?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? (??? ???????)- WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? (??? ???????)- WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION

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( )- WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION On the morning of July 16, 1945, at 5:29:45 a.m., a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? (??? ???????)- WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION


1
?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? (??? ???????)-
WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
  • On the morning of July 16, 1945, at 52945
    a.m., a group of scientists, army officials, and
    famous personalities - including British
    ambassador Lord Halifax and Harvard president Dr.
    James B. Conant - witnessed the detonation of
    "Fat Man," a thirteen-pound plutonium bomb, which
    caused a blaze of light and heat more brilliant
    than the rising sun. The eighteen-kiloton
    explosion shattered windows 120 miles from
    Trinity and rumbled as far as 250 miles away. The
    intense heat of the blast melted the surrounding
    sand into a green, glassy, radioactive substance
    dubbed "Trinitite," which litters the site to
    this day.

2
(No Transcript)
3
  • 1. ????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????
  • 2. ????????? ??????
  • 3. ???????? ? ???????? ??????
  • 4. ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????
  • 5. ??????????

4
1. ????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????
5
??????????
  • ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??
    ??????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????????
    ????????? ???? ????????? ? ?? ??????????
    ?????????????????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???????
    (????? ?. ?????????)
  • ?????? ?? ??????? ???????, ?? ?? ???????
    ?????????? (??? ???????)

6
???? ??????
  • ????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????????????
    ??????
  • ???????? ????????? (DETERRENCE)-?? ?????? ????
  • ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????-?? ????
    ?????
  • ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??
    ???? ?? ?????????
  • ?????? ??????, ??????, ????????, ????, ????,
    ????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????

7
????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????
  • ????????? ??????
  • ???????? ??????
  • ???????? ??????

8
2. ????????? ??????
  • As the bomb fell over Hiroshima and exploded, we
    saw an entire city disappear. I wrote in my log
    the words My God, what have we done Capt.,
    Robert Lewis, U. S. Army Air Corps, copilot of
    the Enola Gay
  • - A World without nuclear weapons would be lees
    stable and more dangerous for all of us- former
    British prime minister Margaret Thatcher

9
  • 2.1. ?????, ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????
  • 2.2. ??????? ????????? ?????? (??????? ?????)
  • 2.3. ??????? ????????? ??????
  • 2.4. ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? (DELIVERY)
  • 2.5. ????????? ??????????
  • 2.6. ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????
    ?????

10
2.1. ?????????, ????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????
11
?????????
  • ????? ??????? ??? ? ????????
  • ???????
  • ?????? ??????????, ?????? ???, ?????? ????????...
  • ??????? ????????
  • ????????? ??????
  • ?????? ? ??????? ?????
  • 16. ??? 1945. ??????- ???? ???????
  • ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ?? ???
  • ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????
  • 6. ? 9. ?????? 1945.- ???????? ? ???????? ("
    LITTLE BOY ? FAT MAN)
  • ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?
    ??????? ????
  • ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????
    ?????? ???????? ???? ? ????????? ??? ?? ????? (2
    ????? 1947. ? 50 1948.)
  • ?-36

12
??????????
  • ????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??????
    ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????
  • ???????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ???????????
    ????????
  • ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????
    ????? ???? ?????? ??????????
  • ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?????

13
Robert Oppenheimer and Lesley Grows
14
(No Transcript)
15
(No Transcript)
16
(No Transcript)
17
Little boy and Hiroshima
18
(No Transcript)
19
Bockscar and Fat Man
20
(No Transcript)
21
(No Transcript)
22
????? ?????????? ??????
  • ??????? ????????? ?????? (??????? ??? ?-?????)
  • ??????? ????????? ?????? (?????????????? ?????,
    ??????????? ????? ??? ?-?????)

23
??????? ????????? ?????? (??????? ??? ?-?????)
  • ????????????? ? ????????? ?? ??????????
  • ???? ?? ???????? ?????? (??????) ????? ????????
    ???? ?? ????????? ???? ???????????? ? ????????
    ????? ???????????? ??????? ?Mx(CxC)-???? ????,
    ?????? ????????
  • ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ?
    ?? ????? ????????-235 (?-235) ? ??????????

