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Gender Concept

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Title: Gender Concept


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2
Gender Symbol
Female (left), Male (right). From symbols for
Venus and Mars.
3
Gender Concept
  • Gender, in common usage, refers to the
    differences between men and women.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica notes that gender
    identity is "an individual's self-conception as
    being male or female, as distinguished from
    actual biological sex."
  • Historically, feminism has posited gender roles
    to be socially constructed, independent of any
    biological basis.
  • Many languages have a system of grammatical
    gender.
  • The word gender in English means kind.
  • In Modern French word genre (type, kind) and the
    Greek root gen- (to produce), appearing in gene,
    genesis and oxygen.
  • As a verb, it means breed in the King James
    Bible.
  • The first edition of the Oxford English
    Dictionary (OED1, Volume 4,1900) notes that
    original meaning of gender as 'kind' is already
    obsolete.
  • Gender masculinity or femininity. The use of
    gender to refer to masculimity and feminity as
    types is consided in Modern English from about
    14th century.

4
Gender Concept
  • Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, used the terms
    masculine, feminine, and neuter to classify
    nouns, introducing grammatical gender. Gender
    became attested more widely in context of grammar
    than in making sexual distinction.
  • Gender sexual stereotype. Over 1970s, feminist
    movement took the word gender into their own
    usage to describe their theory of human nature.
  • Earlier gender was used consistent with English
    and its derivation of the root.
  • By the end of the decade, consensus was achieved
    in both theory and terminology. The theory was
    that human nature is essentially epicene (stage
    of loss of gender distinction) and social
    distinctions based on sex are arbitrarily
    constructed. Matters pertaining to this
    theoretical process of social construction were
    labelled as matters of gender.

5
Gender Concept
  • Biology of Gender became subject of studies over
    the late 20th century. One of the earliest areas
    of interest was Gender Identity Disorder (GID).
  • The term "gender role" appeared in print first in
    1955.
  • The term "gender identity" was used in a press
    release, November 21, 1966, to announce the new
    clinic for transsexuals at The Johns Hopkins
    Hospital. It was disseminated in the media
    worldwide and soon entered the vernacular
    (language or dialect).
  • The definitions of gender and gender identity
    vary on a doctrinal basis. Popularized and
    Scientifically debased usages are
  • Sex is what you are biologically
  • Gender is what you become socially
  • Gender Identity is your own sense or conviction
    of maleness or femaleness and
  • Gender role is the cultural stereotype of what is
    masculine and feminine.
  • Causality to gender identity disorder might be
    subdivided into genetic, prenatal hormonal,
    postnatal social, and post-pubertal hormonal
    determinants, etc. There is no comprehensive and
    detailed theory of causality.
  • Gender coding in the brain is bipolar.
  • In gender identity disorder, there is discordancy
    between the natal (birth) sex of one's external
    genitalia and the brain coding of one's gender as
    masculine or feminine.

6
Gender and Social Categories
Freedom from traditional U.S. female Gender Roles
during World War II
7
Gender and Social Categories
  • John Money termed gender role in 1955
  • "The term gender role is used to signify all
    those things that a person says or does to
    disclose himself or herself as having the status
    of boy or man, girl or woman, respectively. It
    includes, but is not restricted to, sexuality in
    the sense of eroticism."
  • Elements of gender role include clothing, speech
    patterns, movement, occupations and other factors
    not limited to biological sex.
  • Social aspects of gender can normally be presumed
    to be the ones of interest in sociology. So, as
    closely related disciplines, gender role is often
    abbreviated to gender in literature, without
    leading to any ambiguity in that context.
  • Most societies have only two distinct gender
    roles male and female and these correspond
    with biological sex.
  • However, some societies explicitly incorporate
    people who adopt the gender role opposite to
    their biological sex, for example the Two Spirit
    people of some indigenous American peoples.
  • In sociological terms they comprise a third
    gender, more or less distinct from biological sex
    (sometimes the basis for the role does include
    intersexuality or incorporates eunachs. One such
    gender role is that adopted by Hizras of India
    and Pakistan. The Bugis people of Sulawesi,
    Indonesia have a tradition incorporating all of
    the features above. Joan Roughgarden argues that
    in some non-human animal species, there can also
    be said to be more than two genders, in that
    there might be multiple templates for behavior
    available to individual organisms with a given
    biological sex.

8
Gender and Social Categories
  • Dynamics of societies mentioned above prompted
    debate over the extent to which differences in
    male and female gender roles are learned
    socially, or reflect biology.
  • Social constructionists argued that gender roles
    are entirely arbitrary, and biological
    preferences and aptitudes are irrelevant.
  • Social constructionism essentialists (the view
    that, for any specific kind of entity, there is a
    set of characteristics all of which any entity of
    that kind must have) argued that gender roles are
    entirely determined by biology, unmodified by
    social adaptations.
  • Both are now rare in the peer reviewed literature
    published by SSSS Society for the Scientific
    Study of Sexuality).
  • Contemporary sociological reference to male and
    female gender roles typically uses masculinities
    and femininities in the plural rather than
    singular, suggesting diversity both within
    cultures as well as across them.

