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The Level 3 Award in Higher Sports Leadership

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Title: The Level 3 Award in Higher Sports Leadership


1
(No Transcript)
2
The Level 3 Award in Higher Sports Leadership
3
Unit 1
  • Introduction to Higher Sports Leadership

4
The Sports Leader Awards Scheme
  • Administered by Sports Leaders UK
  • The SLA scheme is made up of
  • The Level 1 Award in Sports Leadership
  • The Level 2 Award in Community Sports Leadership
  • The Level 3 Award in Higher Sports Leadership
  • The Level 2 Award in Basic Expedition Leadership
  • The Dance Leaders Award
  • The Young Leader Award
  • Womens Get Set Go!
  • Foreign Language Leaders Award

OHT 1.1
5
Level 3 Award in Higher Sports Leadership
Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit9
comp comp option option option comp comp comp comp
2 GLH 24 GLH 12 GLH 12 GLH 12 GLH 10 GLH Min8 GLH Min 6 GLH 16 GLH
N/a 10 LE 10 LE 10 LE 10 LE N/a N/a N/a N/a
GLH guided learning hours Comp
compulsory unit LE leadership experience
option optional unit (2 out of 3)
6
Responsibilities
  • THE HIGHER SPORTS LEADER
  • Being a Higher Sports Leader is not just about
    being a better leader it is about having the
    skills and confidence to initiate sports
    activities, to deliver them to a variety of
    community groups and to be able to take sole
    responsibility for the groups welfare.
  • OHT 1.3

7
A HSL should be able to
  • Use initiative
  • Work in a team
  • Lead without supervision
  • Utilise the assistance of others
  • Communicate to a diverse audience
  • Lead safe, purposeful activity for a variety of
    community groups
  • Plan, deliver Evaluate sports sessions
  • Control a group

OHT 1.4
8
Sports Leaders UK
Centre Course Managers Tutor / Assessors
Insurers
Higher Sports Leader
Employers
Course colleagues
Themselves
Independent Witness (L.E. Supervisor)
Participants
OHT 1.5
9
The Higher Sports Leader in Action
  • PREPARATION
  • Session content
  • Facility
  • Equipment
  • Assistance
  • Knowledge of participants
  • DELIVERY
  • Appropriate to group
  • Inclusive
  • FUN

OHT 1.6
10
HSL IN ACTION (cont..)
  • Assessment
  • Session
  • Feedback
  • Safe
  • Facility
  • Equipment
  • Content
  • First Aid
  • Awareness of Participants environment
  • Image
  • Appropriate clothing preparation
  • Prompt Start finish
  • Reliable / Enthusiastic
  • Committed / Courteous

OHT 1.6
11
External Verification
  • The External Verifier will look at
  • Course programme
  • Attendance register
  • Course Files
  • ROAs
  • Students leading a group
  • The External Verifier will also
  • Speak to the HSLs
  • Sign ROAs
  • Discuss course with CCM.

OHT 1.7
12
UNIT 2
  • Sports Leadership In the Community

13
The Leader
  • I wanna be the leader
  • I wanna be the leader
  • Can I be the Leader?
  • Can I? I can?
  • Promise? Promise?
  • Yippee, Im the leader
  • OK, what shall I do?? (anon)

OHT 2.1
14
Some components of Leadership
  • Technical Competence
  • Experience
  • Communication
  • Planning and Preparation
  • Motivation
  • Awareness
  • Responsibility Control

OHT 2.2
15
INDIVIDUAL
TEAM
TASK
OHT 2.3
Adair 1988
16
Core Leadership Skills
  • Communication
  • Organisation
  • Motivation
  • Confidence
  • Safety Awareness

OHT 2.4
17
Communication
  • One can lack any of the qualities of an
    organiser, with one exception, ad still be
    effective and successful. The exception is the
    art of communication. It does not matter what you
    know about anything, if you cannot communicate to
    your people. In that event you are not even a
    failure. You are just not there.
  • Alinsky 1972

18
Ways of Communicating
Speech Signals Signs
Sounds Eye Contact Facial Expressions
Demonstrations Leaflets Gestures
IT Books TV
Radio Videos Body language
Posters Braille Charts
Image ROLE MODEL
OHT 2.5
19
Communication Skills
  • Sports Leaders must be able to
  • Communicate clearly precisely, using verbal and
    non-verbal communication
  • Position themselves appropriately when leading
  • Listen to Understand others
  • Recognise when others have understood what has
    been communicated
  • Remember Actions speak louder than words

OHT 2.6
20
Verbal Skills Debrief
Volume Clarity Projection
Expression Questioning Jargon
Information Giving Delegation FUN
OHT 2.7
21
Communication methods debrief
  • Which communication methods were most effective?
  • What effect did repeating the routine have?
  • What effect did breaking the routine into stages
    have?
  • What was the effect of enforced silence on
    learning?
  • How can methods be combined to improve
    communication?
  • What other methods could improve the groups
    learning?
  • How do these exercises relate to the way
    different community groups learn?

22
Lets Consider
  • Some of the group have a hearing impairment
  • The players were complete beginners
  • One of the players had a visual impairment
  • The players belonged to a veterans club
  • All of the participants have a learning
    disability and some are accompanied by carers
  • English is the second language

23
Sports Leaders who are effective motivators are.
  • Self Motivated
  • Responsible
  • Interested, enthusiastic
  • Enjoy Sport
  • Confident
  • Able to plan
  • Excited about achievement
  • Willing to learn share good practice
  • A good role model

OHT 2.8A
24
Sports Leaders who are effective motivators
can
  • Appreciate acknowledge effort and achievement
  • Take decisive action
  • Respond to situations
  • Laugh with their group
  • Laugh at themselves
  • Let the group laugh at you
  • Inspire others

OHT 2.8B
25
Sports Leaders who are effective motivators
  • KNOW
  • That people come first
  • The difference between encouragement pressure
  • The difference between negative and positive
    pressure
  • HAVE
  • Vision
  • Clear Goals
  • Realistic expectation
  • Ability to inspire

OHT 2.8C
26
Sports Leaders who are effective motivators.
  • RUN
  • Appropriate, challenging, safe, fun sessions
  • SET
  • Realistic Goals
  • WANT
  • Everyone to achieve their potential
  • VALUE
  • Others work achievements
  • The opportunity to contribute to well being of
    others
  • SHOW
  • Integrity, honesty, selflessness.