24
???? ???? ????????? ???????
  • ?? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ??
    ???????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ? ?????
    ????? ???? "?????????? ???????????????
    ??????????? ? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??????
    ?????? ?????????

25
??????? ????????
  • ????????
  • ??????????

26
???????? ?? ?????? ????????
  • ????????
  • ??? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????
    ?????
  • ?-235 ?? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ????????
    ???????? ?????? ???? ?? 1 ?-235
  • ???????????? ?-235 ?? ????????? ????????? ??
    ????, ???? ? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????

27
  • Uranium occurs naturally in underground deposits
    consisting of a mixture of 0.7 uranium-235,
    which is easily fissionable, and about 99.3
    uranium-238, which is not fissionable. Nuclear
    weapons require "enrichment" to increase the
    proportion of U235 to 90 or more. This is called
    Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). Nuclear reactors
    require enrichment to about 3 - 5 of U-235.
    This is called Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).
  • HEU can be combined with plutonium to form the
    "pit", or core of a nuclear weapon, or it can be
    used alone as the nuclear explosive. The bomb
    dropped on Hiroshima used only HEU. About 15-20
    kgs of HEU are sufficient to make a bomb without
    plutonium.

28
???????? ?? ?????? ????????
  • ??????????
  • ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????
    ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????
  • ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ?? ????
  • ??????? ?? ? ? ????????????? ??????????
    ??????????
  • ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ???? ?? ?????
    ??????????? ? ????? ?????????????
  • ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ??? ??
    ?????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????
    ???????????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????

29
  • Plutonium is not found naturally in significant
    quantities. It is produced in a nuclear reactor
    through the absorption of neutrons by Uranium
    238. The Plutonium emerges from a nuclear reactor
    as part of the mix in spent nuclear fuel, along
    with unused uranium and other highly radioactive
    fission products. To get plutonium into a usable
    form, a second key facility, a reprocessing
    plant, is needed to chemically separate out the
    plutonium from the other materials in spent fuel.
  • Once plutonium is separated, it can be processed
    and fashioned into the fission core of a nuclear
    weapon, called a "pit". Nuclear weapons typically
    require three to five kilograms of plutonium.
    Plutonium can also be converted into an oxide and
    mixed with uranium dioxide to form mixed-oxide
    (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors. Britain, France,
    Russia, India, Japan, Israel and China operate
    reprocessing plants to obtain plutonium (the last
    two only for military purposes). U.S. plutonium
    production reactors were shut down in 1988.
  • A number of isotopes of plutonium are produced in
    a reactor, the most common being Pu-239 which is
    easily fissionable, and Pu-240 which is not. The
    relative proportion of Pu-239 determines the
    weapons grade of the plutonium. Reactor grade Pu,
    i.e. Pu with 18 or more Pu-240, can still be
    used to make a "crude" nuclear bomb.

30
??????? ????????? ?????? (?????????????? ?????,
??????????? ??? ?-?????)
  • ?????? ?????? ?? ?????, ????? ????? ? ??????????
    ????? ????????
  • ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?? ???????, ???????????
    ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????
  • ???? ????? ? ???????????????????? ?????

31
  • November 1, 1952, The United States detonates the
    first hydrogen bomb, 10.4 megaton Mike , at
    Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. The
    explosion is 500 times more powerful than the
    bomb exploded at Nagasaki.

32
The "Mike" shot in 1952 inaugurated the age of
fusion weapons.
33
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34
The H- Bomb
35
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36
????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????
  • ??????????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ??????
    ????? ?? ?????? 1 ? 200 ???????? (1 ?? ??????? ??
    ?????? ?? 1000 ???? ??????????????? ??????????)
  • ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????
    ?? ?? 1-20 ???????? (1 ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??
    1000 ????????)
  • ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??
    ?????????? ????? ?????? ?? 1961. ?????? ???? ??
    ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? 60 ????????,
    ???? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???
    ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????
    ????

37
???? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????
  • ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? (?????????
    ?????????) ??????? ?? (???? ?? ??????) ? ?????
    ???? ????, ??? ???? ?? ???????? ?????????
    ????????
  • ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ???????
    ?????????????
  • ? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????

