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19th Century National Trends 1820


19th Century National Trends 1820 s -1860 s During the 1st half of the 19th Century, the United States extended the franchise, experienced the Jacksonian Era ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 19th Century National Trends 1820

19th Century National Trends1820s -1860s
  • During the 1st half of the 19th Century, the
    United States extended the franchise, experienced
    the Jacksonian Era, experienced westward
    expansion through movement and war, saw the rise
    of sectional interests, and also experienced the
    increased participation in state and national
    politics through reform and a national crisis.

Three Major Topics
  • Part I Changes in political democracy following
    the War of 1812.
  • Part II 19th Century Territorial Expansion
  • Part III 19th Century Reform and Crisis

The Supreme Court under Chief Justice John
  • Marbury v. Madison established the principle of
    Judicial Review.
  • McCulloch v. Maryland The court ruled that
    Maryland or any state does not have the power to
    tax a federal agency or any federal property.
    This also established the doctrine of implied
    powers of Congress and upheld the Bank of the
    United States.
  • Gibbons v. Ogden the Court strengthened powers
    of Congress and the Federal government to
    regulate the economy and interstate commerce.

Presidential Election of 1824
  • Republican Party was split with four men seeking
    to succeed James Monroe.
  • 1. Henry Clay
  • 2. John Quincy Adams
  • 3. William Crawford
  • 4. Andrew Jackson

Corrupt Bargain-election of 1824
  • Jackson received the popular vote and the most
    electoral votes, but did not have a majority.
  • Election was decided
  • in the House of Representatives.
  • Clay gave his support to Adams, and John Quincy
    Adams became the President.
  • When, Clay was named Secretary of State, Jackson
    supporters accused Adams and Clay of making a
    corrupt bargain.

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Election of 1828
  • Jackson , Old Hickory and his followers called
    themselves the Democratic Republicans ( later
    Democrats) and began an aggressive campaign for
    the election of 1828.
  • Jackson personified a new democratic spirit in
    America. He challenged the economic elite and
    promised the end of aristocratic rule.

Jackson- President in 1828
  • Jackson won a landslide victory in 1828.
  • Age of the Common Man- Changes in voting new
    states had provided universal white male
    suffrage, old states withdrew property
    qualifications, and for the first time-delegates
    from states selected candidates for President at
    nominating conventions.

Age of the Common Man
  • For the first time in American politics, the
    average person felt they had a say in their
  • Thousands of frontiersmen swarmed to DC for the
    inauguration of Jackson.

Jacksonian Democracy
  • When Jackson became President in 1829, he
    employed the spoils system
  • he removed aristocratic government employees from
    public government jobs and replaced them with
    his campaign supporters.

  • This was a political cartoon representing the
    Spoils System as employed by Andrew Jackson.

  • During this time, the Federalist Party
    disappeared and new political parties, the Whigs
    and the Know-Nothings, were organized in
    opposition to the Democratic Party.

  • 1. What four candidates ran for the Presidency in
  • 2. Who became President in 1824?
  • 3. Why did supporters of Jackson call the
    Presidential election of 1824 the Corrupt

  • 4. Who was elected President in 1828?
  • 5. In regard to changes in voting, why was the
    election of 1828 called the Age of the Common
  • 6. What was the Spoils System?

Indian Removal Act
  • In 1830, at Jacksons request, Congress passed
    the Indian Removal Act
  • It required the removal of Southeastern
    Indians from their homelands to the new Indian
    Territory west of the Mississippi, or present day

  • From 1830 to 1838, almost all Indian Tribes were
    forced from the Atlantic Coast areas to Oklahoma
    or other reservations. Most were known as the
    Five Civilized Tribes- Cherokee, Creek,
    Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw.
  • The forced journey of over 15,000 Cherokees in
    1838, in which over one fourth died of hardship,
    disease, sickness, and starvation, is known as
    the Trail of Tears.

Trail of Tears
Routes to Oklahoma
  • 7. What was the main provision of the Indian
    Removal Act of 1830?
  • 8. What was the Trail of Tears?

Bank War
  • Jackson also opposed the Bank of the United
    States ( BUS)
  • When the Bank came up for recharter in 1832,
    Jackson used Presidential veto power to veto the
    recharter bill.
  • This was the first time a President used the
    veto power to veto a bill not based on
    constitutional grounds.
  • Thus, from then on, a President had the right to
    veto any legislation for any reason.

