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Title: International Trends in Engineering and Implications for the South Pacific


1
International Trends in Engineering and
Implications for the South Pacific
  • Dr Andrew Cleland, Chief Executive

2
Hierarchical Model for Occupations
  • Level One The industry field is recognised as a
    community
  • Level Two A qualification regime is defined
  • Level Three The industry field is governed by a
    framework of professional institutions
  • Level Four The nine tests of public obligation
    for a profession are satisfied
  • Level Five The profession is regulated by law for
    the benefit of the public (i.e. the profession is
    given statutory enforcement power)

3
The nine tests
  • The profession must be controlled by a governing
    body which in professional matters directs the
    behaviour of its members.
  • The governing body must set adequate standards of
    education as a condition of entry and thereafter
    ensure that students obtain an acceptable
    standard of professional competence. Training and
    education continue throughout the member's
    professional life.
  • The governing body must set the ethical rules and
    professional standards which are to be observed
    by the members. They should be higher than those
    established by the general law.

4
The nine tests (cont.)
  • The rules and standards enforced by the governing
    body should be designed for the benefit of the
    public and not for the private advantage of the
    members
  • The governing body must take disciplinary action,
    if necessary, expulsion from membership should
    the rules and standards it lays down not be
    observed or should a member be guilty of bad
    professional work.
  • Work is often reserved to a profession by statute
    - not because it was for the advantage of the
    members but because, for the protection of the
    public, it should be carried out only by persons
    with the requisite training, standards and
    disciplines.

5
The nine tests (cont.)
  • The governing body must satisfy itself that there
    is fair and open competition in the practice of
    the profession
  • The members of the profession, whether in
    practice or in employment, must be independent in
    thought and outlook. They must not allow
    themselves to be put under the control or
    dominance of any person or organization which
    could impair that independence.
  • In its specific field of learning, a profession
    must give leadership to the public it serves.

6
Key characteristics of a professional body
  • Collegially determines and sets relevant
    standards
  • Academic qualifications
  • Initial achievement of professional competence
  • Continuing professional competence retention
  • Technical standards/codes of practice
  • Sets and maintains a Code of Ethics that is
    independent of employers (peer-based)
  • Provides public good leadership

7
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8
Differences in competence levels
  • Main distinction is in nature of engineering
    problems tackled and engineering activities
    undertaken
  • Complex (professional engineer)
  • Broadly-defined (engineering
    technologist)
  • Well-defined (engineering technician)
  • But all have the same ethical obligations !

9
Demonstrating competence for independent practice
Accredited University Qualification
Mentoring Graduate Development programme
3-7 years experience
Initial Competence Assessment
Membership of Professional Body
Evaluation by experienced engineers
Registration e.g. CPEng
Lifetime professional standing
Continuing professional development
Regular (5 yearly) Current Competence Assessments
10
Competence and Professional Standing Quality Marks
Group Current Competence Professional standing Typical Qualification
Professional engineer CPEng, IntPE Professional Member MIPENZ BE (4 years)
Engineering technologist ETPract, IntET Technical Member TIPENZ BEngTech (3 years)
Engineering technician CertETn (R.E.A.) Associate Member AIPENZ DipEng/ NZCE (2 years)
11
Professional engineers
  • Washington Accord degree accreditation for BE
    (recognition in 11 other nations)
  • Competence assessment leads to
  • MIPENZ (professional standing),
  • CPEng (current competence under CPEng Act)
  • IntPE(NZ) (international benchmarked competence
  • standard)
  • 2002 Act protects the title Chartered
    Professional Engineer to assist the public
    identify good quality engineers IPENZ appointed
    Registration Authority
  • APEC Engineer and Engineers Mobility Forum
    Agreements involving 17 nations underpin the
    IntPE quality mark to assist international
    mobility

12
Engineering technologists
  • Sydney Accord degree accreditation for BEngTech
    (recognition in 6 other nations)
  • Competence assessment leads to
  • TIPENZ (professional standing)
  • ETPract (commenced 1 July 2007)
  • IntET(NZ) (commenced 1 July 2007)
  • Engineering Technologist Mobility Forum Agreement
    involving 7 nations established the IntET quality
    mark to assist international mobility

