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Title: The Effects of Early Human Development on Health, Behaviour, and Learning


1
The Effects of Early Human Development on Health,
Behaviour, and Learning
Meeting on Early Childhood Education
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
By J. Fraser Mustard Founding President Canadian
Institute for Advanced Research and Alfredo
Tinajero The Founders Network
Dec 18, 2009
2
09-029
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research Early
Human Development
  • Population Health Bob Evans
  • 1987
  • 2. Human Development Dan Keating
  • 1993
  • 3. Experience-based Brain and Biological
    Development Ron Barr, Tom Boyce, Marla
    Sokolowski
  • 2003

3
03-080
Experience-Based Brain development in the early
years of life sets neurological and biological
pathways that affect throughout life
Health
Learning (literacy)
Behaviour
4
04-015
Socio-Economic Gradient and Mortality Men UK
140
120
SMR
100
SMR Standardized Mortality Rate
80
60
I
V
IV
III
II
Social Class
5
09-031
The Challenge of the Gradient
Ubiquitous in world countries by income,
education, or occupation. Socioeconomic
gradients in health, behaviour, and
learning. Not easily explained by traditional
risk factors. Possible factor developmental
neurobiology. Gradients in developmental
health are evident very early in life.
Hertzman
6
91-068
U.K. CIVIL SERVICE
Mortality - All Causes
16
Other
Clerical
12
Professional/
8
Executive
Cumulative Mortality
4
Administrative
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
Year of Follow-up
7
03-094
Age Adjusted Odds Ratios
CHD - Whitehall Study
Civil Service Grade
HIGH
LOW
Non-Adjusted
1.00
1.50
Adjusted
Work
1.00
1.18
Risk Factors
1.00
1.30
Fully
1.00
0.95
Marmot, BMJ, 1997
8
09-173
Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease Early
neurobiological development sets pathways that
increase the risk for high blood pressure and
coronary heart disease in adult life.
Barker Robinson, 1992
9
09-034
The epidemiologic observations that smaller size
or relative thinness at birth and during infancy
is associated with increased rates of coronary
heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus,
adiposity, the metabolic syndrome, and
osteoporosis in adult life have been extensively
replicated.
Gluckman et al. 2008
10
00-076
Life Cycle and Health
In Utero and ECD - Barker et al
Adult Life - Marmot et al Stress Pathway Bruce
McEwen
Experience Brain Development Max Cynader -
vision
11
04-006
ECD and Male Adult Health - Sweden
Number of Adverse ECD Circumstances
1
2
4
0
3
Adult Health
Odds - Ratios
General Physical
1
1.39
1.54
2.08
2.66
1
1.56
1.53
2.91
7.76
Circulatory
Mental
1
1.78
2.05
3.76
10.27
Economic, family size, broken family and family
dissention
Lundberg, Soc. Sci. Med, Vol. 36, No. 8, 1993
12
Human Development and Literacy
13
04-147
Developed Countries Life Expectancy Literacy
80
78
76
Life Expectancy at Birth
74
72
70
60
40
100
20
0
80
Percent at Levels 1 and 2
Adult Literacy
OECD
14
96-076
Literacy and SES Gradients for Youth by Province
1994
1
0.5
MN
literacy
AB
score
SK
(adjusted)
QC
0
BC
ON
NS
NB
PE
NF
-0.5
0
1
2
-1
-2
socioeconomic status
J. Douglas Willms, "Literacy Skills of Canadian
Youth"
Atlantic Centre for Policy Reseach in Education,
University
of New Brunswick, October 21, 1996. Prepared for
Statistics Canada.
15
04-200
Early Child Development and Language
Starts early first 7 months neurons
differentiate language sounds (e.g. English,
Japanese) Sets capability for mastering
multiple languages Sets literacy and language
learning trajectory for the second and third
stages of development
16
02-001
Vocabulary Growth First 3 Years
Word Exposure
Vocabulary
1200
High (SES)
Middle (SES)
600
Low (SES)
0
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
Age - Months
B. Hart T. Risley, Meaningful Differences in
Everyday Experiences of Young American Children,
1995
17
04-146
Test of Language Development (TOLD) at Age 9
Correlation between vocabulary growth at Age 3
and language at Age 9.
0.74
18
01-003
Human Brain Development Language and Cognition
Language
Sensing
Pathways
Higher
(vision, hearing)
Cognitive Function
9
0
1
4
8
12
16
3
6
-3
-6
Months
Years
Conception
AGE
C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.
19
07-123
Brain Pathways
Higher levels of brain circuits depend on
precise, reliable information from lower levels
in order to accomplish their function.
Sensitive periods for development of lower
level circuits ends early in life. High level
circuits remain plastic for a longer
period.
Knudsen 2004
20
03-085
Early Development Instrument (EDI)
Physical health and well-being
Social knowledge and competence