  • When Jackson also won an overwhelming victory in
    1832 against the National Republican Party (later
    the Whig Party), he took it as a sign to
    completely destroy the BUS.
  • He withdrew all federal funds from the BUS and
    deposited them in state banks.

Panic of 1837
  • However, reckless land speculation, state bank
    failures, dissatisfaction with state banks as
    depositories for federal funds, and unemployment
    led to an economic depression in 1837, known as
    the Panic of 1837.
  • In addition, Jackson issued an executive
    order, the specie circular, requiring any
    payment for public lands must be in gold or
    silver, or in currency backed by gold or silver.
    This contributed to the economic depression,
    which lasted for about five years, the worst in
    US History up to that time.

  • Because Jackson acted as a strong executive
    President, enemies of Jackson began to call him
  • King Andrew
  • Look for negative characteristics.

  • What does this picture represent?

Issues Dividing America
  • Sectional tensions were caused by competing
    economic interests
  • The West and Northeast supported high tariffs
    the US government would use the money to pay for
    internal improvements in the West and high tariff
    would protect Northeastern manufactures.
  • The South opposed high tariffs, because they
    wanted cheaper imports and could sell cotton

  • A declining economy in South Carolina led many
    Carolinians to blame their problems on the Tariff
    of 1828-they called the unfair tariff the
  • Tariff of abominations
  • When the newly proposed Tariff of 1832 offered
    South Carolina no relief, South Carolina voted to
    nullify the tariff, or refuse to collect the
    required duties in the state, and threatened to
    leave the Union.

  • Jackson claimed the nullification of federal
    laws was treason.
  • Jackson sent federal troops to forts in SC
    and a warship to Charleston.
  • Violence seemed possible!
  • Finally, the crisis was averted with a
    compromise that tariffs would gradually be

Martin Van Buren
  • When Jacksons hand picked successor, Martin Van
    Buren, won the Presidential election of 1836 the
    nation faced an economic crisis The Panic of
  • Van Buren did little to
  • solve the problem.

Election of 1840- election of William Henry
  • A new political party, the Whigs, selected the
    popular William Henry Harrison as their candidate
    for President.
  • Harrison defeated Van Buren, as people hoped
    he could end the depression.
  • However, Harrison died after one month in
    office. The VP, John Tyler became President.
  • End Part One

  • 9. How did Jackson eventually destroy the Bank
    of the United States (BUS)?
  • 10. Why did opponents of Jackson call him King
  • 11. What was the nullification crisis?
  • 12. What caused the Panic of 1837?

  • 13. What Supreme Court case strengthened the
    powers of Congress and the federal government to
    regulate the economy and interstate commerce?
  • 14. What Supreme Court case established the
    principle of Judicial Review or that the Supreme
    Court has the authority to determine if state or
    federal laws are constitutional or not?
  • 15. What Supreme Court case established the
    doctrine of implied powers confirming the implied
    powers of Congress?

  • Part 2 Westward Expansion

  • 19th Century Territorial Expansion
  • Part Two
  • During the first half of the 19th century,
    Americans poured westward
  • into the Midwest, Southwest, and Texas.

  • In 1823, Jedediah Smith discovered the South Pass
    through the Rockies to Oregon.
  • By, 1850, over 4,000 settlers had migrated west
    over the Oregon Trail to the Willamette Valley in

Conestoga Wagon
  • 1825, The Erie Canal also supported westward
    expansion and industrial growth.
  • Robert Fultons steamboat would revolutionize
    water transportation.
  • Railroads were quickly developing, mostly in the
  • The invention of Eli Whitneys cotton gin led to
    the spread of the slavery based cotton kingdom
    in the Deep South.

Cotton Engine Cotton Gin Separated cotton
seed from cotton.
1820- 1860 Cotton Production
  • In 1821, Mexico obtained its independence from
  • American traders established the Santa Fe Trail.
  • American traders and shipping companies also
    established trade routes with the Californios
  • (Spanish speaking citizens of California)

Texas The Lone Star State
  • In Texas, Mexicans had encouraged American
    immigration to help develop the economy.
  • Alarmed by the growing number of Americans,
    Mexico prohibited immigration into Texas in 1830.
  • In 1836, Texans led by Sam Houston and
  • Stephen Austin declared their independence
    from Mexico.