9
Feminism and Gender Studies
  • The philosopher and feminist Simone de Beauvoir
    applied existentialism to women's experience of
    life "One is not born a woman, one becomes one.
    In context, this is a philosophical statement,
    however, it is true biologically a girl must
    pass puberty to become a woman and true
    sociologically mature relating in social
    contexts is learned, not instinctive.
  • Within feminist theory, terminology for gender
    issues developed over the 1970s. In the 1974
    edition of Masculine/Feminine or Human, the
    author uses "innate gender" and "learned sex
    roles",but in the 1978 edition, the use of sex
    and gender is reversed. By 1980, most feminist
    writings had agreed on using gender only for
    socioculturally adapted traits. Trait theory is
    an approach to personality theory in psychology.
  • In gender studies the term gender is used to
    refer to proposed social and cultural
    constructions of masculinities and femininities.
    In this context, gender explicitly excludes
    reference to biological differences, to focus on
    cultural differences. This emerged from a number
    of different areas in sociology during the
    1950s from the theories of the psychoanalyst
    and in the work of feminists.

10
Feminism and Gender Studies
  • A person's sex as male or female has legal
    significance sex is indicated on government
    documents, and laws provide differently for men
    and women. Many pension systems have different
    retirement ages for men or women. Marriage is
    usually only available to opposite-sex couples.
  • The question then arises as to what legally
    determines whether someone is male or female. In
    most cases this can appear obvious, but the
    matter is complicated for transgender people.
  • Different jurisdictions have adopted different
    answers to this question. Almost all countries
    permit changes of legal gender status in cases of
    intersexualism, when the gender assignment made
    at birth is determined upon further investigation
    to be biologically inaccurate.
  • Gneder Assignment, when there are indications
    that genital sex might not be decisive in a
    particular case, is normally not defined by a
    single definition, but by a combination of
    conditions, including chromosomes and gonads.
    Thus, for example, in many jurisdictions a person
    with XY chromosomes but female gonads could be
    recognised as female at birth.

11
Gender and Development
  • Gender, and particularly the role of women is
    widely recognized as vitally important to
    internationalm development issues. This often
    means a focus on gender-equality, ensuring
    participation, but includes an understanding of
    the different roles and expectation of the
    genders within the community.
  • Directly addressing inequality, attention to
    gender issues is regarded as important to the
    success of development programs, for all
    participants. For example, in microfinance it is
    common to target women, as besides the fact that
    women tend to be over-represented in the poorest
    segments of the population, they are also
    regarded as more reliable at repaying the loans.
    Also, it is claimed that women are more likely to
    use the money for the benefit of their families.
  • Some organizations working in developing
    countries and in the development field have
    incorporated advocacy and empowerment for women
    into their work.

12
Gender and God
  • In Taoism, Yin and Yang are considered feminine
    and masculine, respectively.
  • In Christianity and Islamism, God is described in
    masculine terms.
  • In theKabbalh (Jewish mysticism) the Shekhinah
    represents the feminine aspect of God's essence.

13
Gender and God
  • In Hinduism
  • One of the several forms of the Hindu God Shiva,
    is Ardhanarishwar (literally half-female God).
    Here Shiva manifests himself so that the left
    half is Female and the right half is Male. The
    left represents Shakti (energy, power) in the
    form of Goddess Parvati (otherwise his consort)
    and the right half Shiva. Whereas Parvati is the
    cause of arousal of Kama (desires), Shiva is the
    killer. Shiva is pervaded by the power of Parvati
    and Parvati is pervaded by the power of Shiva.
  • This mythology projects the inherent view in
    ancient Hinduism, that each human carries within
    himself both male and female components, which
    are forces rather than sexes, and it is the
    harmony between the creative and the
    annihilative, the strong and the soft, the
    proactive and the passive, that makes a true
    person. Such thought, leave alone entail gender
    equality, in fact, obliterates any material
    distinction between the male and female
    altogether.

14
Gender Approach to Water
15
Our water is better managed when women and men
make decisions together
16
We can be different AND be equal
17
United We Stand and Divided We Fall
18
For Sustainable Water Development, both Men and
Women must be Involved in Decision Making
19
At All Decision Making Levels and Processes, a
Gender Perspective is essential and not
Additional
20
Together We are Stronger
21
Conceptual Framework
  • Equity as goal,
  • Gender Ideology as force,
  • Human Resources as part of Agricultural System
    and
  • Gender Relations (more or less equal) as Outcome.

22
Gender and Water
  • Water resources management should be based on a
    participatory approach. Both men and women should
    be involved and have an equal voice in managing
    the sustainable use of water resources and
    sharing of benefits. The role of women in water
    related areas needs to be strengthened and their
    participation broadened.

