Chapter 6 Notes The Chemistry of Life - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 6 Notes The Chemistry of Life PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6e7bf9-ZWU0Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 6 Notes The Chemistry of Life

Description:

Chapter 6 Notes The Chemistry of Life Section 6.1 Atoms and Their Interactions – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:105
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 54
Provided by: EISD5
Learn more at: http://classroom.lagovistaisd.net
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 6 Notes The Chemistry of Life


1
Chapter 6 NotesThe Chemistry of Life
  • Section 6.1 Atoms and Their Interactions

2
Take 5
  • ____________ is the condition that results from
    changes in the independent variable.
  • __________ results in an increase in the amount
    of living material and the formation of new
    structures.

3
Take 5
  • An atom of Fluorine has nine electrons. Its
    second energy level has ________ electrons.
  • How many electrons can a carbon atom share?
  • What kind of bond is formed when two atoms share
    electrons, such as with hydrogen and oxygen in
    water?

4
Take 5
  • Water dissolves many ionic and molecular
    compounds because of its __________.
  • Show the bond between magnesium and Sulfur.
  • Name two types of carbohydrates.

5
Take 5
  • What are the two components of a lipid?
  • What are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
  • What do nucleotides make up? Give 2 examples.

6
Take 5
  • Draw Neon and show the energy levels.
  • Show me a covalent bond between two carbon atoms.
  • Show me an ionic bond between NaCl

7
I. Elements
  • Natural elements in living things
  • Element _________________________
  • ________________________________
  • Four elements make up ______ of the mass of the
    human body _________________
  • Look at page 142, Table 6.1. It shows some common
    elements along with their symbols, found in the
    human body.

A substance that cant be broken down into
simpler chemical substances.
9 6
C, H, O , N
8
Elements in the Human Body
9
I. Elements
  • Trace Elements
  • ______________________________
  • ________________________________
  • (Table 6.1)

Elements that play a vital role in maintaining
healthy cells, but are needed in very small
amounts
10
II. Atoms The Building Blocks of Elements
  • Atom the smallest particle of an __________ that
    has the characteristics of that element.
  • The structure of an atom
  • The center of an atom is the ___________.
  • The nucleus is made up of _________ (p) which
    are positively charged and __________ (n) which
    are neutral or have no charge.

Element
Nucleus
Protons
Neutrons
11
II. Atoms The Building Blocks of Elements
  • 3. Elements are arranged on the Periodic table
    according to the number of ________ they
    naturally have. This number is called the
    __________ ____________.
  • 4. The region of space surrounding the nucleus
    contains extremely small, negatively charged
    particles called __________ (e-). This region is
    also known as the __________ ___________.

Protons
Atomic Number
Electrons
Electron Cloud
12
? Atomic Number for Carbon Therefore,
there are 6 protons in the nucleus.
6
13
How many Protons are in the following Elements???
Helium Calcium
Neon

He 2
Ca 20
Ne 10
14
(No Transcript)
15
II. Atoms The Building Blocks of Elements
  • Electron energy levels (pg. 143, fig 6.2)
  • 1. Within the electron cloud, there are energy
    levels which the electrons move in.

16
E1 2 electrons E2 8 electrons E3 18
electrons E4 32 electrons
17
Draw the energy levels of each atom
Nitrogen
Iron (Fe)
18
III. Isotopes of an Element
  • Isotope atoms of the same element that have the
    same number of ________, but a different number
    of ___________.
  • Scientists refer to isotopes by stating the
    combing total of ___________ and __________ in
    the nucleus.
  • For example Carbon-12 (naturally occurring
    element)
  • Carbon-14 (contains 2
    more neutrons)
  • - The nucleus is ___________ and tens to break
    apart and give off ______________.

protons
Neutrons
protons
Neutrons
unstable
radiation
19
(No Transcript)
20
IV. Compounds and Bonding
  • Compound a substance that is composed of
    ________ of two or more __________ elements that
    are chemically combined. Ex NaCl _______
  • How and why do elements combine?
    _______________________________
  • ________________________________
  • For many elements, an atom becomes ________ when
    its outermost energy
  • level is __________.

atoms
different
Sodium Chloride
Atoms combine with each other only when the
resulting compound is more stable than the
individual atoms.
stable
full
21
IV. Compounds and Bonding
  • How covalent bonds form
  • Covalent Bond _____________________
  • The electrons being shared ____________ around
    both elements holding them ___________ together
  • A ________________ is a group of atoms held
    together by covalent bonds. Ex ____________
    (_______)