Texas Independence
  • Battle at the Alamo- San Antonio, Texas- 1836,
    a band of Texans defending the Alamo are defeated
    by a vastly superior Mexican Army led by Santa

The Alamo
Remember the Alamo
  • In April 21, 1836- Americans led by Sam Houston
    defeat Santa Anna at the
  • Battle of San Jacinto
  • Texas is granted independence from Mexico and
    becomes an independent Republic.

Republic of Texas
  • In the Presidential Election of 1844, James K.
    Polk campaigns on adding Texas, Oregon and
    California to the Union.
  • This expansion view is called Manifest Destiny,
    that it was Gods destiny for the US to occupy
    lands from the Atlantic to Pacific.
  • 1845- Texas annexed, 1846-Oregon annexed (49th

Manifest Destiny
Mexican War 1846-1848
  • Mexican War- disagreement over the border between
    Mexico and the US ( Rio Grande ), leads to a war
    with Mexico.
  • US Forces occupy California and declare the Bear
    Flag Republic and invade Mexico.
  • The American victory over Mexico was settled in
    the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo . The new US
    territory called the Mexican Cession- it included
    the present day states of California, Nevada,
    Arizona , New Mexico and parts of Utah, Wyoming
    and Colorado- 15 million was also paid to Mexico.

  • The Gadsden Purchase- in 1853 the US purchases
    additional land from Mexico, adding more land to
    the southern border of the Mexican Cession.

Territorial Expansion
  • 1844- Mormons led by their founder Joseph Smith,
    and later Brigham Young settle in Salt Lake,
  • 1849- Gold is discovered in California, which
    leads to the San Francisco Gold Rush of 1849, (
    called the forty niners)

Trails West
19th Century Expansion
Part Two Questions
  • 1. What invention by Eli Whitney led to the
    spread of slavery and the cotton kingdom in the
    Deep South?
  • 2. What two men led the movement for Texas
    independence from Mexico?
  • 3. What is the name of the battle during the
    American migration into Texas which resulted in
    the Texans fighting to the last man against a
    vastly superior force?
  • 4. Which battle eventually resulted in the
    Texans victory over Mexican forces and
    subsequently brought Texas into the United States?

  • 5. Define Manifest Destiny.
  • 6. What was the name of the trail that led to
    Willamette Valley?
  • 7. Where did the Mormons eventually settle?
  • 8. What present day states would eventually
    come from the Mexican Cession?
  • 9. Which term describes the gold seekers that
    travelled to San Francisco?
  • 10. What are the years of the Mexican War?

19th Century Reform and CrisisPart 3
  • The first half of the nineteenth century
    represented the womens suffrage movement,
    abolition, social reform, states rights, and
    changes in literature and the arts.
  • However, sectional differences would lead to the
    worst crisis in US History-The Civil War.

Womens Rights
  • 1st Womens Right Convention- 1848 in Seneca
    Falls, NY.- developed the Seneca Falls
    Declaration which stated the need for womens
    rights, including womens suffrage.
  • Womens rights movement was led by Elizabeth
    Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
  • Dorothea Dix- campaigned for womens rights, care
    for the insane, and the poor.

Womens Rights
Abolitionist Movement
  • Many in the North began to see slavery as a
    violation of Christian principles, and began
    campaigns to end slavery.
  • William Lloyd Garrison- began an anti-slavery
    newspaper called The Liberator.
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe- wrote Uncle Toms Cabin, a
    best-selling novel about the horrors of slavery
    which inflamed the growing strength of

  • Frederick Douglass- An African American born into
    slavery, Douglass was a self taught influential
    leader in the underground railroad and the
    abolitionist movement.
  • (During the Civil War, Douglass urged Lincoln to
    recruit former slaves to fight for the Union

  • 1855- Douglass published My Bondage and My
    Freedom, which gave eloquent expression calling
    for an end to slavery.
  • No man can put a chain about the ankle of his
    fellow man without at last finding the other end
    fastened about his own neck

  • In Virginia, Nat Turner and Gabriel Prosser led
    slave revolts.
  • Slave revolts supported white Southern fears of
    slave rebellions, and led to harsher laws and
    punishments against fugitive slaves.