OHT 2.8C
27
A.P.P.L.E. An organisation Cycle
Assess
Evaluate
Plan
Lead
Prepare
OHT 2.9
28
X
x
SKILLS PRACTICE
X
x
x
Game
start
Full Game
Cool down
End of warm up
X
Chuff chart
O O -
OHT 2.10
29
A Sports Leader will delegate for
  • Efficiency
  • Delegating jobs that do not need to be done by
    the leader, frees the sports to concentrate on
    other relevant tasks. (Ineffective delegation can
    lead to more stress!)
  • Confidence Building
  • If the person who has been given the task can
    successfully complete it, confidence will be
    instilled (inappropriate delegation can ruin
    confidence and menial tasks can be).
  • Team Building
  • Leads to a team concept of achieving joint goals
    rather than on sports leader doing everything.

OHT 2.11
30
Risk Assessment
  • Factors to consider
  • Type of activity and level
  • Competence, experience and qualifications of the
    leader and other staff
  • Group members
  • Ratio of qualified leaders to participants
  • The quality and suitability of equipment
  • The weather

OHT 2.12
31
5 Steps to Risk Assessment
  1. Identify Hazard
  2. Assess the risk, who will be affected how
    seriously
  3. Evaluate measures of control
  4. Record findings
  5. Monitor review periodically

OHT 2.13
32
Simple RA Part 1
  • Hazard the potential to cause harm will vary in
    severity
  • The effect of the hazard may be rated
  • 3 Major e.g death or major injury
  • 2 Serious e.g injuries where people may be off
    work for more than 3 days
  • 1 Slight e.g all other injuries including those
    where people are off work for a period of up to 3
    days .

OHT 2.14a
33
Simple Risk Assessment Part 2
  • RISK is the combination of the severity of the
    hazard with the likelihood of its occurrence
  • RISK Hazard X Likelihood of
  • Severity Occurrence
  • Likelihood of occurrence
  • 3High , certain of harm
  • 2 Medium, harm will occur frequently
  • 1 Low, seldom occurrence

OHT 2.14B
34
Risk Assessment
  • Who may be harmed?
  • Is the risk adequately controlled?
  • What further action is necessary to control the
  • risk?
  • Review

OHT 2.15
35
REPORTING ACCIDENTS
  • Report all accidents in writing stating
  • Nature of incident
  • When it happened
  • Where it happened
  • Who it concerned
  • Nature of injury
  • Action taken when and by whom
  • Recommendation given to casualty

OHT 2.16
36
LEADERSHIP STYLES
  • DIRECTIVE Coach focused, autocratic
  • SUPPORTIVE Friendly, approachable, considerate
  • PARTICIPATIVE Sharing, decision making,
    democratic
  • LAISSEZ FAIRE Laid Back, allow decisions to
    come about naturally

OHT 2.17
37
TEAMWORK DEFINED
Together Everyone Achieves More
Contribution
Common Goal
Commitment
Accountable
OHT 2.18
38
Member Characteristics
  • The Leader takes the initiative
  • The Doer action orientated
  • The Thinker considers carefully
  • The Carer people orientated

OHT 2.19
39
Some Characteristics of a good team
  • High success rate
  • Leader who adjusts leadership styles accordingly
  • Balances the what and how
  • Supportive Atmosphere
  • All team members are accountable
  • Learns form experience

OHT 2.20
40
Qualities required for working in isolation
  • Self starter
  • Take initiative
  • Confident
  • Committed
  • Determined
  • Technically competent
  • Knowledgeable
  • Imaginative
  • Clear thinking
  • Dynamic
  • Organised

41
Why plan?
  • Session content
  • Logical delivery
  • Time allocation
  • Helps to review / evaluate the session
  • Changes can be introduced
  • Can share ideas with someone else
  • Sessions can be filed for future reference

OHT 2.21
42
Successful Planning
  • Participant group
  • Ability level
  • Timing
  • Facilities
  • Resources
  • Fun challenging
  • Progressive well organised

43
Evaluation and Feedback
  • LOOK BACK AND ASCERTAIN STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
  • ASK Was the aim achieved?
  • Did the participants enjoy?
  • Was it safe?
  • Was it well organised?

OHT 2.22
44
SELF ASSESSMENT
Is everyone active? Lots of activity? Am I sticking to the plan? Is everyone learning something new?
Is it relevant? Am I giving feedback? Is it boring? Am I giving encouragement?
Did I prepare effectively? Is it challenging? Am I a good role model? Is it achievable?
Review Review Review Review
OHT 2.23
45
SELF ASSESSMENT
  • Is everyone active?
  • Lots of activity?
  • Am I sticking to the plan?
  • Is everyone learning something new?
  • Is it relevant?
  • Am I giving feedback?
  • Is it boring?
  • Am I giving encouragement?

46
Planning a Presentation
  • Who is the audience?
  • Purpose of the presentation
  • Room layout
  • Method of presenting
  • Content
  • Structure
  • Style
  • Time
  • Resources
  • Where to stand

OHT 2.24
47
Methods of Presenting
  • Demonstration
  • Visual Aids
  • Talk Chalk
  • Audience Participation
  • Visual Aids - OHP, Video, Flip Chart, Power
    point, Posters, Flash Cards.

OHT 2.25
48
What is your role within the community?
49
What is Community Sport?
  • What is the definition of Sport?
  • Competitive sports and games
  • Conditioning and fitness activities
  • Outdoor and adventurous activities
  • Aesthetic activities such as movement and dance
  • What is the definition of Community?
  • A community is made up of all people living in a
    specific locality, it will consist of a wide
    range of people, containing different target
    groups
  • Community Sport is all forms of activity,
    provided for the community

OHT 2.26
50
What role does the Sports leader have in the
provision of community sport?
  • Leading sessions
  • Organising events
  • After school sports
  • Linking to TOPS programmes
  • Working with voluntary groups
  • Linking to play schemes
  • Team Manager
  • Introducing taster sessions
  • Assisting with regional Games events
  • Working with specific groups

OHT 2.27
51
How might an individual benefit from
participating in sport?
  • Physical Development
  • Cognitive Development
  • Personal Social Development

52
Sports Development
Quantity Increase number of participants
Participation in Sport
Quality Improve standards of performance
Sports Development is the promotion and provision
of Sports Activities for the community.
OHT 2.29
53
Sports Development Tools
  • The Sports Development Continuum
  • Classifies participants in terms of their
    achievement in sport.
  • Models of Sports Development
  • Show how individuals move through the continuum
  • The Sports Development Strategy
  • Provides guidance and performance measures
  • Q does your sport have any of these?

