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Urban Growth and Farm Protest


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Title: Urban Growth and Farm Protest

  • Urban Growth and Farm Protest
  • 1887 1893
  • In the essentials of life . . . the boy of 1854
    stood nearer to the year one than to the year
    1900. Henry Adams

  • "I firmly believe that before many centuries
    more, science will be the master of man. The
    engines he will have invented will be beyond his
    strength to control. Some day science shall have
    the existence of mankind in its power, and the
    human race shall commit suicide by blowing up the
    world." Henry Adams, 1862
  • There are never wanting some persons of violent
    and undertaking natures, who, so they have power
    and business, will take it at any cost. Francis
  • The Labor Movement the people who brought you
    the weekend. Popular bumbersticker
  • Judas Iscariot was a gentleman compared to a
    SCAB. For betraying his master, he had character
    enough to hang himself. A SCAB has not. - Jack
  • For every dollar the boss has and didn't work
    for, one of us worked for a dollar and didn't get
    it. - Big Bill Haywood
  • When Mahatma Gandhi was asked about Western
    Civilization he responded Its a good idea.

  • We took away their country and their means of
    support, broke up their mode of living, their
    habits of life, introduced disease and decay
    among them, and it was for this that they made
    war. Could anyone expect less? Gen. Philip
  • Of course our whole national history has been
    one of expansion. . . that the barbarians recede
    or are conquered . . . is due solely to the power
    of the mighty civilized races which have not lost
    the fighting instinct. Theodore Roosevelt, The
    Strenuous Life
  • The Anglo-Saxon race must pervade the whole
    southern extremity of this vast continent. The
    Mexicans are no better than the Indians and I see
    no reason why we should not take their land.
    Sam Houston
  • . . . There was not a family in that whole
    nation that had not a home of its own. There was
    not a pauper in that nation, and the nation did
    not owe a dollar. . . It built its own schools
    and its hospitals. Yet the defect of the system
    was apparent. They have got as far as they can
    go, because they own their land in common. . .
    There is not enterprise to make your home any
    better than that of your neighbors. There is no
    selfishness, which is at the bottom of
    civilization. Senator Henry Dawes, author of
    the Dawes Act that broke up Indian reservations
    into small private possessions in 1880s after a
    visit to the Cherokee Nation.

  • Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull House Jane
    Addams Reader http//www.uic.edu/jaddams/hull/hul
  • Alfred Chandler Jr., The Visible Hand The
    Managerial Revolution in American Business 1977
  • Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie
  • Marilyn Irvin Holt, The Orphan Trains Placing
    Out in America, 1992
  • Matthew Josephson, The Robber Barons 1934
  • Frank Norris, The Octopus 1901
  • Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives 1890
  • Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities

Chapter Essay Questions
  • Describe the new urban society of this era.
  • What changes did the American workforce
    experience in the late nineteenth century?
  • What impact did new immigration migration have on
    cities in the North?
  • Evaluate the Populists.
  • Who made up the new middle class?
  • Explain the changing nature of American labor
    during the 19th century. see overview
  • Explain how the Gospel of Wealth and Social
    Darwinism served to discourage efforts to
    alleviate urban poverty. Social Gospel
  • How had industrialization and urbanization opened
    new worlds for rich and poor alike?

  • American Federation of Labor, 1886
  • Knights of Labor, 1869 Haymarket riot
  • Collective bargaining, binding arbitration
  • Chain migration
  • Gilded Age
  • Wealth by Andrew Carnegie
  • Great Migration Blacks move north
  • Great Uprising 1877 RR strike
  • Horizontal v. vertical integration
  • Nativism
  • Russian Pogroms and Jewish permanent migration
  • Social Darwinism survival of the fittest
  • Sweatshops
  • Tenements, Jacob Riis, Lincoln Steffens,

Text Concepts
  • Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrision
  • Jane Addams, Hull House in Chicago
  • Ellis Island, migration
  • Political boss
  • Battle of Wounded Knee
  • Homer Plessy, 1896
  • John L. Sullivan
  • Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association
  • Sherman Antitrust Act
  • Farmers Alliance, Populist party
  • Homestead strike