13
Engineering technicians
  • Dublin Accord qualification accreditation for
    NDipE (4 nations) IPENZ provisional status from
    2006, aiming for signatory status from 2010
  • Competence assessment leads to
  • AIPENZ (professional standing)
  • CertETn (commenced 1 July 2007)
  • 1961 Engineering Associates Registration Act
    still operates a non-current competence
    registration system, but under review by
    Government
  • No international quality marking scheme yet
    developed

14
Relevant Acts and Regulations
  • Building Act to provide certification
    structure, fire, geotechnical CPEng reqd
  • A number of OSH regulations mechanical,
    structural, electrical
  • A few others e.g. in water regulations
  • CPEng recommended in a number of NZ Standards
    (note Stds not compulsory unless inserted in
    Regulations)

15
Annual costs of gaining and maintaining quality
marks (excl. GST)
  • Registration fee (includes brand development,
    ethics discipline) 285
  • Professional body services(professional
    development supportengineering practice
    support), 270 360

16
Educational Accords
  • Based on substantial equivalence of
    accreditation systems
  • Exemplar graduate profiles
  • Graduates receive credit for having qualification
    equivalent to local one
  • Signatories reviewed six-yearly observation of
    our processes
  • Annual governance meetings admissions etc.
  • Secretariat at IPENZ

17
Washington Accord (1989)
  • USA
  • Canada
  • UK
  • New Zealand
  • Australia
  • Ireland
  • Hong Kong China (1995)
  • South Africa (1999)
  • Japan (2005)
  • Singapore (2006)
  • Korea (2007)
  • Chinese Taipei (2007)
  • Provisional
  • Germany
  • Russia
  • Malaysia
  • Sri Lanka
  • India

18
Sydney Accord (2001)
  • Canada
  • UK
  • New Zealand
  • Australia
  • Ireland
  • Hong Kong China
  • South Africa
  • Provisional
  • USA

19
Dublin Accord (2003)
  • Canada
  • UK
  • Ireland
  • South Africa
  • Provisional
  • USA
  • New Zealand

20
Mobility Agreements
  • Establish national sections of the relevant
    international register
  • Each register has a title for use by registrants
  • Based on passing a benchmarked competence
    assessment/examination, holding an Accord
    qualification, 2 yrs responsible experience, 7
    yrs post-graduation
  • Brand value helps employment mobility
  • Little value in streamlining entry to other
    nations regulatory systems
  • Members reviewed 6-yearly
  • Annual governance meetings
  • Secretariat at IPENZ

21
APEC Engineer (2000)
  • USA
  • Canada
  • New Zealand
  • Australia
  • Hong Kong China
  • Japan
  • Malaysia
  • Korea
  • Indonesia (2001)
  • Thailand (2003)
  • Philippines (2003)
  • Singapore (2005)
  • Chinese Taipei (2005)

22
Engineers Mobility Forum (1997)
  • USA
  • Canada
  • New Zealand
  • Australia
  • Hong Kong China
  • UK
  • Ireland
  • South Africa
  • Japan (1999)
  • Malaysia (1999)
  • Registers opened from 2003
  • Korea (2000)
  • Singapore (2007)
  • Sri Lanka (2007)
  • Provisional
  • Chinese Taipei
  • India
  • Bangladesh

23
Engineering Technologists Mobility Forum (2001)
  • USA
  • Canada
  • New Zealand
  • Hong Kong China
  • UK
  • Ireland
  • South Africa
  • Registers opened from 2007

24
International benchmarking/credit
  • WA, SA, DA accreditation provides both an
    international quality standard (e.g. used by
    immigration, to assist employment mobility), and
    credit for regulatory purposes
  • IntPE and IntET provide an international quality
    mark to date may only assist employment
    mobility
  • IPENZ gives credit for IntPE and IntET entrants
    to NZ for regulatory purposes

25
What is the engineering knowledge used in
industry?
  • Codes, standards, proprietary software etc.
  • Rarely working from first principles where a high
    degree of standardisation exists
  • Exceptions architecturally-designed buildings
    structures, fire design, geotechnical
  • The more from first principles, the more peer
    review
  • Tension to ensure that the knowledge taught is
    principles, but with sufficient relevant
    applications, not just current codes of practice