OHT 2.30
54
A Model Of Sports Development
PERFORMANCE
Active Communities
Active Sports
World Class
PARTICIPATION
Excellence
Active Schools
Foundation / Learning Basic Skills
OHT 2.31 Sport England Adopted 1998
55
Basic Progression
  • Foundation
  • Participation
  • Performance
  • Excellence
  • Q where are you on the continuum?
  • Q where can you impact as a sports leader?

56
Agencies involved in sports development
  • Governing Bodies of Sport
  • Local Authorities
  • National Sports Councils
  • Voluntary Sector Sports Clubs
  • Schools / Education sector
  • Skills of an SDO
  • Research
  • Marketing
  • Negotiating
  • Planning
  • Communication
  • Organisation
  • Evaluating

OHT 2.32
57
Barriers to Participation
  • ATTITUDES
  • Stereotyping
  • Lack of confidence
  • Lack of self motivation
  • Image of sport
  • Family / personal relationships
  • Cultural norms
  • Lack of interest
  • Too competitive

OHT 2.33
58
Barriers to participation
  • ACCESS
  • Facilities Lifestyle
  • Transport Health
  • Timing of openings Education
  • Lack of information Socio-economic status
  • Official procedures Other activities
  • Fees
  • Childcare

OHT 2.33
59
Barriers to participation
  • PROGRAMME
  • Content / Delivery
  • Range of activities
  • Inappropriate for ability
  • Inappropriate delivery style
  • Quality of provision
  • Too competitive
  • Not enough fun

OHT 2.33
60
Sports Equity
  • Overcoming Discrimination
  • Recognising your own prejudice
  • Understanding the difficulty
  • Talking to people
  • Support from others
  • Thinking of alternatives
  • Go on a training course
  • Using a policy / guidelines.

OHT 2.34
61
Sports Equity
  • Can be achieved through
  • Sharing common values
  • Promoting equality through sport
  • Working in partnership
  • Endorsing the Law
  • Challenging discrimination

OHT 2.35
62
Sports Integration Continuum
Parallel Sport 3
Adapted Sport (segregated) 5
Mainstream Sport 1
Mainstream Sport (modified) 2
Adapted Sport (integrated) 4
The Winnick Model. PJ Winnick, an Integration
Continuum for sports participation
OHT 2.36
63
Example of Partnerships in Action Exercise in
Prescription Schemes
Local Authority
Physiotherapists
Local GPs Nurses
Leisure Facility staff
Exercise on Prescription scheme
Sport Development Unit
Health Authority
Vol. Support groups
NGBs
OHT 2.37
Local Press
64
UNIT 3
  • Principles Practice for Children in Sport

65
What is the Sports Leaders role?
  • Guardian
  • Organiser
  • Motivator
  • Teacher
  • Trainer
  • Facilitator

OHT 3.1
66
Complete
  • Appendix 3.1 Observation of children's physical
    behaviour.

67
How Children Grow
  • At birth a baby is about ¼ of its adult height
  • Up to 6 7 years fastest growth period
  • Adolescence second growth spurt, slowing until
    full height is reached.

OHT 3.2
68
Changes in proportion are more dramatic
  • A babys head ¼ of its height
  • An adult head a sixth of its height
  • A babys legs account for a third of its height
  • An adults legs account for ½ of its height
  • Just before the adolescent growth spurt,
    children's arms and legs are disproportionately
    long (which often makes them clumsy and
    uncoordinated)

OHT 3.3
69
Body Shape
  • Fat / Muscular
  • (Endomorph / Mesomorph)
  • Children who are fat or muscular tend to be
    taller and heavier than their peers
  • They mature earlier
  • They stop growing earlier
  • They develop into shorter, heavily built adults
  • Thin
  • (Ectomorph)
  • Thin children often take longer to mature
  • They develop into taller, slimmer adults
  • They may develop proportionally longer legs

OHT 3.4
70
Muscles
  • Muscle strength is closely related to muscle size
  • Young children are disproportionately weaker than
    older children

OHT 3.5
71
Gender and Body Shape
  • As boys and girls mature, they develop larger
    body sizes
  • BOYS larger, fat free and increased muscle mass
  • GIRLS relatively more fat
  • Boys who are early maturers stronger and more
    naturally able
  • Girls who are delayed maturers linear physique,
    less fat, more naturally able
  • Boys and girls therefore show ability at
    different stages of development

OHT 3.6
72
Implications in organising childrens sport
  • Mixed gender participation
  • Growth stages
  • Grouping children according to height weight
  • Avoid matching children with different
    development needs
  • Encourage skill learning for everyone
  • Early talent spotting is not always effective
  • Do not stereotype children into specific sports,
    based on body type.

OHT 3.7
73
How children respond differently to exercise than
adults
  • They get a higher proportion of their energy
    aerobically
  • They are less mechanically efficient
  • They produce more heat
  • They cannot regulate their body heat as
    efficiently
  • They have weaker bones
  • They are much less aware of their real limits

OHT 3.8
74
CHOICES
  • Because of the development difference between
    children of the same age,children should be
    offered a choice of
  • Pace / Style / Duration / Distance / Equipment
  • during exercise , so that they can carry out a
    task at their own level.

OHT 3.9
75
Safe Exercise Practice
Include Warm Up and Cool Down Steady , low intensity exercises REST PERIODS
Plenty of Fluid! B, D A Appropriate clothing Watch for signs of distress
Never PUSH a child to extremes Encourage monitoring of breathing / heart rates Never use weights before bone dev. Is complete
OHT 3.10
76
EMU
  • Hold your hand above your head and make a beak
    like an Emu.
  • Put the other hand on your heart
  • Open and close the beat in time with your heart
  • How does it changes over different activities?
  • How else might you or a child monitor their
    response to exercise?

