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Title: The Twenties 1919-1929 Author: owner Last modified by: Veronica Ramudo Created Date: 1/12/2009 1:55:17 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The

The RoaringTwenties1919-1929
  • Chapter 13

A Booming Economy
  • Chapter 13 section 1

  • At first cars were for rich people
  • 1908 Henry Ford introduced the Model T
  • Cost 850
  • Ford opened a new plant into Detroit and began
    using the assembly line to make cars
  • Before assembly line it took 12 hours to create a
    Model T
  • After assembly line it took 90 minutes to make a
    Model T
  • Fords Assembly Line, one car every 10 seconds
  • 1930 30 million cars in US
  • Prices began to fall for Model Ts
  • Down to 290 by 1927
  • 1927 56 of Americans owned a car
  • http//

  • Ford believed in keeping his workers happy
  • Paid his workers 5 a day
  • More than double what others paid
  • He reduced the workday from 9 hours to 8 hours
    and gave workers Saturday and Sunday off
  • Hoped that workers would buy cars

The Gasoline Age
  • Auto Industry employed 6 million by 1930
  • Supporting industries millions more
  • Steel, glass, asphalt, rubber, wood, insurance,
    road construction, motor hotels (motels)
  • All this produced jobs, and wealth
  • Gas/Oil became huge business
  • Hurt the RaildRoad industry

  • Cars gave freedom
  • A new youth movement began
  • a house of prostitution on wheels
  • Suburbs grew
  • People could live farther from their jobs
  • Deaths increased
  • By 1951 one million dead from cars

The Consumer Revolution
  • New affordable goods became available to the
  • Washing machines, vacuum cleaners, radios,
  • Advertising became big business to sell all the
  • Magazine and newspaper ads
  • Played on peoples wants and fears, not needs
  • http//

  • People began buying all this stuff on credit
  • Good and bad news, why?

The Bull Market
  • People began to heavily invest in the stock
    market during the 1920s
  • Bull Market market rising
  • People began to buy stock on margin
  • Buying on credit
  • 10 down
  • People ignored dangers
  • Buying stock on margin means using leverage to
  • maximize your gain when prices rise.
  • Leverage is simply using borrowed money to
  • your profit

Cities, Suburbs, and Country
  • Cities populations rose during the 1920s
  • People migrated out of rural areas to cities
  • Immigrants went to cities
  • Skyscrapers began to dominate cities
  • Electric elevators and steel allowed this to

City 1910 1930
New York 4,766,883 6,930,446
Chicago 2,185,283 3,376,478
Los Angeles 319,198 1,238,048
Detroit 465,766 1,568,662
  • Suburbs grew as cars became more popular
  • Suburbs tended to draw the middle and upper
    classes (For example Coral Gables is a suburb of
  • Cities started a slow decline towards poverty
  • Farmers did not feel the benefits of the roaring
  • Agriculture prices were dropping, thus farmers
    were becoming more poor

The Business of Government
  • Chapter 13 Section 2

The Republican Old Guard Returns
  • 1921 Warren G. Harding inaugurated as President
  • Promised a return to normalcy
  • What does that mean?
  • Tried to appoint the best minds to his cabinet
  • Some good, some bad
  • Andrew Mellon became Secretary of the Treasury
  • Under Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon, Govt
    spending and taxes were reduced from 1921-1926
  • 1921, 1 million income 663,000 income tax
  • 1926, 1 million income 200,000 income tax
  • Tax burden shifted from rich to middle class
  • Old Guard Republicans returned and began to
    move away from Progressive Era
  • Big business/ laissez-faire government
  • Anti-trust laws practically ignored during
    Harding's administration

  • 1922 Harding signed the Fordney-McCumber Tariff,
    raised tariffs up to 38.5
  • Up from 27
  • High tariffs hurt Europe, who was trying to
    recover from WWI
  • Europe then raised their tariffs
  • Bad for U.S.
  • All good for Germany!
  • Remember A tariff is a tax on imports or
  • exports (an international trade tariff)

The Stench of Scandal
  • Harding Administration had many scandals
  • 1923 Director Charles R. Forbes stole 200
    million from the Veterans Bureau
  • Teapot Dome Scandal
  • 1921 naval oil reserves located at Teapot Dome,
  • Albert B. Fall, Secretary of the Interior,
    convinced the Secretary of the Navy to transfer
    these reserves to his control
  • Fall then leased these reserves to private
    companies, receiving bribes in the process
  • 1923 news about scandal leaked
  • 1929 Fall sentenced to 1 yr in prison
  • Scandal shook public confidence in the government
  • 1923 President Harding died of pneumonia in San
    Fran while on a speaking tour
  • His presidency is remembered as most corrupt
    since Grant

