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Boosting Student Success Amidst the State-to-Student Cost Shift in Financing Public Higher Education

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Title: Boosting Student Success Amidst the State-to-Student Cost Shift in Financing Public Higher Education


1
Boosting Student Success Amidst the
State-to-Student Cost Shift in Financing Public
Higher Education
2011 Higher Education Government Relations
Conference December 2, 2011
Aaron Thompson Senior Vice President for Academic
Affairs Kentucky Council on Postsecondary
Education
2
Unraveling the Issue
  • The focus of the future of postsecondary
    education is complex and one that is
    misunderstood by traditional students,
    non-traditional students, colleges, and
    universities.

3
Increased Enrollment
  • Substantial enrollment growth for students of all
    ages and backgrounds has taken place.
  • The focus must be on student success and not just
    access.

4
Total undergraduate enrollment in degree-granting
postsecondary institutions increased from 7.4
million students in fall 1970 to 13.2 million in
fall 2000 and 17.6 million in fall 2009.
Source National Center for Education Statistics
Condition of Education 2011
5
Increased Enrollment
  • Between 2003 2004, enrollment increased by more
    than 17 in programs that require less than two
    years, 22 in two-four year programs, and 14 in
    programs requiring four or more years.
  • A significant number of these students are
    minorities.

6
The percentage of high school graduates
immediately enrolling in postsecondary education
by race/ethnicity and income.
Source National Center for Education Statistics
Condition of Education 2011
7
Percentage of Enrollment in degree-granting
institutions, by race/ethnicity Selected years,
fall 19762009
Source National Center for Education Statistics
Condition of Education 2011
8
College Completion has been elevated to the
National Agenda
Twenty years ago, the U.S. had the best educated
population in the world. In 2009, we were tenth.
Now our nation is tied for twelfth in the world
and declining.
Increasing educational attainment is imperative
for the economic recovery and future economic
growth of the nation. The Obama administrations
higher education agenda is focused on increasing
college completion and returning America to its
previous position of having the most educated
population in the world by 2025.
9
Percentage of population that has attained
postsecondary education by age group (2009)
10
Student Success
  • For-profit colleges have addressed the need of
    access, yet there are great strides to be made in
    the area of student success.
  • What about the Publics?

11
Student Success
  • The number of degrees conferred by for-profit
    institutions increased at a faster rate than in
    non-profit institutions.
  • For-profit institutions awarded 5 of all
    bachelors degrees in 2008-2009 and 10 of all
    masters degrees.

12
Student Success
  • Retention and graduation rates are lower at
    four-year, for-profit colleges compared to
    non-profit colleges.
  • However, two-year, for-profit colleges saw higher
    retention rates than their non-profit
    counterparts.

13
For Profit vs. Non-Profit Schools
Non-Profit Schools For-Profit Schools
Type of Education Academic/Research Oriented Technical/Vocational
Type of Programs Associate Doctoral Associate Doctoral with the ability to rapidly implement programs in critical areas such as IT and healthcare
Length of Program In-classroom education can take years but online coursework can accelerate program completion Flexibility in scheduling that allows students to complete programs faster graduation rates are typically lower than non-profits
Costs Varying costs with state schools typically costing less than private schools More expensive than non-profits
14
Percentage of Certificate /Associate Degree
Earned by Race/Ethnicity
Source National Center for Education Statistics
Condition of Education 2011
15
Percentage of Bachelors Degree Attainment by
Race/Ethnicity
Source National Center for Education Statistics
Condition of Education 2011
16
Percent Who Took Remedial Courses by Number of
Courses and Race/Ethnicity 2007-2008
17
  • WHAT MAKES A STUDENT SUCCESSFUL?

18
Research-Based Principles of College Success
  • Research on human learning and student
    development indicates four powerful principles of
    college success (Cuseo, Fecas Thompson, 2010)
  • Active Involvement
  • Use of Campus Resources
  • Interpersonal Interaction and Collaboration and
  • Personal Reflection and Self-Awareness (Astin,
    1993 Kuh, 2000 Light, 2001 Pascarella
    Terenzini, 1991, 2005 Tinto, 1993).

19
Active Involvement
  • Research indicates that active involvement may be
    the most powerful principle of human learning and
    college success (Astin, 1993 Kuh, 2000).
  • Involves the following pair of processes
  • The amount of personal time devoted to learning
    in the college experience
  • The degree of personal effort or energy (mental
    and physical) put into the learning process.