77
Feeling Hot and Breathing Alot
78
Children Learn
  • Nerve and muscle system reach full maturity
    during early adulthood. Immaturity of development
    makes it harder to learn specific skills, so
    younger children have a limited ability. They are
    less able to concentrate and make decisions.
  • Children Learn
  • By doing
  • When they are motivated
  • When they are successful
  • By copying others
  • Through encouragement
  • Often rapidly. Children are more confident
    willing to make mistakes than adults.

OHT 3.11
79
Stages of Developing Skills
  • Understanding
  • - the child must know / understand what they are
    trying to achieve
  • Practising
  • purposeful practice is essential
  • Feedback
  • Reinforces progress or alters techniques
  • Performing
  • the skill becomes almost automatic

OHT 3.12
80
Learning Cycle
PLAN
PERFORM
EVALUATE
Plan the child understands the task and
sets him / herself a goal Perform the child
practices the task Evaluate the child assesses
his / her success against the goal
OHT 3.13
81
Practical Tips
  • Treat each child as an individual
  • Make sure the children are ready to learn
  • Use short, simple explanations
  • Demonstrate clearly
  • Give plenty of time for practice
  • Make it FUN, active and challenging

OHT 3.14
82
Practical Tips (cont..)
  • Ensure success is achieved before moving on
  • Use questions to help identify mistakes
  • Guide the child to the most important factor
  • Focus on one mistake at a time
  • Start with big simple movements before complex
    skills
  • Be Positive
  • LISTEN
  • Put the skills into a meaningful situation asap
  • Reinforce skills through repetition

OHT 3.14
83
Your experience
84
How children interact with others
  • We assume that sport helps children learn to work
    together and develop positive attitudes to fair
    play
  • However some children might just see it as play
    or a chance to see friends
  • They soon learn about competition and success and
    failure. This can have a profound affect on a
    child self esteem.
  • Sports leaders are in a unique position to create
    a positive atmosphere where participation, effort
    and progress are just as important as winning.
    Sport can therefore be a very positive experience
    for every child.

85
Personal experience
86
How children see themselves
  • Childrens image of themselves is shaped by
  • The aims they have for themselves
  • Their achievements in competition
  • Other children's achievements
  • Feedback from adults
  • Feedback form other children

OHT 3.15
87
Relationships with Others
  • Very small children are at the centre of their
    own world
  • Children starting school need lots of approval.
  • Children at 6yrs begin co-operative play are
    less dependant on adults
  • At 6 9 yrs friendship becomes increasingly
    important
  • At 9yrs children form tight knit groups
  • From then on friends are a major influence
    co-operation is better, along with awareness of
    others

OHT 3.16
88
Practical Tips
Keep FUN in practice competition Childs needs first Winning second. Focus on performance not outcome
Help CH to set own goals and evaluate progress Use PRAISE!! Encourage Teamwork
Reinforce FAIR PLAY Treat CH with equal consideration Every child is Unique!
OHT 3.17
89
Why Children do Sport
  • FUN
  • ADVENTURE
  • CHALLENGE
  • COMPETITION
  • ACHIEVMENT
  • SOCIALISING
  • INDEPENDENCE
  • RELEASE ENERGY EMOTION

OHT 3.18
90
Sport can be detrimental to children when
  • Winning is everything
  • Rules are too restrictive
  • The emphasis is on right or wrong techniques
  • Leaders are autocratic
  • Inequalities are reinforced

OHT 3.19
91
The benefits of physical activity for children
  • These could be described under 3 broad
  • headings
  • Physical Development
  • Intellectual Development
  • Personal Social Development

OHT 3.20
92
Physical Development
  • Basic Motor Skills e.g moving in different ways
  • Spatial Awareness
  • Co-ordination Control
  • Manipulative skills
  • Health Fitness
  • Positive use of Energy

OHT 3.21
93
Intellectual Development
  • Creativity
  • Cognitive Skills ( awareness understanding)
  • Concentration
  • Language Literacy
  • Numeracy

OHT 3.22
94
Personal Social Development
  • Confidence
  • Self Esteem
  • Self Awareness
  • Awareness of others
  • Co-operative skills
  • Organisational skills
  • Leadership skills
  • Equality Justice

OHT 3.23
95
When writing a Code of Conduct the following
issues should be considered
  • Has the leader planned well?
  • Is the leader organised
  • How does the leader interact?
  • Are the children clear about the activity?
  • Are all children succeeding and having fun?
  • Is the activity safe?
  • How do the children treat each other?
  • Does the leader challenge discrimination?
  • Will the children come back?
  • Is the leader a positive role model for children?

OHT 3.24
96
All Sports Leaders and Coaches have a
responsibility to ensure that they
  • Are suitably qualified in the sport activity
  • Are suitably insured
  • Understand their duty of care
  • Understand Health safety requirements
  • Keep family members informed about the nature of
    the activity

OHT 3.25
97
Safety
  • First Aid Kit / person identified
  • Emergency telephone
  • Playing surface checked
  • Dangerous obstacles eliminated
  • Equipment checked
  • Childrens attire checked
  • Rules and boundaries clearly explained

OHT 3.26
98
PLANNING
  • Venue has been confirmed
  • Numbers / ages / ability of children are known
  • Any specific needs / medical history
  • Staffing ratio is appropriate
  • Equipment prepared
  • Activities / Session prepared identified
  • Times confirmed with parents
  • Contingency plan in place

OHT 3.27
99
Organisation
  • Arrive early start on time
  • Prepare playing area
  • Sort / store equipment
  • Greet parents and children
  • Give clear instructions
  • Ensure staff and children know what they are
    doing
  • Finish on time

OHT 3.28
100
Organising Space
  • Alternative Markings
  • Cones placed closer together
  • Colour coding of cones
  • Chalk Lines
  • Tape Lines
  • Tactile Lines (visually impaired)
  • Throw down lines
  • Natural Boundaries

OHT 3.29
101
Factors Influencing play- area size
  • Number of children
  • Size of children
  • Mobility of Children
  • Type of activity
  • Need to work individually, in pairs or in small
    groups
  • Safety constraints of playing area
  • Need for zones

OHT 3.30
102
Warm Ups and Cool Downs
  • A Warm Up should include
  • Low level activities to raise temperature,
    breathing heart rate
  • Controlled movements of joints
  • Stretches held for 6 10 seconds

OHT 3.31
103
A Cool Down should include
  • Cooling activities to gradually decrease
    intensity of exercise e.g walk back to changing
    room
  • Stretches held still for 6 10 seconds

OHT 3.32
104
CHILD FRIENDLY EQUIPMENTSome characteristics to
consider
  • Which ball is easy to dribble?
  • Which ball has a controlled bounce?
  • What difference does colour make?
  • What is the point of a tee?
  • Which ball is easiest to catch?
  • Which ball travels furthest?
  • What type of ball is easiest to grasp?
  • What type of ball wont roll away?
  • Which bat / racquet is easiest to control?