  • 1905 IWW
  • Centennial Exposition of 1876
  • Mail order houses // chain stores Sears
  • Department stores
  • Jay Gould
  • Horatio Alger
  • Thomas Alva Edison
  • Gilded Age, by Mark Twain
  • Luna Park, Coney Island the poor mans
  • New cities walking, railroad Goshen Visalia
  • Orphan trains, placing out in America
  • Balance of power v. collective security
    Woodrow Wilson and League of Nations following
    WW I

Hull House Firsts
  • First Social Settlement in Chicago
  • First Social Settlement with men and women
  • Established first public baths in Chicago
  • Established first public playground in Chicago
  • Established first gymnasium for the public in
  • Established first little theater in the United
  • Established first citizenship preparation classes
  • Established first public kitchen in Chicago
  • Established first college extension courses in
  • Established first group work school
  • Established first painting loan program in
  • Established first free art exhibits in Chicago
  • Established first fresh air school in Chicago
  • Established first public swimming pool in Chicago
  • Established first boy scout troop in Chicago

Hull House Firsts
  • Investigations for the first time in Chicago of
  • truancy, sanitation, typhoid fever,
    tuberculosis, distribution of cocaine, midwifery,
    children's reading, infant mortality, newsboys,
    social value of the saloon
  • Investigations that led to creation and enactment
    of first factory laws in Illinois
  • Investigations that led to creation of the first
    model tenement code
  • First Illinois Factory Inspector, Hull-House
    resident, Florence Kelley
  • First probation officer in Chicago, Hull-House
    resident, Alzina Stevens
  • Labor unions organized at Hull-House
  • Women Shirt Makers
  • Women Cloak Makers
  • Dorcas Federal Labor Union
  • Chicago Woman's Trade Union League

  • 1862 Morrill Act authorizes "land-grant" colleges
  • 1866 National Labor Union founded
  • 1869 Knights of Labor founded
  • 1870 Standard Oil founded by John D. Rockefeller
  • 1871 Chicago fire
  • 1873 Financial panic brings severe depression
  • 1876 Baseball's National League founded
  • Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone
  • Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia
  • 1877 Great Uprising railroad strike 1st national
    work- stoppage
  • 1879   Thomas Edison unveils incandescent bulb
  • Depression ends
  • 1880 Founding of League of American Wheelmen
  • 1881 Tuskegee Institute is founded
  • Assassination of Czar Alexander II, pogroms

  • 1882 Peak of immigration to the United States
    (1.2 million) in 19th century
  • Chinese Exclusion Act passed
  • Standard Oil Trust founded
  • 1st US country club
  • 1883 National League merges with American
  • 1886 Campaigns for 8-hour work-day peak
  • Haymarket riot massacre discredit the Knights
    of Labor
  • American Federation of Labor founded
  • Neighborhood Guild in NY, 1st settlement house
  • 1889 Jane Addams, Chicagos Hull House
  • 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act passed
  • Jacob Riiss How the Other Half Lives
  • 1892 Homestead steel strike fails against
  • 1893     Stock market panic precipitates severe

Eugene Victor Debs
Ten thousand times has the labor movement
stumbled and bruised itself. We have been
enjoined by the courts, assaulted by thugs,
charged by the militia, traduced by the press,
frowned upon in public opinion, and deceived by
politicians. But notwithstanding all this and all
these, labor is today the most vital and
potential power this planet has ever known, and
its historic mission is as certain of ultimate
realization as is the setting of the sun.
Solidarity is not a matter of sentiment but a
fact, cold and impassive as the granite
foundations of a skyscraper. If the basic
elements, identity of interest, clarity of
vision, honesty of intent, and oneness of
purpose, or any of these is lacking, all
sentimental pleas for solidarity, and all other
efforts to achieve it will be barren of results.
I. The New Urban Society
  • Immigrants and internal migration cause
    population explosion in cities
  • Suburbs, skyscrapers, and tenements change cities
  • New services are needed
  • New ethnic communities arise
  • Prejudice and intolerance of immigrants increase
  • Political machines control local politics