20
Interpersonal Interaction and Collaboration
  • Four particular forms of interpersonal
    interaction have been found to be strongly
    associated with student learning and motivation
    in college
  • Student-faculty interaction
  • Student-advisor interaction
  • Student-mentor interaction
  • Student-student (peer) interaction

21
Interaction with Faculty Members
  • Studies repeatedly show that college success is
    influenced heavily by the quality and quantity of
    student-faculty interaction outside the
    classroom. Such contact is positively associated
    with the following positive outcomes for college
    students
  • Improved academic performance
  • Increased critical thinking skills
  • Greater satisfaction with the college experience
  • Increased likelihood of completing a college
    degree and
  • Stronger desire to seek education beyond college
    (Astin, 1993 Pascarella Terenzini, 1991,
    2005).

22
And good state Policy
23
What can be done at a policy level to increase to
Student Success
  • There are many but two foci could jump start the
    process 1) Gap Closing and 2) the adult learner
  • i.e., Gap differential in college completion
    for underprepared, underrepresented, and low
    income
  • Adult learner citizens 25-64 yrs. of age with
    some some college but no baccalaureate degree

24
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25
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28
Students and Remedial Courses
  • One third of first year students entering college
    in the 2007-2008 academic year enrolled in at
    least one remedial course.
  • For community colleges, the number increases to
    42.

29
Students and College Readiness
  • In October 2009, the Department of Education
    reported that many states declare students have
    grade-level mastery in reading and math when this
    is not the case.
  • A 2007 ACT National Curriculum Survey of college
    professors found that 65 of college professors
    maintain their states poorly prepare students for
    college-level coursework.

30
Students and Remedial Courses
  • One third of first year students entering college
    in the 2007-2008 academic year enrolled in at
    least one remedial course.
  • For community colleges, the number increases to
    42.

31
Students and College Readiness
  • In October 2009, the Department of Education
    reported that many states declare students have
    grade-level mastery in reading and math when this
    is not the case.
  • A 2007 ACT National Curriculum Survey of college
    professors found that 65 of college professors
    maintain their states poorly prepare students for
    college-level coursework.

32
Student Engagement
  • Research shows that students who are academically
    underprepared are more engaged with their college
    experience than their academically prepared
    peers.
  • Students who are academically underprepared are
    more likely to discuss career plans, work
    harder, prepare multiple drafts of a paper before
    submission, and write more papers and reports.

33
  • In the U.S., more than 59 million people, or 30
    percent of the adult population, are untouched by
    postsecondary educationand in 35 states, more
    than 60 percent of the population does not have
    an associates degree or higher.
  • Over 26 million adults in the U.S. currently have
    no high school diploma, more than 32 million have
    not ? attended college and are earning less than
    a living wage, and over 8 million have not
    attended college and speak little or no English.
    Overlaps among these populations are substantial.
    For example, more than three million individuals
    have all three of these characteristics they do
    not have a high school diploma, they earn less
    than a living wage, and they speak little or no
    English.
  • Council for Adult and Experiential Learning
    (CAEL), with funding from Lumina Foundation for
    Education and in partnership with the National
    Center for Higher Education Management Systems
    (NCHEMS), 2008

34
  • Affordability Community college attendance is
    relatively affordable for the nations adults,
    but private college attendance is likely out of
    reach for many. Average tuition and fees at a
    public community college constitute 7 percent of
    median income for the poorest 25- to 44-year-olds
    and 5.4 percent of median income for the poorest
    45- to 64-year-olds. Public four year college
    tuition and fees constitute 19.5 percent of
    median income for the poorest 25- to 44-year-olds
    and 15 percent of median income for the poorest
    45- to 64-year-olds. In contrast, private college
    tuition and fees constitute more than 70 percent
    of median income for the poorest 25- to 44-
    year-olds and more than 54 percent of median
    income for the poorest 45- to 64-year-olds.
  • States vary widely in their support for part-time
    students. Seventeen states do not provide any
    need-based aid to part-time students, and another
    eighteen states devote less than 10 percent of
    need-based aid funds to part-timers. But nine
    states devote between 10 percent and 20 percent
    of need-based aid to part-time students and six
    devote more than 20 percent of need-based aid
    funds to this group.
  • Council for Adult and Experiential Learning
    (CAEL), with funding from Lumina Foundation for
    Education and in partnership with the National
    Center for Higher Education Management Systems
    (NCHEMS), 2008

