the Indian subcontinent - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 57
About This Presentation
Title:

the Indian subcontinent

Description:

* The population of India is just over 1 billion people. It is believed that India s population will surpass that of China by 2020. No success with family planning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:124
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 58
Provided by: Susa2187
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: the Indian subcontinent


1
the Indian subcontinent Since 1947 The Legacy
of Independence
2
(No Transcript)
3
Main Ideas
  • Nehru was Indias Prime Minister from
    independence until 1964
  • Jinnah was the first leader of Pakistan, but died
    in 1948 just a little more than a year after
    independence
  • India Pakistan tensions since independence
    border never resolved territory of Kashmir in
    dispute
  • 2 countries became 3 Bangladesh separated from
    Pakistan

4
Main Ideas
  • Lack of stability especially in Pakistan and
    Bangladesh since the countries are still young
  • History full of assassinations and coups (short
    for coup d'état overthrow of the government,
    usually by force with support of the military)

5
Border problems
6
Independent India
  • New Constitution gave every citizen the right to
    vote.
  • The Indian Constitution declared Untouchability
    illegal. Who might this create a problem for?
    Why?
  • Many Indians could not read or write so their
    government used symbols on ballots.

7
Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Ally of Gandhi and the first Prime Minister of
    India - 1947-1964.
  • Created a casteless India.
  • Aided millions of Hindu refugees.
  • Advocated Industrialization.
  • Promoted Green Revolution.
  • Mixed Economy.
  • Nonalignment Movement leader of non-aligned
    nations not taking sides during the Cold War.
  • India did have disputes with Pakistan and China
    during his time of leadership.

8
Non-Alignment Movement
9
Non-Alignment Movement During the Cold War, as
the countries around the world were aligning
themselves with the Communist or non-Communist
nations, India became a proponent of staying
neutral, or non-aligned.
10
Indias mixed economy
  • The mix refers to private and public
    ownership.
  • India limited foreign investments for fear other
    countries would have to much control in India.
  • Urban areas have high-tech companies.
  • Three quarters of the population are farmers
    living in small villages.
  • India's "Green Revolution" allowed farmers to
    triple their crop by using modern science and
    technology.

11
Indias Green Revolution
  • Introducing higher-yielding varieties of seeds
    in 1965.
  • Increased use of fertilizers irrigation.
  • GOAL ? make India self-sufficient in food grains.
  • Norman Borlaug American scientist who helped
    bring higher yielding crops to India

12
Pakistan the early years
  • Led briefly by Muhammad Ali Jinnah (known as
    Quaid-i-Azam or Great Leader) until
  • his death from tuberculosis September 11,
    1948.
  • Jinnah only told his inner circle how ill he
    was.
  • Do you think a leader should reveal such an
    illness in this situation?

13
Pakistan the early years
  • Reasons he did not reveal the illness-
  • Afraid the British would not agree to the
    separation of the subcontinent into India and
    Pakistan indeed Lord Mountbatten, the last
    British Viceroy, later said he would have held
    off on agreeing to the creation of Pakistan until
    Jinnah was gone had he know how ill Jinnah was.
  • Did not want his people to panic.

14
Pakistan the early years
  • Nation struggled in early years without Jinnah.
  • Jinnahs second in command, Liaquat Ali Khan,
    assassinated three years later.
  • Through the years, Pakistan has had a mix of
    elected leaders and those who seized power by
    using the military.
  • Tension over the role of Islam Islamic
    fundamentalism vs. more secular nation
    (separation of religion from government)

15
East and West Pakistanwhat do you think went
wrong?
  • Make a theory (or theories) about why this
    situation didnt work out and explain.

16
Pakistan and Bangladesh
  • War that involved India helped East Pakistan
    split apart.
  • East separated in 1972 and became Bangladesh.
  • What was previously West Pakistan is what we know
    today as Pakistan.

17
Bangladesh
  • -political history has been filled with coups and
    assassinations-Awami League remains one of the
    major political parties-floods and famines are
    common-a considerably poor country throughout
    most of its history, with jute as its main
    crop-economy has been improving rapidly in the
    21st century and has become more diverse

18
India After Nehru
19
Indira Gandhi
  • Nehrus daughter.
  • Prime Minister of India, 1966-1984, with brief
    periods of being voted out of office.
  • Continues Nehrus policies.
  • Faced corruption charges internal rebellion.
  • Assassinated in 1984.

20
Indias persecution of the Sikhs
21
Sikhs
  • Sikh separatists wanted to break away from the
    country.
  • Sikhs felt Hindu government did not give them a
    fair amount of resources.
  • Indira Gandhi was assassinated by Sikh bodyguards
    who turned on her.

22
Rajiv Gandhi
  • Indiras son.
  • Prime Minister of India, 1984-1989.
  • Assassinated in 1991 while campaigning to get
    back into office.

