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Title: A World in Flames Author: Carolyn Elizabeth Bristo Last modified by: Carolyn Bristo Created Date: 4/17/2006 5:44:59 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bell Ringer


1
Bell Ringer
  • On a scale of 0-4 how much do you know about
    WWII?
  • What is one thing you would like to know about
    Americas involvement in WWII?

2
A World in Flames
  • Chapter 24

3
America and the World
  • Wilson intended for democracy to be spread
    throughout the world
  • Instead, the treaty along with the economic
    depression that followed lead to the rise of
    antidemocratic governments in Europe and Asia
  • There are four major anti-democracies that arise
    during this time Mussolini and Fascism in Italy,
    Stalin and Communism in the USSR, Hitler and
    Nazism in Germany, and Militarists in Japan

4
America and the World
  • Benito Mussolini returned from WWI convinced that
    Italy needed a stronger leader
  • In 1919 he founded the Fascist Party
  • Fascists say that the nation is more important
    than the individual, that individualism makes a
    country weak
  • It also believes that a strong government comes
    from a dictatorship that expands territory and
    building up its military
  • Mussolini was backed by Blackshirts, or Fascist
    militia, who defended Rome from Communists
  • The King was persuaded into appointing Mussolini
    as the premier, where he quickly turned Italy
    into a dictatorshipin which he was the dictator

5
America and the World
  • Vladimir Lenin lead the Bolshevik Party by
    uniting the Russian Empire (USSR) and spreading
    communism throughout
  • Lenin established control over these territories
    and instituted one-party rule, suppressed
    individual liberties and punished opponents
  • When Lenin died, Joseph Stalin became dictator
    and killed 8 to 10 million peasants who resisted
    the Communist policies

6
America and the World
  • Adolf Hitler was an anticommunist and an admirer
    of Mussolini
  • Hitler fought for Germany in WWI
  • The Versailles Treaty left him with hatred for
    the Allies and the German government who accepted
    the treaty
  • The political and economic chaos lead to new
    political parties such as the National Socialist
    German Workers Party, or Nazi Partywhich did
    not represent workers but rather focused on
    nationalism and anticommunism

7
America and the World
  • The Nazis tried to march on Munich and then try
    to take Germany by marching on Berlin, the
    capitalHitler was arrested
  • While in prison he wrote Mein Kampf or My
    Struggle which said all German should unite
    under one government and that Germany belong to
    the blond, blue-eyed that were part of the
    master race called Aryans
  • He called for Germany to expand into Poland and
    Russia
  • He believed that Slavic people belonged to an
    inferior race and that Jews were to blame for
    Germanys defeat and the worlds problems

8
America and the World
  • After his release from prison, Hitler changed
    tactics, he went from violence to trying to get
    Nazis elected to the Reichstag, or lower
    Parliament
  • When the Great Depression struck, many Germans
    began voting for radical parties such as Nazis
    and Communists, by 32 the Nazis were the largest
    party in the Reichstag

9
America and the World
  • Many German leaders felt that if they helped
    Hitler into leadership, they could control him
  • In 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor, or
    prime minister
  • Once in power, Hitler ordered Storm Troopers
    (Nazi paramilitary units) to intimidate voters
    away from Socialist and Communist parties
  • By 1934 Hitler became president, renamed it
    fuhrer, and a year later began rebuilding the
    military in violation of the Treaty of Versailles

10
America and the World
  • Economic hardship helped undermine the political
    system of Japan as well
  • Japan was having to import nearly all their
    resources
  • In the 20s Japan didnt earn enough from exports
    to pay for imports, leading to unemployment and
    limited economic growth
  • When the Depression struck, many countries raised
    tariffs making the problem worse
  • Many Japanese blamed corrupt politicians and
    believed that Japan was destined to dominate East
    Asia they also felt that democracy was
    un-Japanese

11
America and the World
  • Japanese officers, acting without the
    governments permission, invaded Manchuria as a
    way to get needed resources
  • The Japanese prime minister tried to end the war,
    but was assassinated by Japanese officers which
    effectively lead to military rule over Japan
  • The military rulers were appointed as prime
    ministers and the nationalist policy was to
    expand the empire

12
America and the World
  • The rise of dictatorships made Americans
    discouraged about the sacrifices they had made to
    get involved in WWI
  • Americans began to support isolationism again, or
    the idea that to avoid going to war, America
    should avoid international commitments
  • These ideas became stronger in the 30s because
    the only debtor nation to repay WWI debts was
    Finland and dozens of books and articles appeared
    arguing that weapons manufactures tricked the US
    into WWI
  • The Nye Committee investigated the USs
    involvement in WWI, finding that arms factories
    made huge profits and made the impression that
    these businesses influenced the US to go to war