35
  • Accessibility Nontraditional studentsfor
    example, those who have delayed enrollment in
    postsecondary education, work full-time while
    enrolled, or have dependents other than a
    spousewere more likely than traditional students
    both to participate in distance education and to
    be in programs available entirely through
    distance education.
  • Council for Adult and Experiential Learning
    (CAEL), with funding from Lumina Foundation for
    Education and in partnership with the National
    Center for Higher Education Management Systems
    (NCHEMS), 2008

36
  • Kentucky has approximately half a million
    working-age adults who have been to college but
    not received a bachelors degree.
  • There are about 400,000 working-age adults who do
    not have a high school diploma or GED.
  • Policy initiative Project Graduate started in
    2007 (focused on KY citizens who had 90 college
    credit hours or more) and has graduated
    approximately 700 students.

37
Increased Enrollment for Adult Learners
  • The most dramatic growth in undergraduate
    enrollment during the first decade of the 21st
    century has occurred at for-profit colleges.
  • For-profit institutions are more likely to enroll
    students age 25 and older and in distance
    education such as online learning.
  • Nearly 1 in 5 students enrolled in for-profit
    institutions are enrolled entirely in distance
    education.

38
Adult Learners
  • There was a 20 increase in postsecondary
    education of working age populations between 1990
    2007.
  • The number of adult learners is expected to
    increase 13 between 2010 2020.

39
Adult Learners
  • Looking for convenience and support during their
    college experience
  • Approximately 70 of adult learners are pursuing
    a college degree approximately 30 of them are
    full time (Noel Levitz).

40
Non-traditional students have become the
traditional student in postsecondary education
41
Student Needs
  • Online learning
  • Credit for prior learning
  • Digital text
  • 24/7 advising
  • Transfer pathways from certificate to
    baccalaureate
  • Move on when ready curriculum
  • Flexible financing options
  • High touch
  • Etc.

42
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Pre-College
  • Improve academic preparation for college
  •  
  • Encourage students to take a rigorous college
    preparatory high school curriculum.
  • Provide learning support to complete challenging
    coursework.
  • Provide greater access to rigorous to college
    preparatory courses with well prepared teachers.
  • Develop a strong college going culture in their
    high schools with adequate support from
    well-trained counselors and teachers.
  •  

43
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Pre-College
  • Improve college planning
  • Provide college planning programs beginning in
    middle schools.
  • Incorporate career education and college planning
    information in middle and high school
    curriculums.
  • Host college and career fairs in middle and high
    schools.
  • Host admission and financial information sessions
    for students and parents.
  • Provide resources on career, college and
    financial aid information.
  • Promote college planning websites and resources
    designed for students and parents.
  • Provide for opportunities for college tours and
    other college planning exercises.

44
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Pre-College
  • Improve financial planning information
  • Provide additional financial aid through
    increases in grant aid from institutional, state
    and federal sources by shifting aid away from
    merit aid at the institutional and state level.
  • Host workshops for students and their parents
    about the financial aid process and on filling
    out the FAFSA such as College Goal Sunday.
  • Provide greater assistance in covering unmet
    financial need such as through the use of
    expanded work study programs.
  • Provide greater assistance to independent
    students for child care and living expenses.
  •  

45
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Transitional Programming
  • Encourage enrollment in Dual Credit Programs.
  • Higher education and P-12 working together to
    provide transition courses to remediate students
    before college entrance
  • Provide early intervention through bridge
    programs.
  • Pre-enrollment orientation.
  • Provide early advising by college and university
    faculty and staff.
  • Create special mentoring programs for at risk
    populations.
  • Provide an academic plan that shows the pathway
    from high school to a two-year college and then
    to a four-year college or from high school to a
    four-year college.

46
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Freshmen Year
  • Provide both academic and social new student
    orientation programs.
  • Provide a parent orientation program.
  • Provide a freshmen seminar or first year
    transition course for credit.
  • Provide learning communities through residential
    programming or through common paired course
    enrollments.
  • Provide freshmen interest Groups.
  • Provide Service Learning opportunities.
  • Host a Student Government and Student
    Organization and Activities Fair.
  • Provide effective developmental education
    programming to address shortcomings in
    preparation.