How will you help a child to choose the right
equipment?
OHT 3.33
105
Children want equipment to be
tactile
Bright
Soft
Safe
FUN
Colourful
Easy to use
Like the Real Thing
Durable
Cool
OHT 3.34
106
Developing techniques
  • Rolling easier
  • Using a larger ball
  • Roll with 2 hands
  • Kneel or sit down
  • Roll slowly
  • Move closer together
  • Move the target nearer
  • Use an aid e.g guttering
  • Rolling More difficult
  • Use a smaller ball
  • Use non-dominant hand
  • Use variety of speeds
  • Roll along a line
  • Move further apart
  • Move the target further away
  • Smaller targets

OHT 3.35
107
Throwing catching
  • Easier
  • Use larger, lighter ball
  • Use jingle or bright coloured ball
  • Use 2 hands
  • Bounce then catch
  • Remain Stationary
  • Adjust distance between partners
  • Throw underarm
  • More Difficult
  • Use smaller faster ball
  • Use 1 hand
  • Use non-dominant hand
  • Throw then catch
  • Throw catch on the move
  • Adjust distance between partners
  • Throw over - arm

OHT 3.36
108
KICKING
  • Easier
  • Use a bigger less bouncy ball
  • Stand still before kicking
  • Make the target larger
  • Move the target closer
  • Adjust the distance between partners
  • More Difficult
  • Use a smaller, faster ball
  • Travel with the ball whilst kicking
  • Make the target smaller
  • Move the target further away
  • Use different parts of the foot

OHT 3.37
109
Dribbling
  • More Difficult
  • Use a smaller ball
  • Jog then move quickly
  • Use one hand
  • Use alternate hands or feet
  • Use one side of the stick only
  • Easier
  • Use a larger ball
  • Walk first, then jog
  • Use two hands
  • Use the outside of the foot
  • Use a puck for hockey

OHT 3.38
110
Hitting
  • Easier
  • Start with a stationary ball or use a tee
  • Progress to a rolled ball
  • Use a larger or lighter ball
  • Use a bat with a large face
  • Use a bat with a shorter handle
  • More Difficult
  • Hit a moving ball
  • Return a volley
  • Use a smaller ball
  • Set up a rally
  • Use a string racquet

OHT 3.39
111
Challenge
  • Can you do 5 1050 etc?
  • How many can you do in 30 seconds 1 minute?
  • Can you make consecutive passes, throws, etc?
  • How far can you kick, throw, roll, etc?
  • How many points can you score from hitting
    different parts of a target?
  • Can you invent another game similar to this?

OHT 3.40
112
Modifying Games
  • Playing area
  • Equipment
  • Team structure
  • Individual roles and positions
  • Rules
  • Scoring

OHT 3.41
113
Invasion Games
  • Have smaller/larger area
  • A wide playing area favours attack narrow
    favours defence
  • Use non-threatening balls
  • Group children according to size not age
  • Have teams with an unequal number of players
  • Specify an individuals role e.g. shooter
  • Allow all players to rotate
  • All player must touch the ball
  • Certain players cant be marked
  • Increase the number of goals
  • Have zones within the playing area
  • Allow wheelchair users to play in zones outside
    the sidelines

OHT 3.42
114
Net/Wall Games
  • Have a smaller court
  • Lower the net
  • Use softer/larger balls
  • Match children with similar abilities
  • One child defends a smaller area
  • The ball can bounce twice
  • Each score carries more points for some
    children
  • No go zone instead of a net, alter its width
  • Singles against doubles
  • Use side walls
  • Change the type of serve

OHT 3.43
115
Striking/Fielding Games
  • Zone hitting areas
  • Use a tee
  • Use a lighter bat with a larger hitting surface
  • Ensure mixed ability teams
  • Everyone fields whilst 1 person bats
  • Different length runs
  • Every child has a set number of hits
  • Balls are drop-fed, rolled and bowled underarm
  • The bowler is on the same team as the batters
  • No one can be caught out
  • Points for accuracy not just distance/runs

OHT 3.44
116
Target Games
  • Target sizes distances are adjusted
  • Different delivery techniques are used e.g.
    rolling, throwing, kicking etc.
  • An assistive device can be used e.g. guttering
  • Audible guides are used
  • Players can choose different positions around
    the target
  • Scores carry more points for some children

OHT 3.45
117
General Issues
  • Do not underestimate the intelligence or ability
    of disabled children
  • Talk with them find out what they can do
  • Explore ways of including rather than reasons for
    not including
  • Enable disabled children to succeed and enjoy the
    activity
  • Encourage the non-disabled children to identify
    ways of including

OHT 3.46
118
  • What can they do? What can you do?
  • What skills are needed? What is the point?
  • Different ways and rules
  • Give the children time
  • Including the children
  • Essential for learning. Take account of players
    reactions
  • Often positive, dont reinforce unacceptable
    behaviour or under achievement
  • Leader children
  • Let the group discuss changes

Inclusion Analysis
  • Assess the children's skill and mobility
  • Analyse the activity
  • Modify the activity/adapt the task
  • Practice
  • Play the activity
  • Feedback
  • Praise
  • Monitor progress
  • Evaluate

OHT 3.47
119
UNIT 4
  • Principles Practice for Older People in Sport

120
Ageing by Numbers
  • 37 of the population will be over 60yrs by 2041
  • 49 projected of men aged 60 64 who will still
    be working in 8 years time
  • 60 the age of the oldest person to climb Mt.
    Everest
  • 50 of babies born in 1995 will live to celebrate
    their 50th birthday
  • 3 of pensioners who regularly visit discos or
    nightclubs
  • 4 of British grandparents who contact their
    grandchildren via internet or email
  • 8 of men and women aged 80 84 who do voluntary
    work