Emotional health/maturity
Language and cognitive development
Communication skills and general
knowledge
21
06-149
Vancouver EDI Reading
of Failing
Not Passing
Vulnerabilities Grade 4
Grade 4 Test 0 13.6
17.8 1 26.7 33.9 2-3
29.5 43.1 4-5 48.4 68.3
Hertzman, HELP, 2006
22
New Zealand Education Study Student
Performance at Age 14 Highest
Quartile Lowest Quartile
at Age 5 at
Age 5 Age 14 Age 14
Above Median Below Median Mathematics
87 91 Reading
94 85
NZ Council for Educational Research
23
05-178
Literacy Levels for the Population Ages 16 to 65
USA
Prose
Document
Quantitative
Percent
Level
NALS, p. 17, 2002
24
09-172
Literacy Levels and Wages - USA
800
Prose
Document
Quantitative
600
Weekly Wages
400
200
1
2
3
4
5
Level
NALS, p. 66, 2002
25
05-173
Literacy Levels (Quantitative) and Physical,
Mental or Other Health Conditions USA
Health Problems
Mental or Emotional Problems
Long-term Illness
Percent
Level
NALS, p. 44, 2002
26
04-147
Life Expectancy Literacy
80
78
76
Life Expectancy at Birth
74
72
70
60
40
100
20
0
80
Percent at Levels 1 and 2
OECD
27
DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY
28
08-039
Neurobiology The Brain
Your brain is not just produced by your
genes. Your brain is sculpted by a lifetime of
experiences. The most important time in brain
development is the first few years of life.
Kolb, U Lethbridge
29
08-026
What is experience?
Everything that you encounter both pre- and
postnatally as well as in adulthood Examples
sounds, touch, light, smell, food, thoughts,
alcohol and drugs, injury, disease
Kolb, U Lethbridge
30
04-039
Two Neurons
RECIPIENT NEURON
Axon
Synapse
SIGNAL-SENDING NEURON
Dendrite
31
08-081
All the neurons have the same DNA. How do the
100 Billion neurons in the brain differentiate
for their diverse functions?
32
07-169
Environment Affects Normal Gene Function Nature
and Nurture
Epigenetics MicroRNAs
33
09-160
Methylation of DNA and Acetylation of Histones
Gene switched on Unmethylated cytosine Acetylated
histones
Gene switched off Methylated DNA
cytosine Deacetylated histones
34
05-056
Individual differences in stress reactivity of
the adult are determined by maternal behaviour
during infancy
HIGH LG
LOW LG
Development of Stress Reactivity
Increased Stress Reactivity Increased Risk for
Heart Disease, Type II Diabetes, Alcoholism,
Affective Disorders, Brain Aging, etc.
Modest Stress Reactivity Reduced Risk for
Disease
M. Szyf
35
09-114
Methylation of GR Gene and Behaviour - Rats
100
80
60
Cytosine Methylation
40
20
0
Low Maternal Care
Plentiful Maternal Care
Meaney Szyf
36
09-095
Methylation of DNA Maternal Diet and Phenotype -
Mice
100
Full methyl donor
Thymus
Liver
80
Kidney
Brain
60
Methylation Variant Agouti Gene
Some methyl donor
40
20
No methyl donor
Gilbert Epel, 2009
0
Yellow Fat
Mottled
Brown Thin
37
07-001
Early Experience and Brain Architecture and
Function
Affects gene expression and neural
pathways Shapes emotion, regulates temperament
and social development Shapes perceptual and
cognitive ability Shapes physical and mental
health and behaviour in adult life Shapes
physical activity (e.g. skiing, swimming,
etc.) Shapes language and literacy
capability
38
03-116
THE EVIDENCE FROM EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
39
91-014
HIGH/SCOPE Perry Preschool - USA
Age 3 High Risk Children
Intervention Group vs. Control Group at age 45
Employment - twice as good
High School Completion 1/3 higher
Crime 40 less
Teenage Pregnancies 40 less
Drug Use Substantially Less
40
93-040
Mental Development of Undersized Children
(Low Height for Age) The Jamaican Study
110
children of
normal height
stimulation
supplement
105
develop-
stimulation
ment
100
quotient
supplement
95
control
90
baseline
6 mo
24 mo
12 mo
18 mo
Grantham-McGregor
41
02-068
Growth Retardation and Development
Jamaica
Stimulation and supplements normalized
development by 2 years
Age 11 - Benefits of stimulation still
present but not supplementation
42
08-031
A Natural Experiment Romanian Orphan Adoption
  • Children adopted into middle class homes after 8
    months in the orphanages show at 11 years in
    contrast to children adopted early
  • Abnormal brain development (small brain, low
    metabolic activity, abnormal EEG)
  • Social and cognitive problems (IQ loss)
  • 3. High vulnerability to behavioural problems
    (ADHD, aggression, quasi-autism)