23
Manmohan Singh
  • May 2004 ? he held up a letter from India's
    president authorizing him to form a new
    government as prime minister.
  • He stood next to Sonia Gandhi, the candidate
    for the post who stunned the country when she
    declined the office.

24
May 2004 Swearing in of Prime Minister
Singh, the first Sikh in the job. He served for
ten years.
25
India v. Pakistan dangerous rivals
26
1971 India-Pakistan War
27
2. nuclear rivalry
28
The India-Pakistan Arms Race Heats up in the late
1990s both sides are nuclear powers
29
Right-wing Pakistani Activists Burn Indian Flag
to Protest Indian Nuclear Tests - 1998
30
Hot Air Balloon Protesting India Pakistans
nuclear testing - 1998
31
2002 Nuclear Statistics
32
India Displays Nuclear Missiles During Republic
Day, - 2002
33
(No Transcript)
34
What title would you give this political cartoon?
35
Is this a possibility?
36
Is the dream gone?
37
1. Jammu Kashmir
38
Kashmir
  • State of Jammu and Kashmir, usually just referred
    to as Kashmir.
  • Area has been disputed since independence.
  • There was no clear decision made on which
    villages were on which side of the border.
  • One of the most violent places in the world over
    the last fifty years.

39
Kashmir Crisis
40
Indian Soldiers Near the Pakistani Border - 2001
41
A Pakistani Ranger
At the Indian-Pakistani Joint Border Check Post
in Wagha, India - 2001
42
Anti-war Protestors in Karachi, Pakistan - 2001
43
Kashmiri Militants - 2003
44
Major problems Issues in Pakistan today
  • Economic development.
  • Political instability/military dictatorship.
  • Hindu-Muslim tensions.
  • Terrorism.
  • The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons.

45
Benazir Bhutto
  • First Woman Prime Minister, 1988
  • Ousted in 1990, returned, then ousted again in
    1993 on corruption charges.
  • Left the country for a time, returned in 2007
    with support to regain power, but was
    assassinated by opponents.

46
Benazir Bhutto
  • Famous family
  • Father, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, had been prime
    minister earlier
  • Husband, Asif Ali Zardari, was president for five
    years after her assassination

47
Nawaz Sharif
  • Current Prime Minister
  • Serving his third term in that position
  • Had previously been overthrown, accused of
    wrongdoing, and out of the country in exile.

48
terrorism
49
Gen. Pervez Musharraf
  • Coup detat.
  • Secular government against Islamic
    fundamentalists.
  • U.S. ally in the War on Terror.

50
Partners in the War on Terror?
51
Musharraf ousted
  • Lost support of many people for working with the
    U.S. in its war on terror in neighboring
    Afghanistan.
  • Resigned in 2008, living in London, planned to
    return for next election in 2013 but was ruled
    ineligible.
  • Recent president Asif Ali Zardari (who was
    married to Benazir Bhutto).
  • Key leader Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

52
U.S. / Pakistan Relations Strained
  • 2011 U.S. forces kill Osama bin Laden in
    Pakistan

53
The Taliban
  • Strict Islamic fundamentalist group
  • Gained control of Afghanistans government in
    1996
  • Instituted Sharia (or Islamic) law
  • Ousted from power in Afghanistan in 2001 by US
    forces who attacked the country because al-Qaeda
    bases were there
  • Although out of power, group continued to attack
    US troops

54
The Taliban
  • Spilled over border into Pakistan, gained control
    over local areas there in recent years
  • Pakistans military has fought with them
    currently peace talks are planned, but they have
    been attempted before and not agreements have not
    lasted long

55
Malala Yousafzai
  • Pakistani teenager who movement to raise issue of
    the lack of and restrictions on education for
    girls in her nation
  • Outspoken critic of Taliban
  • Shot in the head by a Taliban member October 2012
    at age 15
  • Miraculous recovery, has become international
    symbol for human rights and basic freedoms
  • Has spoken at UN, visited White House, won
    numerous awards and written autobiography

56
Mumbai attacks
  • The 2000s were a relatively calm period in
    India-Pakistan relations until the Mumbai attacks
    of 2008.
  • Twelve attacks occurred in coordination with one
    another, killing 257 people.
  • Carried out by terrorist organization believed to
    have ties to Pakistans govt.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?v1RAVcIjegj4
57
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam(Tamil Tigers or
LTTE)
  • Organization responsible for assassination of
    Rajiv Gandhi
  • Tamils are an ethnic group in southern India and
    Sri Lanka who have long felt overlooked and
    oppressed in both nations, especially in Sri
    Lanka
  • Also assassinated president of Sri Lanka in 1993
  • Still active organization, Sri Lanka very split
    and unsettled
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com