26
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27
Short courses for industry
  • Creators of demand by industry
  • Change in regulatory environment
  • New standards or codes of practice, guidance
    notes
  • New knowledge from research that might be applied
  • Demand for half, full and two day courses

28
IPENZ service areas
  • Competence and qualification recognition
  • Professional development support
  • Leadership on national community issues
  • Engineering practice support and learned society
    activities
  • Renewal of the profession (attracting young
    people to engineering and technology)

29
South Pacific Island Engineering Workshop
October 2007
  • Fiji Fiji Institution of Engineers
  • Samoa Institution of Professional Engineers
    Samoa
  • Tonga
  • Vanuatu
  • Cook Islands

30
Typical Issues
  • Historic reliance on aid from developed nations
    (especially Australia and NZ) for infrastructure
    projects brought good engineering standards
    with it
  • Local capital increasing via tourism
  • Capital from Asia increasing
  • Engineering standards no longer intrinsically
    packaged with aid money

31
Typical Issues (continued)
  • Cyclones, earthquakes, fire all lead to
    substantial structural damage
  • Construction standards variable poor materials
  • Waste water treatment lagoon pollution
  • Water treatment variable
  • Roading variable quality
  • Electricity supply unreliable diesel dominant
  • Telecommunications improving

32
Capability, education and professional development
  • Aid-funded projects are not developing local
    capability or capacity.
  • Construction capability is very low (technical
    and trades), and there is poor supervision the
    clerk of works role is poorly performed.
  • Training of construction workers is inadequate
    and many practices are unsafe.
  • Access to codes of practices and relevant
    standards is poor new engineering knowledge and
    knowledge of methods for handling new materials
    which will inevitably arrive is lacking.
  • The engineering workforce is ageing, and there
    are issues in attracting young people into
    engineering education.

33
Technical standards
  • Materials quality and variability of materials is
    an ongoing issue.
  • Poor capability to test materials and quality
    assure their reliability
  • Lack of a systematic building code which is
    practical for a number of nations.
  • Cyclones, tsunami and earthquakes not dealt with
    well in design of public infrastructure and
    private sector construction projects.
  • Asset degradation due to harsh tropical
    conditions
  • Much investment bypasses Australian or New
    Zealand technical standards, especially if the
    source of capital is private or from Asia.
  • Access to technical standards by engineers in the
    islands is difficult.
  • Some technology brought in from overseas is
    inappropriate for the service conditions in the
    islands.

34
Professional identity for engineers
  • Qualification recognition, especially for those
    educated in Fiji and Papua New Guinea is an
    issue,
  • Lack of a peer body for creating status and
    standing for engineers, and as a means to attract
    focus to engineering issues,
  • Lack of specialist engineers in some disciplines,
    especially those in high demand globally,
  • Enforcement of disciplinary actions against poor
    performers is difficult,
  • Achievement of robust competence assessments is
    difficult.

35
Suggestions for Improvement
  • Development of a South Pacific Building Code, and
    regular updating of this document.
  • Development of suitable compliance documents e.g.
    standards this might involve Australia/New
    Zealand standards becoming South Pacific in
    coverage as well.
  • Development of means to ensure reliable and
    accurate construction materials testing in all
    nations
  • Consistent restriction of professional
    engineering work to competent engineers.
  • Internationally-benchmarked competence standards
    for recognising engineers competent to practice
    in South Pacific conditions.
  • Benchmarking of Fijian and PNG qualifications in
    relation to the competence standards.

36
Suggestions for improvement (cont.)
  • Creation of professional identity for engineers,
    e.g. through an association
  • Improved access to professional development,
    perhaps facilitated by IPENZ.
  • Competent regulators competence developed by
    productive relationships with leading Building
    Consent Authorities in New Zealand.
  • Improved engineering trades training throughout
    the South Pacific IPENZ might act as an
    advocate for funding for this capability-raising
    need.