Sectional Crisis
  • The addition of new states to the Union led to
    sectional and state conflicts regarding the issue
    of slavery.
  • Compromises were made to maintain a balance of
    power in Congress.

Compromise of 1850
  • Compromise of 1850-
  • 1.California would be admitted as a free state.
  • 2. New Mexico and Utah territories would be
    created without restrictions on slavery
  • 3. Slave trade abolished in the District of
  • 4. A new Fugitive Slave Law allowed slave owners
    to retake fugitive slaves and to fine or imprison
    anyone that helped fugitives.

Compromise of 1850
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
  • repealed the Missouri Compromise
  • Slavery in Kansas and Nebraska would be decided
    by popular sovereignty.
  • Resulted in bloody fighting in Kansas as pro-and
    anti-slavery forces fought each other.
  • Kansas was called Bloody Kansas
  • The Republican Party was formed as an anti-slave

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  • Lincoln Douglas Debates -1858
  • Abraham Lincoln- the Republican candidate and
    Stephen Douglas- the Northern Democrat candidate
    conducted debates when running for the Senate in
  • Lincoln opposed the spread of slavery and Douglas
    favored popular sovereignty.

Candidates for the Illinois Senate - 1858
Abraham Lincoln Stephen A. Douglas
  • Douglas won the Senate seat, but Lincoln gained
    national attention with his House Divided Speech
    in which he stated
  • a house divided against itself cannot
    stand. I believe this government cannot endure
    permanently half slave and half free. I do not
    expect the Union to be dissolved- but I do expect
    it will cease to be divided. It will become all
    one thing or all the other

Supreme Court Decision
  • Dred Scott Decision 1857- Scott v. Sanford
  • Supreme Court ruled that
  • 1. Scott could not sue in the federal courts
    because he was not a citizen, just property.
  • 2. Congress had no right to forbid slavery in the
    territories, it should be decided by settlers.
  • Therefore, the Missouri Compromise was
  • 3. Basically set abolition back because any
    congressional action would be now be considered

John Browns Raid 1859
  • A Kansas raider and abolitionist, John Brown and
    eighteen followers raided the Federal Arsenal at
    Harpers Ferry, Virginia in an attempt to gain
    weapons and arm slaves for a slave revolt.
  • Brown was hanged for treason, but he became a
    martyr for the anti-slave movement in the North
    and a symbol of violence and hatred in the South.

Election of Abraham Lincoln
  • The Election of 1860- 4 candidates
  • Stephen Douglas-Northern Democrat,
  • supported popular sovereignty
  • John Breckenridge- Southern Democrat,
    supported protection of slavery
  • Abraham Lincoln- Republican, supported limiting
    the extension of slavery
  • John Bell- Constitution Union, favored
    compromise and moderation.

  • Lincoln won and a majority of the electoral vote,
    but received only 39 of the popular vote, and no
    votes from southern states.
  • Mass hysteria swept through the South.
  • Many felt Lincolns election would lead to the
    end of slavery and their economic and social
  • The era of compromise would end and lead the
    nation into a bloody civil war.

Election of 1860
  • 1. Where was the first Womens Rights Convention?
  • 2. What two women led the Womens Rights
  • 3. What woman was instrumental in advocating
    womens rights and care for the poor and insane?
  • 4. Who published an anti-slavery newspaper called
    The Liberator?
  • 5. What was the title and who wrote a novel about
    the horrors of slavery?

  • Identify the following
  • 1. Frederick Douglass-
  • 2. Nat Turner and Gabriel Prosser-

  • 3. What were the 4 main provisions of the
    Compromise of 1850?

  • 4.What were the two main provisions of the
    Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854?
  • 5. What resulted in Kansas as a result of the
    Kansas-Nebraska Act?

  • 6. What was the result of the Dred Scott Supreme
    Court decision?
  • 7. Why were abolitionists upset by the Dred
    Scott decision?

  • 8. What abolitionist led a raid against the
    Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry Virginia in
  • 9. Who was elected President in 1860?
  • 10. After the election of Abraham Lincoln as
    President in 1860, why did some southern states
    pull out of the union?
  • 11. During Lincolns Senate campaign, what did he
    state regarding the future of the Union?

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