Kolb, U Lethbridge
43
09-009
Bucharest Early Intervention Project Foster
parent care vs orphanage care
The children who were youngest when placed in
foster parent care are approaching normal, a
recovery that sadly does not seem to be occurring
in children first placed in foster care well
after the age of 2.
C. Nelson, The Bucharest Early Intervention
Project
44
04-153
Abecedarian Study Reading
Effect Size
Special Primary Grades
Preschool (4 mths to School)
Preschool Special Primary Grades
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
Age 8
Age 12
Age 15
Age 21
Age at Testing
Campbell Ramey, 2002
45
POPULATION STUDIES
46
02-061
Document Literacy
1994 1998, Ages 16 to 65
Level 1 and 2 Level 4 and 5

Sweden
23
34.0
Canada
42
23.0
Australia
43
17.0
United States
48
18.0
Chile
85
3.0
Mexico
84
1.7
OECD
47
06-114
Socioeconomic Gradients for Adult Document
Literacy Scores (16 to 65)
Mean Scores
350
310
Internl Mean
U.S.
270
Canada
Australia
230
Sweden
Finland
190
Chile
0
3
9
5
7
15
13
11
19
17
Parents Education (years)
OECD, 2000
48
00-042
Sociocultural
360
Gradients for
Cuba
Language
320
Scores
By Country
Argentina
Chile
280
Brazil
Language Score
Colombia
Mexico
240
200
1
4
8
12
16
Parents' Education (Years)
Willms Somers, 2000
49
05-066
Grade 3 Language Scores
Argentina _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Brazil _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Chile _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Cuba _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Mexico _ _ _ _ _ _ _
100
250
300
350
400
150
200
UNESCO, 1998
50
Evolution of Human Development Programs in Cuba