The force between two atoms that share electrons
move
close
molecule
H2 O
water
22
IV. Compounds and Bonding
  • Examples of covalent bonds
  • a. Two hydrogen atoms

23
IV. Compounds and Bonding
  • b. Two Carbon Atoms

24
IV. Compounds and Bonding
  • How ionic form
  • Ionic bond _______________________
  • ___________________________________
  • Ion ____________________________
  • These bonds are ________ abundant in living
    things than covalent molecules, but ions are
    important in _________ processes
  • Examples of ionic bonds

The attractive
force between two ions of opposite charge
A charged atom that gained or lost electrons
less
biological
25
IV. Compounds and Bonding
  • A. Table salt NaCl
  • B. MgS

Na 11 Cl 17
Mg 12 S 16
26
V. Chemical Reactions
  • Chemical reactions occur when ______ are formed
    or broken, causing substances to __________ into
    different substances.
  • All the chemical reactions that occur within an
    organism are referred to as that organisms
    ________________.
  • Writing chemical equations
  • Basic Setup
  • _________ ?_________ NaCl ? NaCl

bonds
recombine
metabolism
Reactants
Products
27
V. Chemical Reactions
  • 2. In chemical reactions, it is important to
    understand that atoms are neither _________ nor
    __________, they are simply rearranged.

created
destroyed
28
VI. Mixtures and Solutions
  • Mixture a combination of substances in which
    the __________ components retain their own
    __________. Ex _____________________
    ____
  • Solution a mixture in which one or more
    _________ (solutes) are distributed _________ in
    another substance (solvent). In other words, one
    substance is __________ in another and will not
    settle out of solution.
  • Ex _____________________________

individual
properties
Mixing sand and sugar, salt and pepper
substances
evenly
dissolved
Sugar and water, food coloring and water
29
VI. Mixtures and Solutions
  • Acids and Bases
  • Chemical reactions can only occur when conditions
    are __________. One condition that is very
    important is the ____ of the solution.
  • The pH is a measure of how _________ or _________
    a solution is.
  • Look on page 150, fig 6.11 for the pH scale
    ____________ is acidic, ________ is neutral,
    ________ is basic.
  • An acid is any substance that forms hydrogen ions
    (H) in water. EX _________________

right
pH
acidic
basic
0 to 6
7
8-14
HCl ? (H) (Cl-)
30
VI. Mixtures and Solutions
  • 5. A base is any substance that forms
    hydroxide ions (OH-) in water
  • EX ___________________________
  • 6. If the hydrogen ions equal the hydroxide
    ions the solution is neutral and the pH of 7.
  • 7. So
  • If H gt OH- then solution is acidic
  • If H lt OH- then solution is basic
  • If H OH- then solution is neutral

NaOH ? (Na) (OH-)
31
pH of common substances
32
Concentration of H ions
33
Section 6.2
  • Water

34
I. Water and Its Importance
  • Water is polar
  • Polar Molecule ____________________
  • __________________________________.
  • These molecules have a __________ end and a
    ______________.
  • Polar molecules attract other __________
    molecules as well as _________ ________
  • Look at page 153, fig 6.12. Water is a polar
    molecule.

A molecule with
unequal distribution of charge
Positive
negative
polar
Charged ions
35
(No Transcript)
36
I. Water and Its Importance
  • When two water molecules come in close contact,
    the negative ___________ end is attracted to the
    other water molecules positive ___________ end.
    This attractions of opposite charges forms a
    ________ bond called a ____________.
  • Because of waters polarity, it..
  • Is the ____________ ____________
  • Can move up plants by ________ ________

oxygen
hydrogen
weak
Hydrogen bond
Universal solvent
Capillary action
37
Water is a universal solvent!!!!!
38
I. Water and Its Importance
  • Water resists temperature changes
  • Water requires ______ heat to increase its
    temperature than other liquids. Why?
    __________________________________________________
    __________________
  • When water cools, it gives _____ a lot of
    ___________.
  • Because water takes longer to heat up and cool
    down, it is like an _______ that helps maintain a
    __________ environment when conditions fluctuate
    outside and within our own ______________.

more
Because of the hydrogen bonds between each
molecule. As you heat up water, the bonds must
be broken to move around.
off
heat
insulator
steady
Bodies/cells
39
I. Water and Its Importance
  • Water expands expends when it freezes
  • - As water begins to _________ more and more
    _____________bonds are formed and the water
    molecules become more ________ apart. When this
    happens as a piece of ice forms, it becomes
    ________ ________ than the surrounding liquid
    water, therefore ice ___________________!