13
America and the World
  • Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1935 which
    made it illegal to sell arms to any country at
    war, due to the Spanish Civil War, the US added
    to the act by saying sales to either side of a
    civil war was also illegal
  • During the Spanish Civil War Fancisco Franco lead
    the Fascists against other groups such as the
    Communists
  • Russia supported the communists, Hitler and
    Mussolini supported Franco

14
America and the World
  • Hitler and Mussolini signed an agreement pledging
    to cooperate, creating the Rome-Berlin Axis
  • Shortly after this Japan allied itself with
    Germany by signing the Anti-Comintern Pact,
    requiring the two countries exchange info about
    Communist groups
  • Together Germany, Japan and Italy became known as
    the Axis Powers, although they did not become
    allies until Sept. 1940

15
America and the World
  • With the situation in Europe getting worse, the
    US passed the Neutrality Act of 1937 which
    created a cash and carry policy for all goods
    sold to warring nationsthose nations had to come
    pick up their goods, and pay cash, no loans
    allowed
  • The reason they did this was to avoid going to
    war over attacks on merchant shipsone of the
    reasons the US went into WWI

16
America and the World
  • FDR knew that fixing the Depression was the most
    important problem at the time
  • He was not an isolationist however, he believed
    in internationalism which says that trade between
    countries creates prosperity and helps prevent
    war
  • He did believed that the US should try to
    preserve world peace
  • FDR warned that the neutrality acts may cause us
    to go to war instead of keeping us out, but he
    did not veto them, since the public supported
    neutrality

17
America and the World
  • When Japan launched a full attack on China, FDR
    sent help to China, saying that the Neutrality
    Acts did not apply since neither country
    officially declared war
  • FDR warned the nation that we should not stand by
    and let lawlessness infect the world
  • Americans ignored FDR, refusing to risk another
    war, to which he replied It is a terrible thing
    to look over your shoulder when you are trying to
    leadand find no one there

18
World War II Begins
  • It is not known whether FDR could have negotiated
    peace with Hitler, what is known is that once
    Hitler raised his army, he was bent on conquest
    and many European leaders gave into his demands,
    hoping for peace, rather than trying to stop him
  • Some wanted to avoid a bloody conflict like WWI,
    some thought that Hitler was not being
    unreasonable and others believed that the Nazis
    would be interested in peace once they gained
    more territory

19
World War II Begins
  • Hitler first turned his attention to Austria and
    Czechoslovakia
  • By seizing them he would gain food supplies,
    defensible frontiers, and soldiers for Germany
  • He threatened to invade Austria, but the
    chancellor gave in, which lead to Hitler
    announcing Anschluss, or unification with Germany

20
World War II Begins
  • People accepted Hitler taking Austria, since the
    two countries had so much in common
  • When Hitler went after Czechoslovakia, it was a
    democracy backed by France and the Soviet Union
  • Germany demanded the Sudetenland, part of
    Czechoslovakia, so France said they would fight,
    as did the SU and the British prime minister,
    Neville Chamberlain
  • However, to prevent another war, Britain, France,
    Germany and Italy met in Munich, and decided on
    appeasement, giving concessions to Hitler in
    exchange for peaceCzechoslovakia had to turn
    over the Sudetenland

21
World War II Begins
  • Supporters of appeasement assumed that Hitler
    would be satisfied
  • Chamberlain was buying time for the British army,
    since they were not prepared yet
  • That following March, Germany went into
    Czechoslovakia and broke of the country creating
    Slovakia, a German satellite state, and Czech
    lands a German protectorate

22
World War II Begins
  • After the Munich Conference, Hitler turned his
    sights on Poland
  • He demanded that Danzig, a Baltic Sea port, be
    returned to Germany and that a highway and RR be
    put across the Polish Corridor, which separated
    Germany from Prussia (a German state)
  • This convinced France and Britain that
    appeasement had failed Britain and France
    declared they would help Poland if Germany
    attacked

23
World War II Begins
  • Germany proposed a nonaggression treaty with the
    Soviets, who agreed
  • Stalin believed the way to stay safe was to turn
    the capitalist nations against each other, and
    when Germany attacked, USSR would be safe
  • The Nazi-Soviet pact shocked the world since they
    were supposed to be against each other
  • France and Britain knew that the deal freed
    Hitler for war against Poland, what they did not
    know was that USSR and Germany secretly planned
    to divide Poland