38
The Neutron Bomb
  • The tactical neutron bomb is a nuclear weapon
    that maximizes damage to people but minimizes
    damage to buildings and equipment. It is also
    called an enhanced radiation warhead. The neutron
    bomb is a specialized thermonuclear weapon that
    produces a minimal blast but releases large
    amounts of lethal radiation which can penetrate
    armor or several feet of earth.
  • 1962-The first neutron device is successfully
    tested.
  • . U.S. production of the bomb was postponed in
    1978 and resumed in 1981."

39
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40
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41
???? ?????????? ????????? ???????
  • ?????? ??????????? ???
  • ???????-????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? 1
    ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? 100 ??????? ??????????
  • ??????????
  • ???????????????
  • ???????? ? ????????? ? ?????
  • ?? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? 2000 ??????????
    ?????
  • ??????? ???????
  • ??????????????? ????
  • ????????? ????

42
  • Blast
  • Thermal radiation
  • Initial nuclear radiation
  • Fallout

43
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44
Blast
  • The rapid release of energy in an explosion
    creates a shock wave of overpressure. Very close
    to the centre of a nuclear explosion,
    overpressure is equivalent to several thousand
    pounds per square inch (psi). This is hundreds of
    times greater than the pressure in a pressure
    cooker.
  • The overpressure crushes objects. Human lungs are
    crushed at about 30 psi overpressure. Brick
    houses are destroyed at about 10-15 psi
    overpressure. The blast also generates high
    velocity winds which can turn humans or objects
    into missiles. At 15 - 20 psi the winds can fling
    a person at several hundred kilometres per hour

45
The effects of the blast wave on a typical wood
framed house.
46
Blast effects on a concrete building at
Hiroshima.
47
Thermal radiation
  • Thermal radiation includes light and heat.
    Nuclear weapons release a huge amount of energy
    as light (ultraviolet, visible and infrared).
    This light is so intense that it can make sand
    explode, blind people many miles away, burn
    shadows into concrete, burn skin and ignite
    flammable materials at large distances.
  • The heat at the centre of the explosion
    (epicentre) is so intense as to vapourise most
    materials. The thermal radiation creates a
    fireball which expands rapidly outwards consuming
    oxygen and, combined with the blast effect,
    creating near total destruction for some distance
    from the epicentre.

48
  • Temperatures of a nuclear explosion reach those
    in the interior of the sun, about 100,000,000
    Celsius, and produce a brilliant fireball.
  • The fireball, an extremely hot and highly
    luminous spherical mass of air and gaseous weapon
    residues, occurs within less than one millionth
    of one second of the weapon's detonation.
    Immediately after its formation, the fireball
    begins to grow in size, engulfing the surrounding
    air.
  • It has then risen roughly 4.5 miles from the
    point of burst.

49
Illustrated components of a nuclear explosion.
50
The mushroom cloud forming at the Nevada Test
Site.
51
  • One of the important differences between a
    nuclear and conventional weapon is the large
    proportion of a nuclear explosion's energy that
    is released in the form of thermal energy. This
    energy is emitted from the fireball in two
    pulses. The first is quite short, and carries
    only about 1 percent of the energy the second
    pulse is more significant and is of longer
    duration (up to 20 seconds).

52
The thermal pulse charring the paint
53
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54
  • Under some conditions, the many individual fires
    created by a nuclear explosion can coalesce into
    one massive fire known as a "firestorm.
  • For a firestorm to develop
  • There must be at least 8 pounds of combustibles
    per square foot.
  • At least one-half of the structures in the area
    are on fire simultaneously.
  • There is initially a wind of less than 8 miles
    per hour.
  • The burning area is at least 0.5 square miles.
  • In Hiroshima, a firestorm did develop and about
    4.4 square miles were destroyed. Although there
    was some damage from uncontrolled fires at
    Nagasaki, a firestorm did not develop. One reason
    for this was the difference in the terrain.
    Hiroshima is relatively flat, while Nagasaki has
    uneven terrain.

55
The firestorm at Hiroshima
56
  • Flash Burns
  • Flash burns are one of the serious consequences
    of a nuclear explosion. Flash burns result from
    the absorption of radiant energy by the skin of
    exposed individuals. A distinctive feature of
    flash burns is the fact they are limited to
    exposed areas of the skin facing the explosion.