freeze
hydrogen
spread
Less dense
floats
40
II. Diffusion
Just Know and understand the definition of
Diffusion!!!!!
  • Early observations Brownian motion
  • (1827) Was one of the first to observe the random
    motion of molecules and substances.
  • The process of diffusion
  • Diffusion ________________________
  • ___________________________________
  • Diffusion is a ___________ process because it
    relies on the random _________ of atoms and
    molecules

The net movement of particles from
an area of higher concentration to an area of
lower concentration.
slow
motion
41
Diffusion
42
Section 6.3
  • Life Substances

43
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
  • Molecular Chains
  • Biomolecule large ____________ compounds (
    contains 10s, 100s, to 1000s of carbon atoms)
  • Polymer a large molecule formed when ________
    smaller molecules bond together.

organic
many
44
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
  • The structure of carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrate a biomolecule composed of
    ________________________________
  • _____________________________ (CHO ratio)
  • Functions of carbos ___________________
  • Two types of carbohydrates
  • _______________
  • A _______________ is a ____________ (small) sugar
  • EX glucose and fructose

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that has or can be
reduced to a 121 ratio
Stores energy for the cell
Sugars
simple
monosaccharide
45
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
Disaccharide
  • A __________ is _____ monosaccharide's linked
    together
  • EX glucose fructose sucrose (table sugar)(pg
    159, 6.17)
  • _______________
  • Starches are ________________. The are polymers
    composed of many monosaccharide subunits.
  • EX glycogen cellulose (pg 159 6.17)

2
Starches
polysaccharides
46
Carbohydrate- sugar
Monosaccharide
  • Glucose is stored
  • In a plant as starch
  • In an animal as glycogen

The formula for glucose (C6H1206) is shown above.
(121)
47
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
  • Structure of Lipids
  • Lipid large biomolecules that __________
  • ___________________________________
  • It can ______ reduced to a 121 ratio
  • The are _________ in water because their
    molecules are __________ and repel water
  • EX _____________________________
  • ___________________________________
  • Functions of lipids __________________
  • __________________________________


are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen
with a small amount of oxygen.
not
Insoluble
nonpolar
Fats, oils, waxes, and steriods
energy storage,
insulation, protective coverings
48
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
  • 5. Components of a lipid
  • a. ________________________
  • b. ___________________ (pg 160, 6.2)
  • 6. Lipids can be saturated, unsaturated, or
    polyunsaturated.
  • - Saturated All of the ______ atoms are
    _______ bonded together the molecule is now
    ____________ with hydrogen atoms

Three fatty acids
one glycerol molecule
carbon
Single
saturated
49
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
  • Unsaturated when a _______ bond exists between
    two of the carbon atoms the molecule now has
    ________ hydrogen atoms
  • Polyunsaturated when _________ double bonds
    exist between the carbons even __________
    hydrogen is present now.
  • The structure of proteins
  • Protein ________________________________
  • ___________________________________

double
less
many
less
A large, complex polymer composed of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
50
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
  • Components of a protein __________
  • ___________________________
  • The amino acids are linked together by covalent
    ___________ bonds.
  • Proteins come in a large variety of _______ and
    _________. The number and order of the
    ____________ determines its function.
  • Functions of proteins
  • a. Gives structure and ____________. Ex
    _________
  • b. Help ____________ contact.

Amino acids
peptide
shapes
sizes
Amino acids
Hair, fingernails, horns, hoofs
support
muscles
51
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
oxygen
  • Transport ____________ in your bloodstream. Ex
    ______________
  • Provide ______________ EX _____________
  • Carry out ______________ EX ___________
  • An _____________ is a protein that changes the
    __________ of a chemical reaction.
  • - Without the ________ of enzymes, we would not
    be able to __________ our food fast enough to
    feed our body.

hemoglobin
antibodies
immunity
reactions
enzymes
enzyme
rate
help
digest
52
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
  • The structure of nucleic acids
  • Nucleic acid a complex biomolecule that
    ________________________________.
  • Components of a nucleic acid ______________
    (which have C, H, O, N, P)
  • A nucleotide is made up of (page 163, fig 6.24)
  • ________________________
  • ________________________
  • ________________________

Store cellular information in the form of a code
nucleotide
sugar
Nitrogenous base
Phosphate group
53
I. The role of Carbon in Organisms
  • Examples
  • _______ (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  • Contains our __________ ________ ( how to make
    all of our proteins)
  • ______ (ribonucleic acid)
  • - Take the code from ______ and actually take
    part in making our ______________.

DNA
Genetic code
RNA
DNA
proteins
About PowerShow.com