OHT 4.1
121
Ageing by numbers (cont)
  • 188 number of women in their eighties
  • 1,800,00 people have had to deal with ageism in
    employment
  • 11,000,000 people in the UK are over state
    pension age
  • 95 Age of the worlds oldest triplets, Faith, Hope
    Charity Cardwell
  • 99 age of the worlds oldest parachutist,
    Hildegarde Ferrera
  • 173 rise in US of over 60s injured after taking
    up rollerblading, aerobics or weights

Information adapted from the Guardian Oct.98
N. Ascherson
OHT 4.1
122
AGEING QUOTATIONS
  • Youth is a period of missed opportunities
  • Cyril Connolly(1903 74) British Critic
  • Man does not cease to play because he grows old,
    he grows old because he ceases to play
  • George Bernard Shaw
  • You are not necessarily as old as you feel, but
    you are as old as other people feel you are
  • Neal Ascherson, Guardian Oct98
  • Some live dying, but best to die living
  • Edward J Steiqlitz

OHT 4.2
123
Ageing is the change in function of organs and
systems
  • Functional Age includes
  • Biological age refers to physiological
    processes of the body, the underlying mechanisms
    responsible for structural functional changes
    changes that characterise advancing age.
  • Psychological age refers to ones capability of
    cognitive
  • functioning, including self esteem as well as
    learning and
  • memory.
  • Social Age - refers to societys perception of
    what is acceptable behaviour of an older person

OHT 4.3
124
The Ageing process is related to
  • Genetics
  • Gender
  • Nutrition
  • Disease
  • Smoking
  • Stress
  • Trauma
  • Inactivity
  • Living conditions

OHT 4.4
125
Changes associated with ageing the skeletal
system
  • Change in bones
  • Reduced bone mass and bone density
  • Reduced bone mineral content
  • Changes in joints
  • Reduced water content and harder, drier cartilage
  • Thinner intervetebral discs
  • Increased synovial fluid stickiness
  • Reduced ligament strength
  • Reduced ligament and tendon pliability
  • Reduced range and ease of movement
  • Increased risk of injury


OHT 4.5
126
Changes associated with ageing - The muscular
system
  • Reduced muscle mass
  • Reduced number and size of muscle fibres
  • Fewer fast twitch fibres
  • Reduced number of capillaries
  • Reduced number of motor cells
  • Resulting in reduced muscular strength, power and
    endurance
  • More easily fatigued
  •  

OHT 4.6
127
Changes associated with ageing the
cardio-respiratory system
  • Reduced heart mass
  • Decrease nervous stimulation of the heart
  • Increased furring and hardening of the arteries
  • Reduced numbers of capillaries
  • Decreased maximum heart rate
  • Reduced cardiac output and stroke volume
  • Reduced body temperature control
  • Tire more quickly, recover less quickly
  • Can overheat rapidly
  •  

  • OHT 4.7

128
Changes associated with ageing the nervous
system
  • Fewer brain cells controlling movement
  • Fewer and reduced speed of messages
  • Reduction in balance mechanisms
  • Reduced vision and hearing 
  • Slower information processing time
  • Slower reaction time
  • Poorer short term memory
  • Impaired balance
  •  

OHT 4.8
129
Social benefits of physical activity for older
people
  • Promotion of a more positive and active image of
    older
  • people by -
  • Increased contribution to society by older people
  • Enhanced social integration, formation of new
    friendships and the widening of social networks
  • Role maintenance and new role acquisition
  • Maintenance of caring skills 

OHT 4.9
130
Health benefits of physical activity for older
people
  • Prevention and management of CHD and stroke
  • Prevention and management of type II Diabetes
  • Management of weight and obesity
  • Prevention of Osteoporosis
  • Reduction of accidental falls
  • Prevention of (colon) cancer
  • Improvement in length and depth of sleep
  • Even when taken up in later life

OHT4.10
131
Psychological benefits of physical activity for
older people
  • Reduction in stress and anxiety and improvement
    in overall psychological well-being.
  • Reduction in depression
  • Improvements in cognitive function, self-esteem
    and self worth.
  • Improvements in perception of health
  • A reduction of loneliness and isolation
  • Enhanced feeling of worth to society

 
OHT4.11
132
REASONS FOR DOING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY - THE
PERCIEVED BENEFITS
  • To feel better
  • Enjoyment , fun
  • Social benefits
  • Health related reasons
  • Wanting to counter the effects of ageing
  • A sense of adventure, challenge, achievement

OHT 4.12
133
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
SPORT
DANCE
OUTDOOR ACTIVITES
LEISURE ACTIVITIES
EXERCISE
OTHERS eg ACTIVE LIVING
OHT 4.13
134
AIMS OF EXERCISE SESSION
  • Promote circulation
  • Stimulate movement
  • Articulate specific movement response
  • Broaden the range of movement at each joint
  • Improve posture
  • Improve motor skills
  • Improve performance of daily functions
  • Increase body awareness
  • Increase awareness / interaction with others
  • Engage attention
  • Increase daily activity levels
  • Increase enjoyment

OHT 4.13a Exercise journal jan/feb 99 S.Dinan
135
APPROPRIATE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
  • Appropriate activities are those which
  • Meet the specific needs of older people
  • Take account of the current physical activity
    recommendations for older people
  • Take place in a safe and supportive environment

HEA Guidelines, promoting Physical Activity with
Older people
OHT 4.13B
136
Barriers to Physical Activity for Older People
  • Perception of self (How we
  • see ourselves)
  • Im too fat
  • My health is not good enough
  • Im too old
  • Im not the sporty type
  • Im too shy or embarrassed
  • Time barriers (or excuses ?)
  • Im too busy with work
  • I have grandchildren to look after
  • I have an elderly relative to look after

OHT 4.14
137
Barriers to Physical Activityfor Older People
  • Motivational barriers
  • I need to relax in my spare time
  • I havent got the energy
  • Id never keep it up
  • I dont enjoy physical activity
  • Theres no-one to go with
  • Availability barriers
  • I dont know where to go
  • I cant afford it
  • There are no facilities nearby
  • I havent got the right clothes or equipment
  • Id feel out of place in a gym

OHT 4.15
138
Barriers to Physical Activity for Older people
  • Fears and concerns
  • Its too strenuous, I might overdo it
  • I might have a heart attack
  • I could make my aches and pains worse
  • Personal safety
  • Its not safe to use the park
  • I dont like using the buses in the evening
  • I wouldnt use my bicycle, the roads are too busy