57
  • A 1-megaton explosion can cause first-degree
    burns (a bad sunburn) at a distance of about 7
    miles, second-degree burns (producing blisters
    and permanent scars) at distances of about 6
    miles, and third-degree burns (which destroy skin
    tissue) at distances up to 5 miles. Third-degree
    burns over 24 percent of the body, or
    second-degree burns over 30 percent, will result
    in serious shock, and will probably prove fatal
    unless prompt, specialized medical care is
    available.
  • It has been estimated that burns caused some 50
    percent of the deaths at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

58
The burns are in a pattern corresponding to the
dark portions of the kimonoshe was wearing at
the time of the explosion.
59
  • Flash blindness
  • Flash blindness is caused by the initial
    brilliant flash of light produced by the nuclear
    detonation. The light is received on the retina
    than can be tolerated, but less than is required
    for irreversible injury. The retina is
    particularly susceptible to visible and short
    wavelength infrared light. The result is a
    bleaching of visual pigment and temporary
    blindness. Vision is completely recovered as the
    pigment is regenerated.
  • During the daylight hours, flash blindness does
    not persist for more than 2 minutes, but
    generally lasts a few seconds. At night, when the
    pupil is dilated, flashblindness will last for a
    longer period of time.
  • A 1-megaton explosion can cause flash blindness
    at distances as great as 13 miles on a clear day,
    or 53 miles on a clear night. If the intensity is
    great enough, a permanent retinal burn will
    result.

60
Initial nuclear radiation
  • Initial radiation consists mostly of gamma rays
    and neutrons which are generated in the nuclear
    reaction and can enter the human body directly.
    In general a radiation dose of 400 rads will be
    lethal to 50 or more of the exposed population.
    These deaths occur within about 6 - 7 weeks.

61
Fallout
  • Fallout consists of large numbers of particles,
    from the earth, buildings and other ground
    objects, which are irradiated by the explosion,
    mixing with the radioactive products of the
    explosion itself and then being distributed over
    a wide area by wind. An example of a fallout
    pattern is given in the table.
  • There are a large number of radioactive products
    from a nuclear explosion. These lodge in
    different parts of the body (table ). The
    radioactive products emit different types of
    radiation - alpha particles, beta particles or
    gamma rays, which differ in the degree of damage
    they can do. Alpha particles do the most damage
    once inside the body, but do little damage
    outside as they cannot penetrate skin.
  • There is no known way of nuetralising a
    radioactive substance, apart from sending it
    through a nuclear reactor. Thus, radioactive
    products are dangerous until they have decayed to
    such an extent that they no longer emit
    significant amounts of radiation. This time is
    usually considered to be 10 times the half-life.
  • The effects of fallout persist for hundreds of
    years, although the relative risk reduces over
    time.

62
Electromagnetic Pulse
  • Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is an electromagnetic
    wave similar to radio waves, which results from
    secondary reactions occurring when the nuclear
    gamma radiation is absorbed in the air or ground.
    It differs from the usual radio waves in two
    important ways. First, it creates much higher
    electric field strengths. Whereas a radio signal
    might produce a thousandth of a volt or less in a
    receiving antenna, an EMP pulse might produce
    thousands of volts. Secondly, it is a single
    pulse of energy that disappears completely in a
    small fraction of a second. In this sense, it is
    rather similar to the electrical signal from
    lightning, but the rise in voltage is typically a
    hundred times faster. This means that most
    equipment designed to protect electrical
    facilities from lightning works too slowly to be
    effective against EMP.

63
The range of the EMP effects of a high altitude
burst
64
Ozone Depletion
  • When a nuclear weapon explodes in the air, the
    surrounding air is subjected to great heat,
    followed by relatively rapid cooling. These
    conditions are ideal for the production of
    tremendous amounts of nitric oxides. These oxides
    are carried into the upper atmosphere, where they
    reduce the concentration of protective ozone.
    Ozone is necessary to block harmful ultraviolet
    radiation from reaching the Earth's surface.

