternatives.
  • Standard Operating Procedure Promising Practices
  •  
  • Promoting Educational Effectiveness in Oregon
  • Standard Operating Procedure for Identifying and
    Implementing Educational Innovations
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------
  • Practices may be (a) Standard, (b) Emerging, (c)
    Scaleworthy or (d) Not recommended

50
Cascade of Competence
State
Regions
State Conferences
Districts
State Dept Trainers
Schools
Local Content Specialists
Evaluation/ Strategic Planning
District/Regional Trainers
Local Coaching
National Trainers
51
Alignment Align at the common budget point
Effective Procedure
Effective Procedure
Effective Procedure
Effective Procedure
Core Features
Core Features
Core Features
Valued Outcomes
52
Alignment
PBIS
School-wide Support
Restorative Practices
Teacher Effectiveness
Define and teach positive behavior
  • Expectations
  • 2. Recognition
  • 3. Consequences
  • 4. Data System

Consequences1. Questions 2. Restore 3. Teach
Appropriate Classroom Behavior
53
Building a Coherent Decision System
  • Building State capacity to gather information
  • Documenting outcomes for students
  • Documenting fidelity
  • Documenting capacity

54
School-level decision-making
55
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56
Individual Decision-systems
57
Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth May
Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325
Elementary Schools 08-09
Cumulative Mean ODRs
58
PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory
  • Assesses PBIS implementation at all three tiers.

59
Assessing Capacity
  • www.sisep.org
  • State Capacity Assessment
  • District Capacity Assessment

60
An Example
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66
Implementation Fidelity (SET)Elementary and
Middle 2009-10
67
Implementation Fidelity (SET)By Factor for Elem
and Middle 2009-10
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70
Summary
  • Implementation at scale is possible
  • Consider the cluster of core features needed for
    scaling
  • Admin support, Technical capacity, 100-200
    demonstrations
  • Small demonstrations may be necessary but
    insufficient
  • Build in system for adapting the program to fit
    the local context while retaining the core
    features.
  • Consider an implementation plan with established
    procedures for improving efficiency of
    implementation
  • Measure fidelity of implementation as a part of
    effective practice.
  • Sustained implementation requires continuous
    regeneration
  • Always emphasize, measure and report on valued
    outcomes

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73
Reflection
  • Schools
  • 1. Do we have a regular way to assess if we are
    using PBIS?
  • 2. Do we have a regular way to assess if we are
    benefiting students
  • 3. Do we have clear expectations for the
    District/Regions
  • District
  • 1. Does our district have the capacity to
    select and implement effective practices. Like
    PBIS.
  • 2. Does our district have the capacity to sustain
    effective practices (data , training, coaching,
    evaluation)
  • State/ Commonwealth (build district capacity
  • 1. Do we have a way to help districts/ state
    offices select effective practices and align
    federal/state initiatives?
  • 2. Do we have a way to Train/Coach/ Evaluate
    across the three types of districts/regions.
  • 3. Do we have Decision Systems that promote
    implementation and improvement.
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