47
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Advising Support
  • Provide intrusive academic advising program for
    freshmen and at risk students that promotes the
    development of academic goals and provides
    students with the tools and support to achieve
    those goal.
  • Provide assessments for academic course
    placement.
  • Provide an on campus advising center.
  • Provide an early warning alert program with
    counseling staff to work with students.
  • Provide student development and counseling
    centers for assistance with mental health and
    personal counseling.
  • Provide career counseling and development center.
  • Provide diagnostic assessments for motivation,
    values and vocational interests.
  • Help students to develop an academic plan for
    their major of the courses needed to graduate.
  •  

48
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Academic Supports
  • Provide resources such as the university catalog,
    schedule of classes and student handbook.
  • Learning communities.
  • Tutoring Programs
  • Supplemental instruction programs.
  • Writing Center Lab.
  • Mathematics Center Lab.
  • Reading Center Lab.
  • Organized study groups.
  • Require Library Orientation.
  • Offering additional opportunities for work-study
    to increase the amount of students spend on
    campus while meeting their financial needs.

49
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Social Supports
  • Residence Hall programming
  • Recreation and intramurals
  • Academic Clubs
  • Diversity Activities
  • Cultural Activities
  • Leadership Programs
  • Fraternities/Sororities
  • Mentoring Programs
  • Peer
  • Faculty
  • Staff
  • Alumni or Community Member

50
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Programs targeted for sub populations
  • Adult Students
  • Commuter Students
  • Women
  • Gay/lesbian/bisexual/transgendered students
  • Racial / ethnic minorities
  • Honor students
  • Athletes

51
Success Framework for Closing the Gaps
  • Transfer Students
  • Provide transfer centers and counseling for
    transfer students.
  • Provide an academic program plan from the
    community college through the four year
    university program.
  • Provide a transfer orientation program.
  • Provide financial counseling and financial aid in
    the form of transfer scholarships and work study
    opportunities.
  • Expanding financial aid programs for part-time
    students and provide additional resources for
    childcare and living expenses to promote
    persistence.
  • Examples of KY policy initiatives for
    transfers
  • The Council on Postsecondary Education and Chief
    Academic Officers from public institutions
    fostered an aggressive transfer action plan for
    KY.
  • HB 160

52
Access to Success Initiative (A2S) Closing the
Gap
  • Kentucky is one of nearly two dozen public
    postsecondary systems that are participating in
    the NASH Access to Success Initiative (A2S).
    Kentucky is participating in the Closing the Gap
    initiative which advocates the following
    strategies to increase student success.
  •  
  • An early assessment program between postsecondary
    institutions and local area high schools to
    improve students college-readiness. As part of
    the program postsecondary institutions administer
    a college placement test to high school juniors
    and then provides assignments and other support
    in the senior year to prepare students for
    college-level coursework.
  • Institutions to focus resources on the first
    year of college, when half of all dropouts leave,
    by implementing programs aimed at easing
    students transition to academic life. Programs
    such as summer bridge, freshmen orientation,
    and learning communities help students acquire
    the skills they need to succeed in college.

53
Access to Success Initiative (A2S) Closing the
Gap
  • Institutions to improve teaching in gate
    keeping remedial and introductory courses.
    Hundreds of colleges and universities nationwide
    have redesigned these courses, using the proven
    technology-driven approach developed by the
    National Center for Academic Transformation.
    Others have added peer-led supplemental
    instruction.
  • Institutions to closely monitor student progress
    through intrusive advising programs and early
    warning systems that connect students with the
    support services they needtutoring, study
    skills, and counselingto get back on track with
    their studies.
  • Institutions to target institutional grant aid to
    meet the full financial need of low-income
    students first and foremost rather than using
    scarce resources as merit aid to attract students
    who would attend college regardless and graduate
    without the aid.

54
Access to Success Initiative (A2S) Closing the
Gap
  • Require that institutions review their own
    academic and other policies to see if any of them
    contribute to high dropout rates. For example,
    lax policies about how many times students can
    repeat courses, when students can declare and
    change majors, and when students must take
    remedial courses.
  • Require institution to create or improve programs
    that ease the transition to college through
    first-year orientation, intrusive advising and
    special first year courses.
  • Consider increasing financial security for
    underserved student groups through supplemental
    aid and other support programs.
  • Create early warning programs and intervention
    for students the university deems likely to
    experience academic problems.
  • Providing ongoing intentional advising and
    continued academic support for students
    throughout their college years.

55
Copy of References provided upon
request Aaron.thompson_at_ky.gov
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