 Patterns of Immigration, 1820-1914
The migration to the United States was part of a
worldwide transfer of population that accelerated
with the Industrial Revolution and the
accompanying improvement in transportation.
Ellis Island
For most immigrants beginning in 1895, entrance
into the United States meant processing at Ellis
Island in New York Harbor.Library of Congress
Immigrants Aboard Ship, 1902
During the decade from 1901-1910, immigrations
in to the U. S. soared, approaching one million
per year. Library of Congress My mothers
mother came to America from Switzerland and my
fathers father came to America from Ireland!
Irish Immigrants in Boston, 1882
Immigration to the United States soared to new
heights in the 1880s and 1890s. Most of this new
immigration came to existing national communities
in America's cities. Boston's Irish constituted
one of the largest Irish communities in the
United States. In 1882, some of Boston's Irish
found work as clam-diggers. Library of Congress
Changes in the American Labor Force, 18701910
The transformation of the American economy in
the late nineteenth century changed the nature
and type of work. By 1910 the United States was
an urban, industrial nation with a matching work
force that toiled in factories and for commercial
establishments (including railroads), and less
frequently on farms.
  • Responses to Poverty and Wealth
  • Tenement Life
  • Settlement Houses, Hull House, Jane Addams
  • Gospel of Wealth Social Gospel was religious
  • Social Darwinism survival of the fittest
  • Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives
  • Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities
  • Workers Organize
  • Knights of Labor, 1869
  • Vertically integrated, 1883 started segregated
    African American locals, supported Chinese
    Exclusion Act of 1882, pro-boycott, anti-strike
  • Haymarket Square, 1886
  • Great Uprising, unsuccessful 1877 railroad strike
  • American Federation of Labor AFL, 1886
  • Collective bargaining
  • Pullman strike, 1894
  • Eugene Victor Debs, national railroad strike
  • Industrial Workers of the World, 1905
  • Big Bill Haywood, Joe Hill, Eugene Victor Debs,
    socialists, WW I

Growth of Cities, 1860 and 1900
II. The Diminishing Rights of Minority Groups
  • Native Americans on reservations frighten whites
    with Ghost Dance
  • Mexican Americans in Southwest clash with whites
    over land use
  • Chinese Exclusion Act illustrates prejudice in
  • African Americans most discriminated against

Indian Reservations, 1875 and 1900
Photo of lynching c 1880s-90s
III. A Victorian Society
  • Relations between sexes strictly controlled, at
    least in public
  • Strict moral code governs a patriarchal society
  • Religion plays central role in families
  • Sports enthrall Americans
  • Spectator sports include football and boxing
  • Active sport of choice is bicycling

Thomas Eakins created this painting of baseball
players practicing in 1875. Originating as a
sport of urban gentlemen, baseball eventually
broadened its appeal, drawing fans from all
spectrums of city life. Eakins, Thomas,
Baseball Players Practicing, 1875. Watercolor
Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design,
Jesse Metcalf and Walter H. Kimball Funds.
Photography by Cathy Carver
Baseball, 19th century
By the late 19th century, baseball had become
entrenched as a popular sport all across America.
Many believed it reinforced the nation's pastoral
ideal even as the country became more
industrialized and urbanized. Library of Congress
The New Fad, 1886
As workers made more money--and as more leisure
time became available--Americans began to acquire
non-essential items of material culture. This
well-dressed couple is displaying for the
photographer their 1886-model bicycle for two.
Their choice of background is the South Portico
of the White House, Washington, DC, and may
indicate that this is a souvenir of a visit to
the city. Library of Congress
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IV. Voices of Protest and Reform
  • Social Gospel brings religion to slum areas
  • To Christianize
  • To minister to basic needs
  • With free time, middle class women spearhead
    reform efforts