65
Nuclear Winter
  • In 1983, R.P. Turco, O.B. Toon, T.P. Ackerman,
    J.B. Pollack, and Carl Sagan (referred to as
    TTAPS) published a paper entitled "Global
    Atmospheric Consequences of Nuclear War" which is
    the foundation on which the nuclear winter theory
    is based on.
  • Theory states that nuclear explosions will set
    off firestorms over many cities and forests
    within range. Great plumes of smoke, soot, and
    dust would be sent aloft from these fires, lifted
    by their own heating to high altitudes where they
    could drift for weeks before dropping back or
    being washed out of the atmosphere onto the
    ground. Several hundred million tons of this
    smoke and soot would be shepherded by strong
    west-to-east winds until they would form a
    uniform belt of particles encircling the Northern
    Hemisphere.

66
  • It is not certain that a nuclear war would
    produce a nuclear winter effect. However, it
    remains a possibility and the TTAPS study
    concluded "...the possibility of the extinction
    of Homo Sapiens cannot be excluded."

67
  • These thick black clouds could block out all but
    a fraction of the sun's light for a period as
    long as several weeks. The conditions of
    semidarkness, killing frosts, and subfreezing
    temperatures, combined with high doses of
    radiation from nuclear fallout, would interrupt
    plant photosynthesis and could thus destroy much
    of the Earth's vegetation and animal life. The
    extreme cold, high radiation levels, and the
    widespread destruction of industrial, medical,
    and transportation infrastructures along with
    food supplies and crops would trigger a massive
    death toll from starvation, exposure, and disease.

68
???????????????
  • ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????
  • - ???????????? ? ???????????

69
  • There were 18 Japanese who survived the atomic
    attack on Hiroshima, were among those who fled to
    Nagasaki and then also survived the atomic attack
    on that city three days later

70
2.4. ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? (DELIVERY)
?????????? ??????
71
  • ????????? ?????? ?? ???? "???????" ?? ???????
    ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??????

72
  • ??????- ?? ?-29, ????? ?-36 ?? ??????????
    ?????????? ??????????
  • ????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????????
    ??????? ???? ?????-?????? ? ????????????????
    ???????? ???????
  • SUBMARINE LAUNCHED MISSILES (SLBMs)
  • ?????????? ?????? (BALLISTIC MISSILES)
  • ????????? ??????

73
???????????? ??????????
74
B 29 Superfortress
75
B 36 "Peacemaker"
76
  • The Convair B-36 was a strategic bomber built by
    Convair for the United States Air Force, the
    first to have truly intercontinental range.
    Unofficially nicknamed the "Peacemaker", the B-36
    was the first thermonuclear weapon delivery
    vehicle, the largest piston aircraft ever to be
    mass-produced, and the largest warplane of any
    kind. Although there have been larger military
    aircraft, they have all been transports.

77
B 52
78
  • Air Combat Command's B-52 is a long-range, heavy
    bomber that can perform a variety of missions.
    The bomber is capable of flying at high subsonic
    speeds at altitudes up to 50,000 feet (15,166.6
    meters). It can carry nuclear or precision guided
    conventional ordnance with worldwide precision
    navigation capability.
  • The use of aerial refueling gives the B-52 a
    range limited only by crew endurance. It has an
    unrefueled combat range in excess of 8,800 miles
    (14,080 kilometers)

79
SUBMARINE LAUNCHED MISSILES
80
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81
Trident II
82
Tomahawk
83
?????????? ??????
  • ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????
  • ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????????????
    ? ???????? ?? ?? ????
  • ???? 50 000 ???? ????? ?????????, ??? ?? ????
    ????????? ??????????
  • ?????? ????????

84
Peenemünde Museum replica of the first successful
V-2 rocket.
  • The Vergeltungswaffe 2 ("Reprisal weapon 2")
    (V-2), also known as the A4 (Aggregat 4), was an
    early ballistic missile used by the German Army
    primarily against Belgian and British targets
    during the later stages of World War II. The V-2
    was the first man-made object launched into
    space, during test flights that reached an
    altitude of 189 km (117 miles). It was the
    progenitor of the space race, which ultimately
    put men on the moon, and resulted in probes that
    have now left our solar system.