OHT 4.16
139
LIFE STAGE FACTORS - TRIGGERS
  • Children leaving home
  • Wanting to play with grandchildren
  • Physiological signs of ageing
  • Retirement
  • Onset of ailments / illness
  • Becoming a widow / widower
  • Wanting to maintain independence
  • Moving out of the home into a residential
    environment

OHT 4.17
140
Countering the effects of ageing
  • Those entering old age
  • Looking ahead to retirement
  • Concern to prolong life
  • Fit enough to play with the grandchildren
  • Look after myself
  • Sense of achievement and challenge
  • Learn something new
  • Meet people and get out
  • Chance to let off steam
  • Most likely 50 65 years

OHT 4.18
141
Countering the effects of ageing
  • Those in the transitional phase
  • Maintain mobility
  • Maintaining independence
  • Avoid becoming isolated/cut off
  • Keeping my mind active
  • Good to get some fresh air and have a break
  • Avoiding stiffness and keeping agile
  • To get out with the grandchildren
  • To help with caring activities
  • Helps with tying up my shoes
  • Most likely to be 60 80 years

OHT 4.19
142
Countering the effects of ageing
  • Frailer older people
  • Keeps my mind active
  • Helps with my arthritis
  • Ive always been active
  • Gives me something to do
  • We have a good time together
  • Helps we with my dressing
  • I can get around a bit more 
  • Most likely to be 75

OHT 4.20
143
LEADING OLDER PEOPLE IN SPORT PHYICAL ACTIVITY
  • Leaders should be
  • Trained in areas of physical activity and ageing
  • Able to offer a mixture of fun purposeful
    activities
  • Able to relate meaningfully to older adults
  • Good listeners and empathetic
  • Patient with themselves and others
  • Organised
  • Clear, firm but not authoritarian
  • Trained in CPR able to recognise overexertion

OHT 4.21
144
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PROMOTION OF PHYSICAL
ACTIVITY
  • BASED ON FINDINGS OF HEA STUDY OF PHYSICAL
    ACTIVITY AMONG PEOPLE OVER THE AGE OF 50
  • 1 Media Images
  • 2 change perceptions of activity
  • 3 Reassure people about exertion
  • 4 Provide information around the time of
    retirement
  • 5 Promote activity to men
  • 6 Emphasise non-health benefits
  • 7 Avoid being patronising
  • 8 Promote information via the medical profession
  • 9 Improve facilities
  • 10 Start promoting physical activity to the young

OHT 4.22
145
Aims of a warm up for Older People
  • Gradually prepare mind body for work safely
    effectively
  • Mobilise joints in order to improve joint
    function in the performance of everyday
    activities
  • Promote circulation generate heat
  • Stretch out the muscles as part of activity
    preparation
  • Stimulate CNS facilitating performance
  • Enhance enjoyment motivation by providing a
    relaxed, fun atmosphere

OHT 4.23
146
Aim of cool down for the Older adult
  • To return the body to pre activity state
  • To ensure the cool down is gradual and relatively
    prolonged min 10 mins
  • Allow the HR a longer time to return to
    pre-activity state
  • Avoid getting up and down from the floor
    repeatedly

OHT 4.24
147
Mobilising through walking
  • Can decreases immobility which can cause-
  • Gravitational odema (swelling on the legs)
  • Leg ulcers
  • Skin ulcers
  • Constipation
  • Joint stiffness
  • Muscular wastage
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • - and increases mobility which can improve
  • Circulation
  • Local muscle endurance
  • Range of movement and mobility
  • Co-ordination
  • Balance
  • Gait rhythm
  • Social inter-action
  • Awareness of surroundings and of others

Chart 4.6
148
UNIT 5
  • Principles Practice for Disabled People in Sport

149
Models of Disability
  • Social Model
  • Owned by society
  • Something caused by a negative attitude, planning
    practice of society
  • Preventable solution is to eliminate
    discrimination
  • Prevented through better practice positive
    attitudes that reflect equality of opportunities
  • Medical Model
  • Owned by the individual
  • Something wrong with the person
  • Not preventable solution is to find a medical
    cure
  • Only way to get rid of disability is by making a
    person better

OHT 5.1
150
Terminology Guideline
  • Wheelchair user
  • Learning disability
  • Person who has a physical or learning
    impairment/challenge
  • Disabled people
  • Older person/people
  • Non-disabled person
  • Mental health challenge
  • A person who has Cerebral Palsy
  • A person who has Downs Syndrome
  • Hearing impairment
  • Deaf people
  • Speech impairment
  • Has (the particular condition)

OHT 5.2
151
Preferred Group Terminology
  • Visual impairment visually impaired people or
    blind people
  • Hearing impairment hearing impaired people or
    deaf people
  • Physical impairment physically disabled people
  • Learning impairment people with a learning
    disability
  • Disabled people the preferred term to use when
    describing disabled people as it is based on the
    Social Model of Disability.
  • Impairment the term used to describe a persons
    medical condition such as a visual impairment.
  • Disability Sport sport specifically played by
    disabled people.

OHT 5.3
152
Pathways In Sport for Disabled People
Olympics World Champion
Paralympics world championships
National Champs (non-disabled)
National Champs (disabled)
Junior Development Squad (disab.)
Junior Development Squad
Regional Champs/Squads (disab.)
Regional Champs/Squads
Sports Specific Sports Club (non-disabled or
disabled)
OHT 5.4
Multi-Sports Club (non-disabled or disabled)
Voluntary Sector
School
Youth Service
153
Event Paralympic Records Olympic Records
Archery 72 Arrows men 634 points 684 points
Athletics 100m men 10.72 secs 9.84 secs
200m men 21.89 secs 19.32 secs
Marathon Men Wheelchair
12944 secs 20921 secs
Long Jump 7.17m 8.90m
Shooting Air Rifle Standing 491.3 points 498.2 points
Swimming 100m freestyle men 56.40 secs 48.63 secs
OHT 5.5
154
Communication ConsiderationsPhysically Disabled
People
  • Discuss personal needs and consider adaptations
  • Respect personal space for wheelchair users
  • Talk to wheelchair users in a position
    comfortable to both of you
  • If assisting, ask how the disabled person would
    prefer you to do this
  • Talk to the disabled person themselves and not
    their helper, parent or friend that might be with
    them.