24
World War II Begins
  • On Sept. 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland, on Sept.
    3, Britain and France declared war on Germany,
    officially starting WWII
  • Poland resisted Germany, but the Germans used a
    new type of warfare called blitzkrieg or
    lightening warusing large numbers of massed
    tanks to break through and encircle the enemy,
    then used aircraft and paratroopers to cut supply
    lines
  • On September 27 the Polish capital of Warsaw fell
    and by October 5 the Polish army was defeated

25
World War II Begins
  • Western Europe remained quiet during the
    sitzkrieg, or sitting war (the British called it
    the Bore War, and the Americans called it the
    Phony War) where both sides sat on the defense
    waiting for the other to attack
  • During WWI the French had developed the Maginot
    Line, a concrete barrier on the German-French
    boarder where the French waited for the Germans
  • This allowed the Germans to focus on Poland
    before moving on to France and Britain

26
World War II Begins
  • After Poland, Hitler attacked Norway and Denmark
    before invading France (which only took one month
    for Germany to control)
  • Hitler decided to go around the Maginot Line by
    attacking the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium
  • When Hitler attacked he came through Luxembourg,
    while the British and French expected him to come
    through Belgium, the Germans easily came through
    France, to the English Channel, trapping British
    and French forces in the Belgium

27
World War II Begins
  • The Germans drove the surviving French and
    British troops toward the English Channel
  • The Allies knew they needed to escape by sea, but
    Germany controlled all northern French ports
    except Dunkirk
  • As Hitler closed in on the forces at Dunkirk, he
    ordered them to stop (no one knows why)
  • This gave Britain a three day delay to evacuate
    what they thought would be about 45,000 troops,
    instead everything from warships to civilian
    sailboats rescued 338,000 British and French
    troops

28
World War II Begins
  • The evacuation left a large amount of the
    Britishs supplies at Dunkirk
  • On June 22, 1940 France surrendered in the same
    railway car in which the Germans surrendered in
    WWI, giving Germany most of northern France and
    its Atlantic coastline
  • Hitler then set up a puppet government to run
    France

29
World War II Begins
  • Winston Churchill took Neville Chamberlains
    place as prime minister
  • He declared that Britain would never surrender,
    so Hitler ordered an attack
  • The challenge for Germany was getting to Britain,
    the waters of the channel were choppy and Germany
    had few ships, the British air force would sink
    them
  • Germany knew they had to defeat the air force to
    attack Britain

30
World War II Begins
  • In June 1940, the Luftwaffe, or German air force,
    attacked British shipping, then they launched an
    air battle to take out the British Royal Air
    Force
  • The air battle lasted into the fall, became known
    as the Battle of Britain
  • On Aug. 23 German bombers accidentally bombed
    London, causing rage by the British, who bombed
    Berlin the next night (the first time bombs were
    dropped in Berlin)
  • The British endured the bombing by using newly
    developed radar and hiding in subways when they
    saw German planes coming
  • The British fighters inflicted more losses than
    they suffered, leading to Hitler canceling the
    invasion of Britain

31
  • View of a V-1 rocket in flight, ca. 1944.
  • Aircraft spotter on the roof of a building in
    London. St. Paul's Cathedral is in the
    background.
  • "Children of an eastern suburb of London, who
    have been made homeless by the random bombs of
    the Nazi night raiders, waiting outside the
    wreckage of what was their home."

32
Bell Ringer
  • The American public did not truly take in the
    horror of Adolf Hitlers regime until years after
    the existence of concentration camps was first
    reported in American newspapers. Partly this was
    the fault of the media, which did not give
    prominent placement to news of the Holocaust.
    What other factors do you think contributed to
    the long delay in understanding the Holocaust?

33
Common Board
  • Objective
  • Students will analyze the Holocaust (Hitlers
    final solution), its impact on Jews and other
    groups, and postwar trials of war criminals.
  • Learning Goal/Standard
  • SS.912.A.6.3Analyze the impact of the Holocaust
    during World War II on the Jews as well as other
    groups
  • Essential Question
  • Could the United States have done more to prevent
    the Holocaust?

