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Disasters, Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction

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Disasters, Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction You Are the Emergency Medical Responder You are an EMR dispatched to the scene of an explosion. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Disasters, Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction


1
Disasters, Terrorism and Weapons of Mass
Destruction
2
You Are the Emergency Medical Responder
Lesson 46 Disasters, Terrorism and Weapons of
Mass Destruction
  • You are an EMR dispatched to the scene of an
    explosion. On arrival you are staged with other
    emergency vehicles one block away. You are told
    that police suspect that a building was targeted
    by an extremist group and it is uncertain if
    there were injuries from the blast.

3
Terrorism
  • The unlawful use of force and violence against
    persons or property to intimidate or coerce
    government, the civilian population or any
    segment thereof, in furtherance of political or
    social objectives.

4
Preparation for Disasters and Terrorism
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
  • Responsible for coordinating the response in the
    U.S.
  • National Response Framework (NRF)
  • National Disaster Medical System (NDMS)

5
National Incident Management System
  • Comprehensive national framework for managing
    incidents
  • Outline of structures for response activities for
    command and management
  • Provision of consistent, nationwide response at
    all levels
  • Contains 15 Emergency Support Functions (ESFs)
  • As EMRs you are supported by ESF 8 (public
    health and medical services)

6
Areas of NIMS
  • Incident command systems (ICS)
  • Multiagency coordination system (MACS)
  • Unified command, training, identification and
    management of resources
  • Mutual aid and assistance
  • Situational awareness
  • Qualifications and certification
  • Collection, tracking and reporting of incident
    information
  • Crisis action planning
  • Exercises

7
Emergency Support Functions
  1. Transportation
  2. Communications
  3. Public works and engineering
  4. Firefighting
  5. Emergency management
  6. Mass care, emergency assistance, housing and
    human services
  7. Logistics management and resource support

8
Emergency Support Functions (contd)
  1. Public health and medical services
  2. Search and rescue
  3. Oil and hazardous materials response
  4. Agriculture and natural resources
  5. Energy
  6. Public safety and security
  7. Long-term community recovery
  8. External affairs

9
Three Main Categories of Disasters
  • Natural
  • Human-caused (terrorist attacks, HAZMAT incidents
    and MCIs)
  • Biological

10
The Role of the Emergency Medical Responder
  • Leadership if first responder on the scene
  • If you are not the first responder on the scene
  • Assist the leader
  • Assume other roles
  • Triage patients
  • Provide medical care
  • Provide patient reception at staging facilities
  • Prepare patients for evacuation

11
Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Known by the acronym CBRNE
  • Chemical
  • Biological
  • Radiological/Nuclear
  • Explosives

12
Chemical Agents
  • Nerve agents act upon the nervous system
  • Blister agents as the name implies
  • Blood agents disrupt cellular respirations
  • Pulmonary agents lung tissue damage
  • Incapacitating agents pepper spray, tear gas

13
Biological Weapons
  • Class A weapons highest level of threat
  • Anthrax, smallpox
  • Class B weapons moderate level
  • Food/water pathogens, ricin toxin
  • Class C weapons easy spread
  • Yellow fever, hanta virus, tick-borne viruses

14
Radiological/Nuclear Agents
  • Damage due to the following
  • Air blast
  • Heat
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Ground shock
  • Secondary radiation
  • Acute radiation syndrome follows a predictable
    pattern that unfolds over several days and weeks

15
Explosives and Incendiary Weapons
  • High-order explosives supersonic
    over-pressurization shock wave
  • Low-order explosives subsonic explosion

16
Response to CBRNE/WMD Incident
  • Preparation
  • Medical direction
  • Personal preparation
  • Equipment
  • Transportation and communication
  • Equipment and supplies
  • Arrival on the scene
  • Scene safety
  • Providing care

17
Nerve Agent Poisoning
  • Initial effects dependent on dose and route
  • Inhalation via gas
  • Absorption through skin
  • Ingestion from liquids or food
  • Dose and amount of exposure leads to varying
    effects

18
Care for Nerve Agent Poisoning
  • Ventilation
  • Antidotes
  • Atropine
  • Pralidoxime chloride
  • Decontamination is critical for skin exposure
  • Continued monitoring and transport (if ingested)
  • Nerve agent auto-injector kit (for self- or
    peer-administration of nerve agent antidote)

19
Activity
  • You and several other EMRs are providing care to
    patients at the scene involving exposure to a
    nerve agent. You observe a fellow EMR begin to
    sweat excessively and cough. He starts
    complaining of headache and nausea. You also
    notice a runny nose, watery eyes and pinpoint
    pupils. You suspect that he is exhibiting signs
    of nerve agent poisoning.

20
You Are the Emergency Medical Responder
  • There is some question about the cause of the
    explosion but police strongly suspect that is was
    a terrorist attack using a WMD, most likely a
    high-order explosive. While in the staging area
    you observe a large trash bag near a dumpster in
    close proximity to staged apparatus.

21
Enrichment Pandemic Flu
  • Three pillars
  • Preparedness and communication
  • Surveillance and detection
  • Response and containment
  • Phases
  • Early detection
  • Treatment with antiviral medications
  • Infection control measures
  • Vaccination

22
Enrichment Personal Preparedness
  • Get a kit
  • Make a plan
  • Be informed
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