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Title: Writing


1
Writing
  • ???? ??????? ? ????? ????? ???? ?????

2
1. Why Write
3
  • 1.1. Writing to Work
  • With computers now a part of almost every job,
    word processing and e-mailing are essential
    skills.
  • Getting and keeping a job these days usually
    involves good writing skills.
  • You will need writing in your job in these forms
  • Letters of application and Resume
  • Memos and Reports (office works)
  • Letters
  • Records and Orders (health-care professional)
  • Legal Briefs (lawyer)

4
1.2. Writing to Learn
  • All the students need to know writing techniques
    to
  • Take Notes
  • Write Essays Reports
  • Answer Examination Questions
  • Be able to write letters E-mails

5
1.3. Writing to Communicate
  • All of us need writing to be able to communicate
    using
  • Email
  • Text Messages (SMS language or textese )
  • Personal Letter

6
2. The Writing Process
7
  • No two writers approach writing in exactly the
    same way. But they do tend to follow a series of
    actions that look something like this
  • Exploring Ideas
  • Prewriting
  • Organizing
  • Writing a First Draft
  • Revising the Draft
  • Producing the Final Copy

8
2.1. Step 1 Exploring Ideas
  • Remember that writing is like speech, and
    speaking includes discovering ideas as you say
    them. This is the first step of writing.
  • SO
  • Before you sit down to write, let your mind speak
    freely.
  • When inspiration happens, capture it by writing
    on what ever you can
  • Napkins, Piece of paper, back of your hand.

9
In order to have your exploration systematic you
need to bare three items in your mind
  • Something to say
  • Reason for saying
  • Someone to say it to
  • So
  • Never forget the three fundamental questions
  • What is my subject?
  • What is my purpose?
  • Who is my audience?

10
2.1.1. Your Subject
  • While choosing your subjects keep these issues in
    mind
  • Choose the most interesting subjects to your
    audience
  • Choose the subjects about which you care
  • Choose the subjects about which you know
  • You must select and then narrow your subject

11
Example Suppose you are asked to describe a job
you know well. Ask yourelf thgese questions
  1. What jobs have I done or do now?
  2. What do I know about these jobs?
  3. Which jobs (or parts of one job) do I feel
    strongly about? What do I hate? What parts make
    me angry or happy?
  4. What tools or materials do I use in my job?
  5. How do I perform each task?
  6. Which tasks are most interesting or boring?
  7. What examples or little stories best illustrate
    these points?

12
2.1.2. Your Purpose
  • What do you want to do with your writing?
  • You can
  • Inform (your classmates about some procedures at
    your job)
  • Persuade (your classmates that they should find
    or avoid a job like you)
  • Entertain ( your classmates with examples of odd
    incidents you have experienced at your job)
  • All these three

13
Exercise Read each sentence and write the
purpose of the paragraph. Then choose one of the
sentences and revise it so that it begins a
different paragraph.
  1. Before November 18, 1883, when the railroads
    instituted the Standard Time and time zones, the
    time of day varied from city to city and town to
    town
  2. There must be better ways to resolve differences
    than going to war............
  3. The history behind the naming of months of the
    calendar is fascinating.
  4. The Roman emperors Julius and Augustus Caesar
    each added a month to the year, and named them
    ,of course, after themselves

14
2.1.3. Your Audiance
  • Who is your audience?
  • The answer to this question may help you
  • Determine the content of your writing
  • Determine the purpose of your writing
  • The amount of needed explanation
  • The amount of needed evidence to persuade

15
  • Exercise For each of the following topic,
    list two or three points you would include if
    your were writing to a different audiences
    specified.
  • Example Topic The benefits of controlled diets
  • Audience Overweight adults better health,
    better appearance, feeling of well being
  • Topic The role of personal web sites on the
    internet like My Space
  • Audience People between the age of 12-30
  • Audience People between the age of 40-70
  • 2. Topic The reasons for requiring helmets for
    motorcycle riders
  • Audience Riders of motorcycles
  • Audience Motor cycle manufacturers

16
  • Exercise Read the text and answer
    questions

17
  1. Whats the writers main purpose to inform,
    persuade or entertain? Or is it a combination of
    these purposes?
  2. Whos the audience for this article? Would you
    expect to find it in a college textbook, a
    newspaper or a popular magazine? Write your
    reasons.
  3. What point or points is the writer making?
  4. Whats the writers attitude toward his son? Does
    he have more than one attitude? How do you know?

18
2.2. Step 2 Prewriting
  • The second step of writing process involves
  • capturing your thoughts
  • on a piece of paper or on the computer screen.
  • This step is called
  • prewriting
  • in which you jot down whatever comes to your mind
    without any worrying about spelling or
    punctuation.
  • There are three techniques regarding this step
  • 1. Brainstorming
  • 2. Clustering
  • 3. Freewriting

19
2.2.1. Brainstorming
  • One way to capture your thoughts is by
  • Brainstorming
  • Or listing thoughts as they come to you
  • Here is an example from a student who has been
    asked to describe a job

20
2.2.2. Clustering
  • In this technique you put your topic in a circle
    in the middle of the page and then add related
    ideas as they occur to you.
  • These related ideas are called
  • Branches
  • In the following example the topic is a job
    description

my job delivering pizza
21
(No Transcript)
22
2.2.3. Freewriting
  • In this technique you simply start writing about
    your topic without worrying about sentence
    structure, spelling, logic, and grammar.
  • Here the only difference is that your pieces of
    information is not in the form of single words
    but sentences.
  • Use abbreviations and shortcuts so you can get
    your ideas down fast.
  • Dont think of your freewriting as disorganized.
    Just let your ideas flow.
  • You can expand it, change it or omit some parts

23
Here we have the same example of a job description
24
2.3. Step 3 Organizing
  • Now that you captured your ideas you can select
    from and organize them
  • Underline or highlight the most promising ideas
    in your brainstorming list. Then rewrite the
    list. You can add more ideas to your list.
  • Choose the part of clustering diagram that seems
    most promising. You can even do a second
    clustering diagram.
  • Highlight the most promising parts of your
    freewriting. You can narrow your subject or add
    more details.