34
Self-Reflection
  • Its quite possible that you already know a lot
    about the Holocaust.
  • Rate yourself 0-4 on how well you think you know
    it (0 being Ive never heard it, 2 being I know
    some key terms and main ideas, 4 being you could
    teach it)
  • If you are a 0-2 write what you do know about the
    Holocaust and then say what you would like to
    know.
  • If you are a 3-4 what can you do to expand your
    understanding beyond just memorizing facts

35
The Holocaust
  • The Holocaust occurred when Nazis killed nearly 6
    million Jews and millions of other people they
    considered inferior
  • Shoah is the Hebrew word for catastrophe, is now
    used specifically for The Nazi campaign to
    exterminate Jews
  • Once the Nazis took over, they put Hitlers
    radical ideas in place, persecuted anyone who
    opposed them, were disabled, Gypsies,
    homosexuals, Slavic people and Jews

36
The Holocaust
  • In Sept. 1935 the Nazis put the Nuremberg Laws in
    place which took citizenship away from Jewish
    Germans and banned marriage between Jews and
    other Germans
  • Two months later, they defined Jews as anyone
    with at least one Jewish grandparent, and denied
    them from voting or holding office
  • Jews with German-sounding names had to take
    Jewish names, and J was marked on their
    passports
  • Jews found it very hard to live since they were
    not allowed to work anywhere
  • Many Jews refused to move during early Nazi rule,
    not wanting to give up the life they had made,
    also they thought it had to get better soon

37
With a partner
  • Discuss the following Why did people go along
    with things like the Nuremburg Laws?

38
The Holocaust
  • A young Jew killed a German diplomat in Paris as
    retaliation for the treatment of Jews
  • Hitler ordered a staged attacks that made it look
    like a spontaneous reaction to the news
  • The killing spree became known as Kristallnacht
    or night of broken glasswhere 90 Jews died,
    thousands of businesses were destroyed and nearly
    200 synagogues were wreaked
  • The Gestapo, German secret police, arrested
    20,000 wealthy Jews releasing them only if they
    would emigrate and surrender all their
    possessions
  • The Nazis also ordered that the Jewish community
    pay for the damage done during Kristallnacht

39
On a scale
  • Rate how you understand the Nazis goals in
    carrying out Kristallnacht.

40
The Holocaust
  • Many Jews began trying to escape, including
    Albert Einstein and Otto Frank
  • In 1938 the American consulate in Stuttgart,
    Germany received 100,000 applications for visas
  • Many would not receive visas to the US or any
    other country, leaving them stuck in Nazi
    territories

41
With a partner
  • Discuss the following knowing what they knew
    then, did the United States have a moral
    obligation to allow German Jews to immigrate
    here?
  • Why do you think they refused?

42
The Holocaust
  • The idea of allowing immigration in the US was
    not popular for several reasons
  • First, the public feared they would have to take
    care of the Jews since they were not allowed to
    take any wealth when leaving the country
  • Second, other countries were not accepting them
  • Third, unemployment was already high due to the
    Great Depression, and people did not want to
    raise the 150,000 limit allowed in the country

43
The Holocaust
  • Ships still departed with Jews crammed on them
    even though Mexico, Paraguay, Argentina and Costa
    Rica refused to allow Jews with fake documents
  • The SS St. Louis entered Havana, Cuba with 930
    refugees which Cuba refused to take They circled
    off the coast of Florida trying to get the US to
    take them, but the US also refused
  • They returned to Europe where most died in the
    Nazis final solution

44
The Holocaust
  • In Jan. of 1942 Nazi leaders met at the Wannsee
    Conference to determine the final solution of
    the Jewish question
  • Some solutions had included shooting them and
    piling them in mass graves while others said to
    pile them in trucks and pump exhaust fumes to
    kill them
  • At Wannsee the Nazis planned to put healthy
    people to work in concentration camps until they
    dropped dead and put old, young and infirm in
    extermination camps, where they would be gassed
    to death

45
The Holocaust
  • The Nazis established their first concentration
    camp in 1933
  • Buchenwald was the first and largest but had no
    gas chambers, but hundreds died as a result of
    exhaustion and living conditions
  • Most extermination camps were built in Poland,
    including Treblinka and Auschwitz
  • Auschwitz alone housed 100,000 people in 300
    prison barracks the gas chamber killed 2,000
    people at a time and killed 12,000 people in a
    day
  • An estimated 1.6 million died there, 1.3 million
    were Jews

46
On a scale
  • On a scale of 1 4, rate your knowledge of the
    Holocaust.

47
With a partner
  • There have been countless instances of genocide
    throughout history even in the modern day, we
    hear of massive bloodshed as people are murdered
    simply because of who they are.
  • Discuss why you think we pay so much attention to
    the Holocaust in Germany as opposed to other
    instances of genocide? What makes the Holocaust
    so interesting to us?
  • Why is the Holocaust historically significant?

48
(No Transcript)
49
Exit ticket and Assignment
  • Looking back at what you wrote at the beginning
    of the lesson, did you learn something new?
  • If you were already comfortable with the
    material, did you gain any new insight or did any
    of your thoughts change
  • Explain
  • Assignment Continue conducting research for your
    essay that is due on Friday. If finished with
    that, begin working on vocabulary. Your next test
    is April 23rd!