85
????? ??????????? ??????
  • ???????? ????? ?? 500 ?? 1000 ???? (SHORTRANGE
    BALLISTIC MISSILES)-?????? ???????? ?
    ???????????????????? ?????
  • ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? 1000 ?? 5000 ????
    (INTERMEDIATE BALLISTIC MISSILES)
  • ???????????? ?????? ????? 5000 ????-????????? ??
    ?????? ?? ?????? (INTERCONTINENTAL BALISTIC
    MISSILES- ICBMs)

86
The United States divides missiles into four
range classes
  • Intercontinental Ballistic Missile ICBM over 5500
    kilometers
  • Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile IRBM 3000 to
    5500 kilometers
  • Medium-Range Ballistic Missile MRBM 1000 to 3000
    kilometers
  • Short-Range Ballistic missile SRBM up to 1000
    kilometers

87
The Soviet and Russian military developed a
system of five range classes
  • Strategic over 1000 kilometers
  • Operational-Strategic 500 to 1000 kilometers
  • Operational 300 to 500 kilometers
  • Operational-Tactical 50 to 300 kilometers
  • Tactical up to 50 kilometers

88
Intercontinental Ballistic Missile ICBM
89
  • Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) have
    ranges of greater than 5,500 km. ICBMs create a
    problem because they enable a country to break
    out of a regional context and move toward
    potential global impact. Regardless of the origin
    of a conflict, a country may involve the entire
    world simply by threatening to spread the war
    with an ICBM.

90
SM-68B Titan II
91
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92
(No Transcript)
93
(No Transcript)
94
Topolj-m
95
(No Transcript)
96
(No Transcript)
97
?????????? ?????? "????????? ?????"
  • ???, ?????? ? ???? 13 000 (????? ????)
  • ?????????-4600, ?????????- 3700 (SBLMs, ?????
    ????)
  • ??????? ?????? 800-3000 (????? ????? ??????,
    ??????, ????, ?????)
  • ?????? 150-1500 (????? ????????, ????,
    ??????????, ????, ??????, ??????)
  • ???????? 175-400 (????? ??????)
  • ???? 300-1250 (????? ????, ??????, ??????????,
    ??????, ??????, ??????, ????? ???????, ??????,
    ??????)
  • ????? ???????
  • ??????
  • ????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ?????
  • ????????? ??????? ???????
  • ??????????
  • ????? ??????
  • ????????
  • ??????????
  • ????????
  • ????????

98
2.5. ????????? ??????????
99
????? ??????????? ??????????
  • ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??????
    ???????? ?????? ?? ????????????????? ?????????,
    ???? ?? ?? ?????????? ?? ???, ? ???? ?? ??
    ????????????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????????

100
?????????? ??????? ???????
  • ??? ?????? ????
  • ????? ??????????
  • ????????????

101
?????????? ?????????? ????????
  • ????? ????????
  • ??? ??????
  • ????????????

102
??? (MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION)
  • ???? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????
  • ?????????? ?? ???? ?????
  • ?????????? ?? ????? ?????

103
  • The End of MAD? The Nuclear Dimension of U.S.
    Primacy Keir A. Lieber and Daryl G. Press
  • The age of MAD, however, is waning. Today the
    United States stands on the verge of attaining
    nuclear primacy vis-à-vis its plausible great
    power adversaries. For the first time in decades,
    it could conceivably disarm the long-range
    nuclear arsenals of Russia or China with a
    nuclear first strike. A preemptive strike on an
    alerted Russian arsenal would still likely fail,
    but a surprise attack at peacetime alert levels
    would have a reasonable chance of success.
    Furthermore, the Chinese nuclear force is so
    vulnerable that it could be destroyed even if it
    were alerted during a crisis. To the extent that
    great power peace stems from the pacifying
    effects of nuclear weapons, it currently rests on
    a shaky foundation.