Educate Your Child
Role of Family Doctors
Revolution
1989
1961
1980
1970
1993
1998
2006
2003
UNESCO 1
Polyclinics
UNESCO 2
51
Community PolyclinicsPregnancy to Age 6
Developmental Health (pre and post natal)
Services provided by Community Polyclinics
Nutritional support
Child (Care) Stimulation (Puericultura)
Weekly Home Visits
52
Health and Language Scores
350 330 310 290 270 250 230
90
Language Scores UNESCO First Regional Study
(1998)
80
70
Mortality Rate
Under One Mortality Rate (WHO, 1990)
60
50
40
4th grade Language (UNESCO, 1998)
30
20
10
Dominican Rep.
Honduras
Venezuela
Argentina
Paraguay
Cuba
Chile
Colombia
México
Brazil
Bolivia
Mustard, JF. _at_ Tinajero, A., 2009
53
Health and Language Scores
350 330 310 290 270 250 230
130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
Language Scores UNESCO First Regional Study
(1998)
Under Five Mortality Rate (UNICEF, 1990)
Mortality Rate
Language Scores 4th grade
Dominican Rep.
Honduras
Venezuela
Argentina
Paraguay
Cuba
Chile
Colombia
México
Brazil
Bolivia
Mustard, JF. _at_ Tinajero, A., 2009
54
Association Between Preschool Attendance and
Learning
55
05-009
Grade 4 Fights in School
  • Cuba 0.07
  • Chile 0.25
  • Mexico 0.28
  • Argentina 0.30

Carnoy and Marshall, 2004
56
08-168
CENDI Monterrey, Mexico
Based on elements of Cubas early child
development program (education and health) plus
other components.
57
08-169
EDI Non Cognitive and Cognitive Development age
5 EDI is a macro measure of development at age 5
years (not diagnostic)
58
08-138
EDI - CENDI Monterrey, Mexico
Low Socioeconomic
Status No. Children
Vulnerable CENDI 341
18.2 (centre-based) Informal Care
789 38.0 (home-based)
59
08-046
EDI Canada and CENDI - Monterrey, Mexico
Low on Low on One
Domain Two Domains CENDI 18.5
3.8 (centre-based) (Monterrey) Canadian Sample
25.9 12.9 (120,000)
60
09-174
Government and of GDP on ECD
Parental Preschool
Leave GDP Govt. Ministry
(weeks) Expenditure Canada 52
0.25 Fragmented Finland 44
1.7 Min. Social Affairs Norway 53
1.7 Education Sweden 68
1.9 Education
61
09-097
Document Literacy
1994 1998, Ages 16 to 65
Percentage at
Levels 1 and 2 Levels 4 and 5
Canada 16-25 yrs 34.9 23
26-45 38.1 24.5 46-65 52.6
14.1 Norway 16-25 22 35.7
26-45 24.5 34.3 46-65 46.8
16.5

OECD, 2005
62
02-056
Policies to Foster Human Capital
"We cannot afford to postpone investing in
children until they become adults nor can we
wait until they reach school - a time when it
may be too late to intervene."
Heckman, J., 2001
(Nobel Prize Economics, 2000)
63
08-044
Sweden Education Expenditure
Cost/Student Enrollment Preschoo
l 16,000 75 96 (1-6) Compulsory School
(7-16) 10,500 Compulsory Maternal and
parental paid leave 480 days
64
09-078
Mothers and Others Sarah Hrdy
Unsettling is the finding that 15 percent of
children in normal middle class families exhibit
symptoms of disorganized attachment. (poor
behaviour)
Hrdy, p. 289
65
09-079
With Our Best Future in Mind Pascal report
Recommendation 1 The province should create a
continuum of early learning, child care, and
family supports for children from the prenatal
period through to adolescence, under the
leadership of the Minister of Education.
Pascal, 2009
66
09-080
With Our Best Future in Mind Pascal report
Recommendation 2 The Ministry of Education
should establish an Early Years Division to
develop and implement an Early Years Policy
Framework that will create a continuity of early
learning experiences for children from 0 to 8
years of age.
Pascal, 2009
67
World Health Organization Michael
Marmot Inequalities in Health and
Development Closing the Gap in a Generation
WHO, August 2008
68
08-151
WHO Marmot Commission on Social
Determinants of Health
Chapter 5 Equity from the Start Recommendation
5.1 WHO and UN Childrens Fund (UNICEF) set up
an interagency mechanism to ensure policy
coherence for early child development such that,
across agencies, a comprehensive approach to
early child development is acted on.
69
Recommendation 5.2 The Commission recommends
that Governments build universal coverage of a
comprehensive package of quality early child
development programmes and services for children,
mothers, and other caregivers, regardless of
ability to pay.
WHO, August 2008
70
01-039
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