50
Bell Ringer
  • What is significant about December 7, 1941?
  • If you dont know, make your best educated guess.

51
America Enters the War
  • Shortly after the war started, FDR asked Congress
    to revise the neutrality laws
  • Public backed dropping the ban on arms sales to
    warring nations, but isolationists asked for
    weapons to be paid for in cash and shipped on the
    buyers ships
  • FDR gave Britain 50 old destroyers in exchange
    for bases, since there was no sale the
    neutrality acts didnt apply

52
America Enters the War
  • The public supported FDR in his deal, showing a
    change in the public who now supported limited
    aid to the Allies
  • Opinion was not unified though at one extreme
    was Fight for Freedom Committee who urged the
    repeal of the Neutrality Acts and stronger action
    against Germany, on the other side was the
    America First Committee who was strict
    isolationists
  • The election of 1940 showed that the public
    wanted to keep a president they knew

53
America Enters the War
  • After the election FDR stated that Britain fought
    for democracy and we had to help
  • He said that the US and Britain stood for the
    four basic freedoms Freedom on speech, freedom
    of worship, freedom from want and freedom from
    fear
  • FDR came up with the Lend-Lease Act which allowed
    the US to lend or lease arms to any country
    vital to the defense of the USthis opened the
    door to send weapons to Britain
  • By the end, the US had contributed more than 40B
    in supplies to Allies
  • This aide would help the SU as well after Hitler
    violated the Nazi-Soviet pact and Churchill and
    FDR said anyone who fights Nazism will have their
    support

54
America Enters the War
  • FDR still had to figure out how to get the arms
    to Britain, since the US was still neutral
  • He declared the Western part of the Atlantic part
    of the Western Hemisphere, thus neutral allowing
    the US Navy to patrol it and reveal German sub
    locations
  • In Aug. 1941 Churchill and FDR met on warships
    and agreed on the Atlantic Charter which said the
    two leaders would enforce a post war democracy
    for the world, nonaggression, free trade,
    economic advancement and freedom of the seas

55
America Enters the War
  • Churchill had said that FDR was going to force an
    incident to open hostilities with Germany
  • He didnt have to though in Sept. German U-boat
    fired on the American destroyer Greer which lead
    to FDR ordering shoot-on-sight policy toward
    Germany subs
  • Germans retaliated by sinking the Reuben James
    killing 115 sailors and creating a tense standoff
    in the North Atlantic

56
America Enters the War
  • FDRs policies toward helping Britain lead to
    Japans attack on the US
  • When WWII started, Britain had much of their Navy
    in the Pacific protecting its empire
  • FDR started putting economic pressure on Japan to
    keep them from attacking Britain
  • Congress passed the Export Control Act which
    allowed the president to restrict the sale of
    strategic materials (used for fighting a war)
  • FDR blocked the sale of airplane fuel and scrap
    iron to Japan, who retaliated by signing a formal
    alliance with the Axis Powers

57
America Enters the War
  • FDR thought that his aid to China would have
    stopped Japans threat to Britain, but it failed
    so FDR froze all Japanese assets in the US and
    sent MacArthur to the Philippines to build
    defense there
  • FDR said he would lift the embargo if Japan
    withdrew from Indochina and made peace with China
  • Japan decided to attack British and Dutch
    colonies as well as the Philippines and Pearl
    Harbor

58
America Enters the War
  • The thing that finally drew America into the war
    was the attack on Pearl Harbor
  • Japan pretended to go along with negotiations,
    however, US Intelligence recovered Japanese
    communications that made it clear Japan was
    preparing to go to war with the US
  • Commanders at Pearl Harbor received notice that
    Japan was going to attack, but Pearl Harbor was
    not mentioned
  • Lack of communication lead to the devastating
    attack, on December 7, 1941 Japan sank or damaged
    21 ships, 188 airplanes and killed 2,403
    Americans
  • The next day FDR asked Congress for a declaration
    of war which the Senate voted 82-0 and the House
    388-1 in favor of war on Japan

59
  • USS SHAW exploding during the Japanese raid on
    Pearl Harbor,
  • December 7, 1941

60
America Enters the War
  • Hitler did not have to declare war on America
    because of the alliance (that was only if Japan
    was attacked first) but he grew tired of American
    attacks on German subs
  • He assumed the Japanese would easily take out the
    US in the Pacific
  • He hoped that by helping Japan now, he could
    count on them to help with the Soviets after the
    US was defeated
  • On Dec. 11, 1941 Italy and Germany declared war
    on the US
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