104
  • We use the term nuclear primacy to describe the
    situation in which the one country with primacy
    can destroy its adversarys nuclear retaliatory
    capabilities in a disarming strike.
  • In the last fifteen years, however, the strategic
    nuclear balance has shifted profoundly. Part of
    the shift is attributable to the decline of the
    Russian arsenal. Compared with the Soviet force
    in 1990, Russia has 58 percent fewer
    intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), 39
    percent fewer bombers, and 80 percent fewer
    ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs).16
    Furthermore, serious maintenance and readiness
    problems plague Russias nuclear forces.
  • China has only 18 single-warhead missiles that
    can reach the U.S. homeland If the United States
    can destroy all of Russias long-range nuclear
    systems in a first strikeas we argue it could
    possibly do todayit suggests that the Chinese
    strategic nuclear arsenal is far more vulnerable.

105
SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative)- ??? ??????"
  • ?????? ????? ? "????? ?????? ???
  • 23. 3. 1983.
  • ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ????
  • ??????????? ? ??????

106
(No Transcript)
107
2.6. ???????? ?????????? ?????????
108
??????????? ????????? ???-???? (??????)
  • SALT I 1972.
  • SALT II 1979.
  • INF TREATY 1987.
  • START I 1991.
  • START II 1993.
  • STRATEGIC OFFENSIVE REDUCTION TREATY 2002. (RIM)

109
SALT ( STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION TREATY) I- 1972.
  • ABM TREATY (ANTIBALLISTIC MISSILE TREATY-????? ??
    ???? ?????? ???????, ?????? ? ?????????)
  • ??????????? "?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ICBMs ?
    SLBMs

110
SALT II 1979.
  • ?????? ???????????-????????? ???????????? ?
    ???????????
  • ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????, ??
    ?????? ?? 2400.
  • SLBMs
  • ????????? ??????????
  • SURFACE TO AIR MISSILE LAUNCHERS

111
INF (INTERMEDIATE RANGE NUCLEAR FORCES) TREATY
1987.
  • ??????????? ???? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????
    ??????? ??????
  • ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????
  • ??-20 ???????

112
START I (STRATEGIC ARMS REDUCTION TREATY) 1991.
  • ?? ?? ????????? ??????? ????? 15 ? ????? ?? 25
  • ??? ?? 12 081 ?? 10 395
  • ???? ?? 10 841 ?? 8 040

113
START II 1993.
  • ?? 50 ??????? ?????????? ????????
  • ????? ?? ??????????? 2000. ??????

114
STRATEGIC OFFENSIVE REDUCTION TREATY-2002.
  • ?? 6 000 ?? 2 200 ?? ????? ????????
  • ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????

115
?????????????? ?????????
116
THE NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY 1968.
  • INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA)
  • 172 ??????????
  • ??????, ????????, ??????, ?????

117
COMPREHENSIVE TEST BAN TREATY 1996.
  • ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????
  • ??? ??????
  • ?????? ? ???????? 1998.

118
3. ???????? ? ???????? ??????
119
3.1. ???????? ??????
  • ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??
    ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ? ??????? ????
  • ??????? ???? ????? ????????? ??????, ?? ???????
    ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????

120
???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ?????
  • ?) ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?
    ??????
  • ?) ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????
    ??????
  • ?) ???????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ? ????? ?
  • ?) ?????? ?????? ????? ??????, ??????, ????? ? V
    ???????

121
???? ??????? ???????? ??????
  • ???????? ?????? ??????, ???????, ??????? ?????? ?
    ????? ??????? ????????
  • ????? ?? ??????? ?? ???-??? ????? ? ????? ?????
  • ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????

122
???????? ????????? ??????
  • ???? ??????? ???
  • ? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????????
  • ??????? ?????? ?????
  • ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ?
    ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????
    ??????????

123
Halabja poison gas attack
  • The Halabja poison gas attack was an incident on
    15 March19 March 1988 during the Iran-Iraq War
    when chemical weapons were used by the Iraqi
    government forces to kill a number of people in
    the Iraqi Kurdish town of Halabja (population
    80,000). Estimates of casualties range from
    several hundred to 7,000 people. Halabja is
    located about 150 miles northeast of Baghdad and
    8-10 miles from the Iranian border.
  • Halabja was not the first time Iraq had turned
    its chemical arsenal on the Kurds. Thousands --
    and most likely tens of thousands -- of civilians
    were killed during chemical and conventional
    bombardments stretching from the spring of 1987
    through the fall of 1988. The attacks were part
    of a long-standing campaign that destroyed almost
    every Kurdish village in Iraq -- along with a
    centuries-old way of life -- and displaced at
    least a million of the country's estimated 3.5
    million Kurdish population

124
(No Transcript)
125
???????? ????????? ??????
  • ???????? ???????? 1925
  • ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? 1992.
    ??????-??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????
    ?????? ?????? ??????????
  • 175 ?????? ?? ?? ?????????
  • ????? ????????
  • ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? 44 000 ????
    ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????