Silent Cal Coolidge
  • Calvin Coolidge was sworn in by his father in the
    middle of the night
  • Very different than Harding
  • Honest, moral, shy, quiet
  • The man who builds a factory builds a temple
  • The chief business of the American people is
  • Believed in the status-quo (the existing state of
    affairs, esp. regarding social or political

  • Coolidge worked to lower taxes, pay the national
    debt, give businesses incentive, and cut
    government spending
  • 6 straight years of huge economic growth under

Frustrated Farmers and Minorities
  • Farmers did great during WWI
  • Hurt bad after war ended
  • Technology helped/hurt farmers
  • Tractors allowed farmers to farm more land, with
    less hired help, faster
  • Increased farm products, thus dropping prices
  • Farmers did not benefit from the booming economy
  • Blacks and other minorities also continued to
  • Coolidge did not feel it was the governments role
    to try to create an ideal society

America Seeks Benefits with out Burdens
  • 1921 US signed separate peace treaty with Central
    Powers (The treaty laid the foundations for a
    U.S.-German cooperation not under the strict
    supervision of the League of Nations)
  • 1921-1922 Washington Naval Disarmament Conference
  • US, England, Japan agreed to slow naval
  • Hoped it would help avoid future wars
  • 1928 Kellogg-Briand (bree AHN) Pact between US
    and France
  • 62 nations signed
  • Only defensive wars allowed
  • Not enforceable
  • America unrealistic and isolationist in 1920s

A Three-Way Race for the White House in 1924
  • Republicans nominated Coolidge
  • Keep Cool and Keep Coolidge
  • Democrats nominated John W. Davis
  • Progressives nominated Robert
  • M. Follette
  • Coolidge won with 382 electoral votes
  • John received 136 and Robert received 13
    electoral votes

Foreign-Policy Flounderings
  • War debt became a huge issue
  • America went from a debtor nation to a creditor
  • The Allies owed USA 10 billion and US wanted to
    get paid
  • England and France said the debts should be
    forgiven since they lost millions of men and US
    didnt, and since all the money borrowed was
    spent on US goods
  • They also complained that the high US tariffs
    made it impossible to make the money they needed
    to pay US back

Unraveling the Debt Knot
  • Allies debts to US forced them to seek high
    reparations from Germany
  • Wanted to use reparations to pay US
  • German inflation got out of control
  • 1924 Dawes Plan adopted
  • Rescheduled German reparations
  • Allowed US loans to Germany
  • Europe was mad b/c we didnt cancel debt
  • http//

US loans to Germany
Allies pay war debt to US
German payments to Allies
Social and Cultural Tensions
  • Chapter 13 section 3

Traditionalism vs. Modernism
  • 1920 census revealed more Americans lived in
    cities than in rural area
  • People in urban areas tended to believe in
  • A more open mind to social change and scientific
  • People in rural areas tended to be more
  • Traditional views on science, religion, and

  • Education made big strides in 1920s
  • More prevalent in the North
  • South didnt have time for book learning
  • More states made high school mandatory
  • 1920s more than ¼ of Americans were graduating
    high school

Monkey Business in Tennessee
  • Many Americans were fundamentalists in the 1920s
  • Bible is literal
  • Major clash between Creation and Evolution in
  • Three states outlawed teaching evolution
  • Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas

  • Scopes Monkey Trial, 1925, Tennessee
  • High School biology teacher John Scopes put on
    trial for teaching evolution
  • William Jennings Bryan a prosecutor
  • Clarence Darrow the defense attorney
  • Massive media attention
  • Scopes found guilty, fined 100
  • The trail made Fundamentalists look silly as most
    other Christians were reconciling evolution and
  • http//

Stemming the Foreign Flood
  • 1920-1921 800,000 immigrants came to US
  • Most from South and Eastern Europe
  • Emergency Quota Act, 1921
  • 3 of nationality could immigrate, based on
    nationalitys population in US in 1910

  • Immigration Act of 1924
  • Lowered to 2
  • Stopped all Japanese immigration
  • Canadians and Latin Americans exempt
  • Mexicans still faced discrimination
  • Immigration basically came to a stop in America

  • KKK re-emerged in 1920s
  • Anti-anything not American
  • US born Protestant from Anglo-Saxon blood were
  • Americans (W.A.S.P- White Anglo Saxon Protestant)
  • Mid 1920s 5 million members
  • What does this say about USA in the 1920s?