OHT 5.6a
155
Communication ConsiderationsVisually impaired
people / blind people
  • Determine what can be seen (this can vary from
    day to day depending on light, weather and
    environment )
  • Explain who is with them / who you are
  • Describe the coaching area and layout and keep
    them aware of any changes in layout or group
  • Guide people appropriately (see RNIB leaflets)
  • May need to provide information on audio tape /
    large print or Braille
  • Use of tactile demos / guiding. Ask permission
    first tell person what you are doing.

OHT 5.6B
156
Communication ConsiderationsHearing Impaired /
Deaf people
  • Find out if the person uses sign language / lip
    reads
  • Find out if they use a hearing aid
  • Face the person when talking to them
  • Do not shout
  • Do not chew or cover your mouth
  • Use gestures, signs and signals
  • Ensure your face is in good light
  • If stuck write it down
  • Be patient
  • Inform those with impairments what others have
    said
  • May need to impose rules eg raise your hand when
    speaking

OHT 5.6C
157
Hearing Impaired cont..
  • Speak to the person, not interpreter
  • Learn some simple signs
  • Check for understanding
  • Use visual clues to support language or signals
  • Introduce buddy scheme

OHT 5.6C
158
Communication ConsiderationsPeople with a
learning disability
  • Treat people by their age, not their apparent
    level of ability
  • Use simple straightforward language
  • Use gestures and changes in tone and volume of
    your voice
  • Use demonstrations
  • Check for understanding
  • Give time for learning and for skills to develop
  • Repeat exercises in a variety of ways
  • Break down skills into small steps
  • Ask participant for information and only if
    unsuccessful ask their carer

OHT 5.6D
159
Communication ConsiderationsPeople with Speech
impairments
  • Do not pretend to have understood when you have
    not
  • Be patient
  • Do not rush people
  • Do not finish their sentences for them
  • Always ensure understanding - yours and theirs
    before proceeding
  • If after several attempts you are unable to
    understand , then consult a carer

OHT 5.6E
160
Inclusion of Disabled People Into Main stream
Sport
  • Key components of sport include
  • Techniques kicking, hitting, running, throwing
    catching
  • Skills
  • Rules
  • People
  • Tactics
  • Playing Areas
  • Equipment

OHT 5.7
161
The Key Skills would be
  • Throwing
  • Catching
  • Kicking
  • Striking / hitting
  • Moving
  • Travelling

OHT 5.8
162
Different ways of travelling
  • Running
  • Crawling
  • Jumping
  • Rolling
  • Sliding
  • Hopping
  • On 3 Limbs
  • On Backsides
  • Skipping

OHT 5.9
163
Different ways of travelling with a ball include
  • Held in arms or hands
  • Carried on lap
  • Carried on lap tray
  • Held under chin
  • Held in receptacle
  • Pushed along ground

OHT 5.10
164
Different ways of sendingand receiving a ball
  • Sending
  • Bouncing
  • Hitting
  • Rolling
  • Throwing
  • With scoop / ramp
  • Heading
  • Kicking
  • Receiving
  • Catching by hand
  • Catching with a glove
  • Catching with a device
  • Stopping with hands
  • Stopping with feet
  • Stopping with wheels
  • Seated or standing

OHT 5.11
165
Main Categories of Sports Games
  • Sports can be divided up into 4 main types
  • Net / wall games
  • Striking / Fielding games
  • Invasion games
  • Target Games

OHT 5.12
166
A Model for adapting activities
Select The Activity
Adaptation
Set Realistic Goals
Skills Objectives Incidental Skills
Observation Analysis
NCF 1991 OHT 5.13
167
FOOTBALL Adaptations might include
  • Equipment
  • Larger, lighter, softer balls
  • Ball with bell inside
  • Rules
  • Smaller playing areas
  • Playing zones
  • Players
  • Wheelchair users may stop the ball with wheels
    of chair. Players who use rollators, sticks,
    crutches or walking frames can also use these to
    assist in stopping / striking the ball

OHT 5.14
168
HOCKEY Adaptations might include
  • Equipment
  • Larger, lighter balls
  • Balls that are more
  • controllable
  • Koosh balls
  • Ball with bell
  • Larger ball
  • A puck
  • Strapping hockey stick to chair
  • Rules
  • Players can carry sticks on
  • Laps whilst manoeuvring
  • wheelchair
  • Use zones for players
  • All players touch ball
  • before shot
  • Some players cannot be marked

OHT 5.15
169
NETBALL Adaptations might include
  • Equipment
  • Different size balls
  • Ball with bell
  • Different colour balls
  • Lower the ring
  • Alternative scoring system
  • Use flag whistle
  • Rules
  • WCH users can only use
  • one revolution of their wheels
  • Increase holding time for
  • some players

OHT 5.16
170
NETBALL (cont)
  • Playing Area
  • Extra Zones
  • Players
  • Some players cannot be marked
  • Every player must touch before scoring

OHT 5.16
171
NGB Award Schemes
Athletics YES Badminton YES Basketball OPEN Boccia YES Canoeing OPEN
Croquet OPEN Football YES Gymnastics YES Hockey OPEN Life saving OPEN
Netball YES Orienteering YES Rowing OPEN Rugby OPEN Rugby league OPEN
Squash OPEN Swimming OPEN Table Tennis OPEN Tennis OPEN Triathlon OPEN
OHT 5.17
172
BOCCIA
  • Boccia pronounced Botcha
  • Similar to bowls
  • Target group
  • Played individually in pairs or teams of 3
  • Originally designed for people with severe
    impairment, (CP)
  • All players play from a seated position
  • Played locally in schools and clubs, regional,
    national, international, Paralympics Worlds.
  • Played by 30 Countries
  • Estimated 5000 people play boccia in UK
  • NGB British Boccia Federation

OHT 5.18
173
GOALBALL
  • 3 a side game
  • Aim is to score ball by rolling ball along floor
    into opponents goal
  • Developed for visually impaired
  • Played in 87 countries
  • Paralympic sport
  • BBS is the organisation responsible
  • Features which enable visually impaired people to
    play
  • Ball has bell inside
  • Playing court has tactile
  • Markings
  • All players wear eyeshades to ensure everyone is
    equal

OHT 5.19
174
GOALBALL (c
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