Gender and Family - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Gender and Family


Chapter 4 Gender and Family Chapter Outline Understanding Gender and Gender Roles Gender and Gender Socialization How Family Matters: Learning Gender Roles Gender ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gender and Family

Chapter 4
  • Gender and Family

Chapter Outline
  • Understanding Gender and Gender Roles
  • Gender and Gender Socialization
  • How Family Matters Learning Gender Roles
  • Gender Matters in Family Experiences
  • Constraints of Contemporary Gender Roles
  • Gender Movements and the Family

True or False?
  • The only universal feature of gender is that all
    societies sort people into only two categories.

  • In some cultures, there are more than two gender
  • Among some Asian and Native American societies,
    for example, men or women become berdaches.
  • They then live as members of the opposite sex.
  • The Hua of Papua, New Guinea, perceive gender as
    fluid, capable of changing over the individuals
    life span.
  • In other societies, alternative categories (for
    example, the Hjira of India) are socially
    recognized for individuals who are neither male
    nor female.

True or False?
  • Parents are not always aware that they treat
    their sons and daughters differently.

  • Most parents are not aware that they treat their
    sons and daughters differently because of their
  • Although parents may recognize that they respond
    differently to sons than to daughters, they
    usually have a ready explanationthe natural
    differences in the temperament and behavior of
    girls and boys.
  • Parents may also believe that they adjust their
    responses to each particular childs personality.

Gender Roles
  • A gender role is the role a person is expected to
    perform as a result of being male or female in a
    particular culture.
  • Gender-role stereotypes are beliefs that males
    and females, as a result of their sex, possess
    distinct psychological and behavioral traits.

Gender Roles
  • Gender role attitudes are beliefs regarding
    appropriate male and female personality traits
    and activities.
  • Gender role behaviors are actual activities or
    behaviors that we or others engage in as males
    and females.
  • Gender identity refers to being male or female.

Gender Roles and Jobs
  • Even sex-segregated jobs such as nursing and
    firefighting can be performed by either gender.

Gender Differences
  • Men and women are more similar than different.
  • Innate gender differences are generally minimal.
  • Differences are encouraged by socialization.
  • Within any society there are multiple versions of
    masculinity and femininity, one of which comes to
    dominate our thinking about gender.

Bipolar Gender Role
  • The dominant model used to explain malefemale
  • In this model, males and females are seen as
    polar opposites, with males possessing
    exclusively instrumental traits and females
    possessing exclusively expressive ones.

Traditional Views of Masculinity and Femininity
  1. If a person differs from the male or female
    stereotype, he or she is seen as being more like
    the other gender.
  2. Because males and females are perceived as
    opposites, they cannot share the same traits or
  3. Males and females are believed to have little in
    common with each other, and a war of the sexes
    is alleged as the norm.

The Wage Gap by Gender and Race
Year White men Black men Hispanic men
1970 100 69 NA
1975 100 74.3 72.1
1980 100 70.7 70.8
1985 100 69.7 68
1990 100 73.1 66.3
1995 100 75.9 63.3
2000 100 78.2 63.4
2003 100 78.2 63.3
The Wage Gap by Gender and Race
Year White women Black women Hispanic women
1970 58.7 48.2 NA
1975 57.5 55.4 49.3
1980 58.9 55.7 50.5
1985 63 57.1 52.1
1990 69.4 62.5 54.3
1995 71.2 64.2 53.4
2000 72.2 64.6 52.8
2003 75.6 65.4 54.3
Gender Theory
  • The idea that social relationships are based on
    socially perceived differences between males and
    females that justify unequal power relationships.
  • Focuses on
  • How specific behaviors or roles are defined as
    male or female.
  • How labor is divided into mans work and womans
    work, both at home and in the workplace.
  • How different institutions bestow advantages on

Social Learning Theory
  • Emphasizes learning behaviors from others through
    rewards and punishments and modeling.
  • This approach has been modified to include
    cognitive processes, such as the use of language,
    the anticipation of consequences, and observation.

  • Playing dress up is one way children model the
    characteristics and behaviors of adults. It is
    part of the process of learning
  • what is appropriate for someone of their gender.

Cognitive Development Theory
  • Asserts that once children learn gender is
    permanent, they independently strive to act like
    proper boys or girls because of an internal
    need for congruence.

How Parents Socialize Children
  • Four very subtle processes
  • Manipulation
  • Channeling
  • Verbal appellation
  • Activity exposure

Childhood Gender Socialization
  • Generally, daughters are given more
    responsibilities than are sons.

Gender Role Socialization
  • Parents, teachers, and peers are important agents
    of socialization during childhood and
  • Ethnicity and social class also influence gender

Traditional Male Roles
  • Emphasis is on dominance and work, whether for
    whites, African Americans, Latinos, or Asian
  • A mans central family role has been viewed as
    being the provider.
  • For women, there is greater role diversity
    according to ethnicity.

Contemporary Male Gender Roles
  • As contemporary male gender roles allow
    increasing expressiveness, men are encouraged to
    nurture their children.

Traditional Female Roles
  • Among middle-class whites the emphasis is on
    being a wife and mother.
  • Among African Americans, women are expected to be
    instrumental there is no conflict between work
    and motherhood.
  • Among Latinos, women are deferential to men
    generally from respect rather than subservience
    elders, regardless of gender, are afforded

Changes Affecting Contemporary Gender Roles
  • Acceptance of women as workers and professionals.
  • Increased questioning of motherhood as a core
    female identity.
  • Greater equality in marital power.
  • Breakdown of the instrumental/ expressive
  • Expansion of male family roles.

Limitations of Contemporary Gender Roles Men
  • The provider role limits mens father and husband
  • Difficulty in expressing feelings.
  • A sense of dominance that precludes intimacy.

Limitations of Contemporary Gender Roles Women
  • Diminished self-confidence and mental health.
  • Association of femininity with youth and beauty
    creates a disadvantage as women age.
  • Ethnic women may suffer both racial
    discrimination and gender-role stereotyping,
    which compound each other.

Difficulties in Changing Gender-role Behavior
  • Each sex reinforces the traditional roles of its
    own and the other sex.
  • We evaluate ourselves in terms of fulfilling
    gender-role concepts.
  • Gender roles have become an intrinsic part of
    ourselves and our roles.
  • The social structure reinforces traditional roles.

Social Movements Dedicated to Changing Gender
  • Gender-reform feminism
  • Gender-resistant feminism
  • Movements designed to emphasize how gender
    overlaps with other bases of oppression, like
    age, race or class.
  • Profeminist mens movements
  • Most current mens movements attempt to reconnect
    men with families.
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