The Prohibition Experiment
  • 18th Amendment in 1919
  • Volstead Act passed to enforce the amendment
  • Not a popular law
  • Hard to enforce a law that the majority of people
    dont want to follow
  • Speakeasies formed
  • Underground bars
  • Lots of hard liquor
  • Bootleggers began making their own liquor
  • Some could kill you

The Golden Age of Gangsterism
  • Prohibition gave birth to organized crime
  • Chicago, 1920s
  • Al Capone
  • Alcohol distributor
  • War with rival gangs
  • Bribed police, juries, judges
  • St. Valentines Day Massacre, 1929
  • 7 members of rival gang killed
  • Gangsters moved into other businesses
  • Prostitution, gambling, drugs
  • Merchants paid protection money
  • By 1930 12-18 billion a year income for Mob
  • Way more than the Federal Govt

A New Mass Culture
  • Chapter 13 Section 4

Leisure Time
  • 1850 people worked 70 hours per week
  • 1910 55 hours per week
  • 1930 45 hours per weeks

Hollywoods Filmland Fantasies
  • Silent films
  • Charlie Chaplin
  • One of the first full length films was D.W.
    Griffiths The Birth of a Nation (1915)
  • Hollywood became movie capital of the world
  • Mickey Mouse- First appeared in 1928!
  • 1927 the first talkie came out
  • The Jazz Singer starring Al Jolson
  • Movies became dominate form of entertainment
  • 60 to 100 million people per week
  • Movies helped create an American culture

http// (jazz
The Radio Revolution
  • 1890, wireless telegraph
  • Once voice carrying radio was perfected radio
    became big business
  • Programs, commercials, news
  • Radio changed society
  • Politics, sports, music
  • Phonographs allowed people to listen to songs at

Humans Develop Wings
  • Orville and Wilbur Wright
  • Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
  • December 17, 1903
  • Flew for 12 seconds
  • After WWI the air industry grew
  • Flying circuses
  • 1920 airmail began
  • Charles A. Lindbergh, 1927, Spirit of St. Louis
  • First solo flight across Atlantic, NY to Paris
  • Took 33 hours
  • Huge celebrity after flight and American hero
  • Aviation industry took off
  • Passenger airlines

The Dynamic Decade
  • 1920s was a time of great change in US
  • Women found more work
  • Margaret Sanger began fighting for contraceptives
  • Sex became less taboo
  • Advertisers figured out sex sells
  • The flapper was born
  • Sexually liberated women beholden to no one man
  • Women began to wear shorter skirts, bobbed their
    hair, and wore one piece bathing suits

Late 19th Century
The Dances
  • - The Shimmy
  • - The Charleston

Cultural Liberation
  • After WWI a new generation of writers appeared
    in US
  • Know as the Lost Generation
  • Name was given by Gertrude Stein
  • American poet living in Paris
  • Lost faith in mankind after WWI
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • 1920 This Side of Paradise
  • 1925 The Great Gatsby

  • Ernest Hemingway
  • Part of the Lost Generation
  • WWI vet
  • 1926 The Sun Also Rises
  • 1929 A Farewell to Arms
  • 1961 killed himself

The Harlem Renaissance
  • Chapter 13 Section 5

Moving on Up, to the East Side
  • African-Americans migrated North during WWI
  • Great Migration
  • Found work in major industrial cities
  • Detroit, Pittsburg
  • 200,000 moved to Harlem, NY
  • Became the epicenter for a flowering of
    African-American culture

All that Jazz
  • Some call the 1920s the Jazz Age
  • Jazz music was created by African Americans
  • Moved north during the Great Migration
  • Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith, Duke Ellington

http// (duke)
Marcus Garvey
  • Marcus Garvey
  • Jamaican immigrant to Harlem in 1916
  • Preached Black pride and nationalism and started
    the Back to Africa movement
  • Believed in the separation of the races
  • Founded the United Negro Improvement Association
  • Mid 1920s it has 2.5 million members
  • Arrested for mail fraud and deported to Jamaica
  • Inspiration for the Nation of Islam and the Black
    Power movement in the 1960s

  • The Harlem Renaissance was not just music, but
    also Literature
  • Poems, stories, books, journalists, essays
  • Writers explored the pains and joys of being Black

  • Claude McKay
  • If We Must Die
  • If we must die, let it not be like hogsHunted
    and penned in an inglorious spot,While round us
    bark the mad and hungry dogs,Making their mock
    at our accurséd lot.If we must die, O let us
    nobly die,So that our precious blood may not be
    shedIn vain then even the monsters we
    defyShall be constrained to honor us though
    dead!O, kinsmen! we must meet the common
    foe!Though far outnumbered let us show us
    brave,And for their thousand blows deal one
    death-blow!What though before us lies the open
    grave?Like men we'll face the murderous,
    cowardly pack,Pressed to the wall, dying, but
    fighting back!

  • By Langston Hughes
  • I've known rivers I've known rivers ancient as
    the world and older than the flow of human blood
    in human veins.
  • My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
  • I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young.
    I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to
  • I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids
    above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi
    when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and
    I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the
  • I've known rivers Ancient, dusky rivers.
  • My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
  • 1922

Legacy of the Harlem Renaissance
  • It gave a voice to African American culture and
    changed the way Blacks and Whites viewed African
    American culture (yes..rap/hip hop was inspired
    by the Harlem Renaissance!)
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