37
South Pacific Engineers Association (SPEA)
  • Competence and standards
  • Technical standard setting e.g. building code,
    technical standards, codes of practice.
  • Competence and qualification standard setting.
  • Good engineering office practice guideline
    establishment.
  • Competence assessment processing.
  • Accrediting/qualification recognition actions.
  • Disciplinary actions and complaints processing.
  • Handling of appeals.

38
South Pacific Engineers Association (SPEA) (cont.)
  • Professional development
  • Broker of professional development opportunities
    delivered locally, both to engineers and to
    associated occupations e.g. construction
    personnel.
  • Networking opportunities for engineers.
  • Mentoring of young engineers.
  • Improved access to engineering knowledge,
    possibly including access to technical standards.

39
July 2008 Workshop
  • Desire to involve Papua New Guinea involvement
    of IEPNG
  • Initial focus on support of people and competence
    standards SPEA and associated competence
    registers
  • Need to establish a credible body before funding
    is sought for technical standards

40
Governance
41
Legal Form
42
Role of IPENZ
  • Provides underpinning administration membership
    database etc.
  • Provides copies of publications, distributes
    newsletters etc.
  • Operates web site
  • Takes overall financial risks
  • Provides assistance with short course
    development, accreditation etc.
  • Trains assessors, moderates assessment process

43
Role of SPEA Council
  • Governance
  • Representation to key stakeholders in region
  • Set overall work programme, including regional
    activities
  • Manages interface with IPENZ National Office
    (IPENZ is in attendance but not part of decision
    making)

44
Role of Chapters
  • Run national programme (a proportion of SPEA
    subscription is transferred to national chapter
    to fund this)
  • Co-ordinate regional events held in its nation
  • Manage relationship to own Government and
    regulators
  • Note to achieve financial viability it will not
    be possible to only join local chapter and not
    SPEA

45
SPEA Registers
  • Managed by IPENZ in parallel to NZ registers
  • Assessors trained by IPENZ
  • Results of assessments go through IPENZ
    moderation process
  • Recommended that in nations where local registers
    also exist the local registration body accepts
    the SPEA register assessment outcome to achieve
    consistency

46
Description Title Post-nominal Equivalent NZ register
Professional engineer Professional Engineer (South Pacific) PE(SP) Chartered Professional Engineer (CPEng)
Engineering technologist Engineering Technology practitioner (South Pacific) ETPract(SP) Engineering technology practitioner (ETPract)
Engineering technician Certified Engineering Technician (South Pacific) CertETn(SP) Certified engineering technician (CertETn)
47
Description Title Post-nominal Definition
Fellow FSPEA Meets equivalent standard to IPENZ Fellowship
Professional engineer Professional member MSPEA Competence demonstrated at professional engineer level
Engineering technologist Technical member TSPEA Competence demonstrated at engineering technologist level
Engineering technician Associate member ASPEA Competence demonstrated at engineering technician level
Engineering graduate Graduate member GSPEA Holds a recognised engineering qualification
Trades people, planners, certifiers etc. Affiliate member No post nominal Interested in involvement, but holds no engineering qualification
48
Annual fees Samoa Fiji Tonga Cook Is. Vanuatu N.Z.
Service Centre fee 38.00 38.00 38.00 38.00 38.00 38.00
Publications 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00
Regional component 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00 75.00
National chapter 50.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00
Membership 188.00 168.00 168.00 168.00 168.00 168.00
Registration 140.00 140.00 140.00 140.00 140.00 140.00
Total 328.00 308.00 308.00 308.00 308.00 308.00
49
Establishment timetable
  • Obtain buy-in from all national bodies/committees
  • Launch event early May 2009 (inaugural Council
    meeting) also assessor training, membership
    services commence
  • September/October 2009 2nd Council meeting,
    first subscriptions payable, further assessor
    training
  • January 2009 registers open
  • March 2010 first AGM
  • 2010 - Professional development course delivery
    commences

50
Subsidy from IPENZ
  • Meet establishment costs
  • Marginal costing of services publications etc.
  • Fund own participation
  • Web site and electronic communications to Members
  • Could be appointed accrediting agency by FIE,
    IEPNG and IPES
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