National Woman Suffrage 1880
A meeting in 1880 of the National Woman Suffrage
Association protested the exclusion of women from
electoral politics. Susan B. Anthony noted with
regret that to all men woman suffrage is only a
side issue. The Granger Collection, New York
''It is difficult for me to write of Jacob Riis
only from the public standpoint. He was one of my
truest and closest friends. I have ever prized
the fact that once, in speaking of me, he said,
"since I met him he has been my brother." I have
not only admired and respected him beyond
measure, but I have loved him dearlyand I mourn
him as if he were one of my own family."
Theodore Roosevelt
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Downtown New York City 1900's
Further downtown, Jacob Riis found this tenement
courtyard.Getty Images Inc. Hutton Archive Photos
Photograph by Jacob A. Riis, The Jacob A. Riis
Collection, Museum of the City of New York
A tenement room, 1900
By 1900, cities had begun early regulation of
tenement housing. Here, two officials of the New
York City Tenement House Department inspect a
cluttered basement room that had been inhabited
by shoemakers. (Note the ''cobbler's bench,'' the
shoemaker's tools, and materials such as leather
for soles and uppers on the floor.) Library of
The "Airshaft, 1900"
Immigration brought so many people into
America's cities that they had to be ''stacked''
on top of each other in tenements. New apartment
buildings were constructed with an airshaft,
which supposedly provided interior apartments
with fresh air. In reality, these often became
filth-infested garbage pits. This image shows the
airshaft of a dumbbell tenement, New York City,
taken from the roof, around 1900. Library of
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Molly Maguires
This lithograph shows a meeting of the secret
organization of Irish coal miners known as the
Molly Maguires. They waged guerilla war against
the mine owners of the anthracite coal region of
Pennsylvania in the 1870s. Library of Congress
V. Looking Outward Foreign Policy in the Early
  • External markets become more important with
    closing of frontier
  • Americans fear being left behind by European
  • United States works to improve relations with
    neighbors to South, hoping to build canal
  • Tensions in Hawaii grow due to American
    manipulation of economy

VI. The Angry Farmers
  • Democrats play on peoples fears to win Congress
  • Farmers organize politically
  • Peoples party (Populists) emerges as political
    arm of Alliance
  • Populists support Free Silver, but start off

Populist Party Platform (1892) The People's
party, more commonly known as the Populist party,
was organized in St. Louis in 1892 to represent
the common folkespecially farmersagainst the
entrenched interests of railroads, bankers,
processers, corporations, and the politicians in
league with such interests. At its first national
convention in Omaha in July 1892, the party
nominated James K. Weaver for president and
ratified the so-called Omaha Platform, drafted by
Ignatius Donnelly of Minnesota.
-------------------------------- Assembled upon
the 116th anniversary of the Declaration of
Independence, the People's Party of America, in
their first national convention, invoking upon
their action the blessing of Almighty God, put
forth in the name and on behalf of the people of
this country, the following preamble and
declaration of principles
Preamble The conditions which surround us best
justify our cooperation we meet in the midst of
a nation brought to the verge of moral,
political, and material ruin. Corruption
dominates the ballot-box, the Legislatures, the
Congress, and touches even the ermine of the
bench. The people are demoralized most of the
States have been compelled to isolate the voters
at the polling places to prevent universal
intimidation and bribery. The newspapers are
largely subsidized or muzzled, public opinion
silenced, business prostrated, homes covered with
mortgages, labor impoverished, and the land
concentrating in the hands of capitalists. The
urban workmen are denied the right to organize
for self-protection, imported pauperized labor
beats down their wages, a hireling standing army,
unrecognized by our laws, is established to shoot
them down, and they are rapidly degenerating into
European conditions. The fruits of the toil of
millions are badly stolen to build up colossal
fortunes for a few, unprecedented in the history
of mankind and the possessors of these, in turn,
despise the Republic and endanger liberty. From
the same prolific womb of governmental injustice
we breed the two great classestramps and
millionaires. The national power to create money
is appropriated to enrich bond-holders a vast
public debt payable in legal-tender currency has
been funded into gold-bearing bonds, thereby
adding millions to the burdens of the people.
RESOLVED, That we demand a free ballot and a
fair count in all elections and pledge ourselves
to secure it to every legal voter without Federal
Intervention, through the adoption by the States
of the unperverted Australian or secret ballot
system. RESOLVED, That the revenue derived from
a graduated income tax should be applied to the
reduction of the burden of taxation now levied
upon the domestic industries of this country.
RESOLVED, That we pledge our support to fair and
liberal pensions to ex-Union soldiers and
sailors. RESOLVED, That we condemn the fallacy
of protecting American labor under the present
system, which opens our ports to the pauper and
criminal classes of the world and crowds out our
wage-earners and we denounce the present
ineffective laws against contract labor, and
demand the further restriction of undesirable
emigration. RESOLVED, That we cordially
sympathize with the efforts of organized
workingmen to shorten the hours of labor, and
demand a rigid enforcement of the existing
eight-hour law on Government work, and ask that a
penalty clause be added to the said law.
RESOLVED, That we regard the maintenance of a
large standing army of mercenaries, known as the
Pinkerton system, as a menace to our liberties,
we demand its abolition. . . . RESOLVED, That we
commend to the favorable consideration of the
people and the reform press the legislative
system known as the initiative and referendum.
RESOLVED, That we favor a constitutional
provision limiting the office of President and
Vice-President to one term, and providing for the
election of Senators of the United States by a
direct vote of the people. RESOLVED, That we
oppose any subsidy or national aid to any private
corporation for any purpose. RESOLVED, That this
convention sympathizes with the Knights of Labor
and their righteous contest with the tyrannical
combine of clothing manufacturers of Rochester,
and declare it to be a duty of all who hate
tyranny and oppression to refuse to purchase the
goods made by the said manufacturers, or to
patronize any merchants who sell such goods.
Established interests ridiculed the Populists
unmercifully. This hostile cartoon depicts the
Peoples Party as an odd assortment of radical
dissidents committed to a Platform of Lunacy.
Kansas City Historical Society
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VII. The Presidential Election of 1892
  • Election of 1892 makes for strange bedfellows
  • Homestead Strike illustrates political unrest
  • Populists run widespread campaigns
  • Democrats regain control