23
Gender and Water
  • Why Gender and Water relationship is so important
    in water resources management?

24
Water and Civilization
  • Ancient Civilization in Africa and Asia was
    developed around rivers.
  • River played the most vital role in the
    development of all civilizations.
  • Water and Society was inherently correlated.
  • Water, culture and religion were also
    interrelated.
  • Destruction of old civilization was also due to
    inability of proper water management.
  • In the context of complex inter-sectoral water
    demand, the role of society in water management
    has been felt more intensively than ever before.
  • Only Engineers are not capable to handle the
    problems related with water management in the
    society.
  • Society is to come forward, where social value,
    perception, culture, attitude, social knowledge,
    etc. are the basic indicators, which are to be
    taken into consideration through social studies
    or surveys.

25
WORLD WATER SCARCITY MAP
26
Water Condition in India
  • Indias Water Economy Bracing for a Turbulent
    Future, by John Briscoe, senior water adviser at
    the World Bank.
  • India may run out of water by 2020 World Bank.
  • Unless water management practices are changed
    and changed soon India will face a severe water
    crisis within the next two decades, the report
    says.
  • The implicit philosophy has been aptly described
    as Build-Neglect-Rebuild. Much of what currently
    masquerades as investment in irrigation or
    municipal water supply is, in fact, a belated
    attempt to rehabilitate crumbling
    infrastructure, the report says.
  • Some 90 per cent of Indias territory is drained
    by inter-state rivers. The lack of clear
    allocation rules imposes high economic and
    environmental costs.
  • Sewage and waste water from rapidly growing
    cities have turned many rivers into smelly
    sewers. Climate change projections show that
    Indias water problems are only likely to worsen.
  • Urgent Actions Needed
  • Indias dams can store only 200 cubic metres of
    water per person. Other middle-income countries
    like China, South Africa, and Mexico can store up
    to 1000
  • New infrastructure needs to be built, especially
    in underserved areas such as the water-rich
    Northeast
  • India has used only about 20 per cent of its
    hydropower potential, as compared to 80 per cent
    in developed countries

27
Water Activities in India and Effects in
Bangladesh
  • Farakka Barrage, Ecological Hazards and
    International Dispute
  • Indian River Linking Project and Ecological
    Disasters in Bangladesh
  • Tipaimukh Barrage and Disaster in North-Eastern
    Region of Bangladesh
  • Water Interventions in international rivers from
    India to Bangladesh
  • Any kind of water related activities in the upper
    riparian country is to impact on the lower
    riparian country.
  • Environmental hazards, ecological hazards are to
    lead to social hazards and instabilize the
    society as a whole.

28
BANGLADESH AND RIVER SYSTEM
29
Aral Sea in the Central Asia
30
The Aral Sea after
31
Cross-Cutting Water Thematic Issues
  • Key messages for Gender Inclusions are
  • 1. Womens substantial contribution to
    agriculture needs to be recognized and
    consequently rights to land, water and services
    to be granted.
  • 2. Womens knowledge needs to be tapped for more
    efficient, effective and sustainable NRM
    management.
  • 3. For high water productivity, sustainability
    and poverty reduction policies should be
    supportive to small mix farming systems with
    integrated management of water resources.
  • 4. The future investment in terms of money,
    energy and time should be in institutional
    development, capacity building, policy
    strengthening and stakeholders accountability
    rather than water infrastructure.
  • 5. Water management in agriculture needs to take
    womens and mens interest in domestic water use
    into account, therefore an Integrated Water
    Resource Management approach is preferred.
  • 6. All data regarding agriculture and water use
    need to be collected in a gender segregated way.

32
Water Sectors and Gender
  • Rainwater management in Agriculture
  • Irrigation
  • Groundwater
  • Fish
  • Rice Vegetables
  • River Basin
  • Water Productivity
  • Ecosystems
  • Livestock
  • Water Supply Sanitation
  • Poverty
  • Policy and institution
  • Climate Change, Health and Gender meet

33
  • Most of the literature on gender and water
    highlight the hardship and concerns of women in
    water management in access, control, and use of
    water resources, as well as the ways that water
    affects lives, health, and well-being of men and
    women.
  • Approaches in 1990s were largely to promote a
    package of tubewell installation, latrine
    provision, and hygiene education in order to
    address the water and sanitation (watsan) goals
    of development. Such programs targeted women, due
    to their roles in household hygiene and water
    provision tasks.
  • There is less involvement of women in the stages
    water management involving design/conceptualizatio
    n, technology choices, location, and formation of
    institutions. Women are generally seen as
    rational users of water, who will benefit from
    whatever water options are made available.
  • In studying gender-water relations, it is
    important to look at who does what with which
    type/source of water and why, where, and what
    such relations mean for broader social relations.
    Womens interests in water management are
    generally linked to livelihoods concerns (both
    material and symbolic) and not some natural
    affinity to water.
  • There is the danger of tokenism in the gender
    component of many water projects without real
    attention to gender relations in context.

34
Mark Distribution on Gender and Water
  1. Class Attendance 10
  2. Class Test 15
  3. Class Performance/Presentation 10
  4. Mid Term Exam 25
  5. Final Exam 40
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