126
3.2. ??????? ??????
  • ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??
    ?????????????? ? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ????
    ??????????????? ? ??????? ????
  • ??????, ?????????
  • ??????, ??????? ? ??.
  • ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ????

127
  • ????????? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ? ????
  • ????? ? ????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????
    ????
  • ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????
    ?????? ??? ????? ??????

128
??????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????
?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ????????? ? ????? ?????
  • ?) ??????
  • ?) ?????????
  • ?) ???????
  • ?) ????????
  • ?) ???????

129
???????? ???????? ??????
  • ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ?? 1972. ??????- 100
    ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ????
  • ?????? ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????
  • ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????

130
BW Agents Differ from CW Agents
Biological Agents Living beings Infectious
agents that replicate Incubation period
delayed onset of effects (days - weeks) A few
are contagious Diverse pathogenic effects None
volatile Not dermally active Usually no
decontamination Often dual-use medical or
research use or presence Odorless and
tasteless Many are effective immunogens Lab
clinical microbiology International law - BWC
Chemical Agents Inanimate substance Chemicals do
not replicate No incubation period - rapid onset
of effects (minutes) Not ever
contagious Fewer types of effects Many
volatile Many are dermally active Usually must be
decontaminated CW agents only for weapons
precursors some dual-use Odor and taste when
contaminated Poor immunogens Lab clinical
chemistry International law - CWC
131
Biological and Chemical Weapons as Systems
  • Pathogen or chemical active ingredient of the
    system for pathogens, may be non-contagious or
    contagious
  • Formulation chemical mixed with agent for
    greater stability and effective dispersal may be
    a wet or dry formulation (not necessarily
    needed for contagious)
  • Munition protect agent during transport and
    while in storage (not necessarily needed for
    contagious)
  • Dispersal device usually sprayer or atomizer for
    creating aerosol may be a simple mechanism such
    as syringe, ladle, etc. (not needed for
    contagious)
  • A pathogen or chemical by itself is not a
    weapon.

132
(No Transcript)
133
U.S. M143 Biological Bomb - Exterior
U.S. M143 Biological Bomb - Exterior
134
U.S. M143 Biological Bomb Cross Section
U.S. M143 Biological Bomb Cross Section
135
Iraqi R 400A Aerial Biological Bomb
136
cc
137
Al Hussein Missile
Fictionalized Artists Rendition Pre-1992
138
Encapsulation Equipment
139
Encapsulated Bacteria
140
4. ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????
141
?????????????
  • ????????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????
    ???????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???????
    ??????????
  • ??????????????? ??????
  • ??????????????? ??????
  • ???????? ???? ? ??? ??????

142
(No Transcript)
143
5. ??????????
  • JOSHUA S. GOLDSTEIN, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS,
    LONGMAN, NEW YORK, 2004, FIFTH EDITION
  • JOHN T. ROURK, INTERNATIONAL POLITICS ON THE
    WORLD STAGE, DUSHKIN MCGRAW HILL, NEW YORK, 1999,
    SEVENTH EDITION
  • CARLS KEGLI JR., JUDŽIN VITKOF, SVETSKA POLITIKA,
    CENTAR ZA STUDIJE JUGOSITOCNE EVROPE, DIPLOMATSKA
    AKADEMIJA, FAKULTET POLITICKIH NAUKA, BEOGRAD,
    2004
  • RADOVAN VUKADINOVIC, NUKLEARNE STRATEGIJE
    SUPERSILA, AUGUST CESAREC, ZAGREB, 1985
  • RADOMIR VUJKOVIC, SPORAZUMI O KONTROLI
    NAORUŽANJA, NIU VOJSKA, BEOGRAD, 1998
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