The United States presidential election of 1892
New Yorks Grover Cleveland returned to defeat
incumbent President Benjamin Harrison, becoming
the only person to be elected to non-consecutive
presidential terms. Cleveland, who had won the
popular vote against Harrison in 1888, won both
the popular and electoral vote in the
rematch. Cleveland also became the first Democrat
to be nominated by his party three consecutive
times, a distinction that would be equaled only
by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940.
Election of 1892
Presidential Campaign, 1888
Grover Cleveland and Allen G. Thurman as the
Democratic party candidates for President and
Vice President on a lithograph campaign poster by
Kurz Allison, 1888.
William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan (18601925) at the
Democratic Convention, 1896, in which he made the
Cross of Gold speech.Culver Pictures, Inc.
The Election of 1896
William Jennings Bryan carried most of the rural
South and West, but his free silver campaign had
little appeal to more urban and industrial
regions, which swung strongly to Republican
candidate William McKinley.
VIII. The Great White City
  • America redefines itself in Chicago
  • Exposition lauds American accomplishments
  • Frederick Jackson Turner bemoans end of frontier

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The Growth of American Cities, 1880-1900
Several significant trends stand out on this
map. First is the development of an
urban-industrial core, stretching from New
England to the Midwest, where the largest cities
were located. And second is the emergence of
relatively new cities in the South and West,
reflecting the national dimensions of
innovations in industry and transportation.
The "Grocery Store" at the turn of the 20th
In the days before neighborhood ''superstores''
and household refrigeration, most urban residents
shopped daily for perishable items. Here,
shoppers pick and choose their food items from an
outdoor market, located on 7th Street at
Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. Library
of Congress
Hell, there are no rules herewe're    trying
to accomplish something. Thomas A. Edison
Andrew Carnegie People who are unable to
motivate themselves must be content with
mediocrity, no matter how impressive their other
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Child labor
Noted urban photographer Lewis Hine captures the
cramped working conditions and child labor in
this late nineteenth-century canning factory.
Women and children provided a cheap and efficient
work force for labor-intensive industries. George
Eastman House
The "old" and the "new" Philadelphia, 1897
By 1900, most major cities had begun attempting
a reorganization of their clogged transportation
systems. Here, in 1897 Philadelphia, horse-drawn
wagons and carriages competed with an electric
trolley system and pedestrians on a cobblestone
street. Library of Congress
Bodie, California -- ghost town northeast of
Independence, CA
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