25
2.3.1. Selecting
  • Now you have narrowed your focus
  • And Generate more ideas
  • The next step is to choose one of those ideas
    that fits your purpose and audience.
  • Example
  • Your topic is the pizza delivery as a job.
  • Your Purpose is to entertain who have part time
    job and to show that your job is not that bad.
  • So
  • You will keep the most humorous information
    Fuzzy Ms. Fritzy, Wobbly Wally, and the
    Fraternity boys
  • You will omit the unimportant parts such as the
    ones about your cell phone, and working hours

26
2.3.2. Outlining
  • . To write an outline, follow these guidelines.
  • Choose a topic
  • Determine the larger purpose of your work
  • Gather supporting materials
  • Decide how to generally order your supporting
    evidence so that it supports your larger purpose
  • Decide whether to write a topic outline or a
    sentence outline.
  • Identify your main categories.
  • Think of at least two points for each category.
  • Expand upon your points with sub-points if
    necessary.

27
Example
28
After deciding on the focus of the customers,
the pizza delivery writer can make a rough
outline
29
2.4. Step 4 Writing a First Draft
  • In the prewriting stage you have
  • Select your best ideas
  • Arrange them in some reasonable order
  • Now
  • Begin writing your first draft and

30
  1. Dont worry about writing something perfect.
  2. Write fast as if speaking your words aloud.
  3. Leave wide margins.
  4. If new ideas occur to you write them on the
    margin.
  5. Double-space so there will be enough room for
    changes
  6. Use only one side of the paper so you can cut and
    paste the changes.
  7. Tape or staple additions where you want them to
    go.
  8. Say something loud before you write it.
  9. Circle the words you think you misspelled or will
    want to change later

31
Example Here is the example of description pizza
delivery as job
32
2.5. Step 5 Revising the Draft
  • After completing your first draft, set it aside.
  • Give yourself a chance to see it with fresh eyes
    later.
  • Its hard to think about changing and correcting
    your work immediately after you finish a draft.
  • You tend to read what you think you said, not
    whats actually on the paper.

33
2.5.1. Reviewing
  • Now go back to what you have written , read it
    carefully.
  • Study its organization, word choice, and details.
  • You will find something to cut and something to
    add.
  • Rearrange sections, rephrase sentences, and
    improve your word choice.
  • Look at the words you circle earlier and correct
    the misspellings.
  • Make notes in the margin and use arrows to show
    the place they will be added.

34
Example Here is our old examples reviewing
35
2.5.2. Reading aloud
  • Now read your work aloud. Listen hard. Youll
    probably hear mistakes to correct and discover
    improvements to make.
  • Then read your work again , perhaps to another
    person, and repeat the process until youre
    satisfied that your writing is interesting and
    clear.

36
2.5.3.Predicting
  • Remember
  • Readers dont merely receive information
  • they actively attempt to find meaning for
    themselves.
  • They predict what will follow from your opening
    sentences and then perhaps adjust their
    predictions as they read on.
  • Here is how to do it
  • Read the first sentence or two
  • Stop and think about what your readers would
    expect to follow.
  • Decide if the rest of the paragraph satisfies
    those predictions.
  • Make notes on what you add, remove, or shift to
    satisfy your readers expectations.

37
2.6. Step 6 Producing the Final Copy
  • Once youre reasonably satisfied with you
    writing, you can begin the final copy.
  • Prepare it according to the guidelines of your
    instructor.
  • Before finishing pay attention to the details you
    have ignored

38
2.6.1. Editing
  • Examine and look for your mistakes carefully.
  • Check the misspelled or repeated words.
  • Look for grammatical errors, missing word
    endings, incomplete sentences, and incorrect
    punctuation.
  • Read the pare more than once.
  • Copy it again and again including the new changes.

39
2.6.2. Proofreading
  • Proofreading means carefully examining the last
    copy again, and comparing it with previous ones.
  • Read the paper slowly.
  • Place a ruler under each line to focus your eyes.
  • Read the paper aloud.

40
Example Here is the pizza delivery examples
final copy.
41
3.Sentence
42
3.1. Building Repairing Sentences3.1.1. What
is a Sentence?
  • A sentence is the basic unit of expression.
  • Every sentence must make a complete statement.

43
  • Most often the subject comes first and the verb
    follows the subject. Examples
  • This group of words that can express a complete
    proposition is called a clause.

Subject Verb
President Abraham Lincoln loved
He saved
The turkey was
44
As you can see the subject and the verb of a
sentence dont complete the statement. That
usually requires additional words that follow the
verb
Subject verb Remainder of the clause
President Abraham Lincoln Loved Animals.
He Saved A turkeys life.
The turkey was A gift for Christmas dinner.
This combination of Subject verb completion
of the statement is called an independent
clause. An independent clause can stand as a
complete sentence.
45
3.1.1.1. Identifying Subjects
  • The best way to identify the subject and verb is
    to look for both at the same time.
  • The subject
  • Tells who or what the clause makes a statement
    about.
  • Usually appears at the beginning of the statement
    before the verb.
  • Can be a proper noun, subject pronoun, common
    noun, or gerund.

46
Exercise Underline the subjects in each sentence.
  1. Tad Lincoln was only ten years old in 1863.
  2. He adored the turkey and named it Jack.
  3. The bird soon followed Tad around the White House
    grounds.
  4. Tad and his father agreed not to kill the animal.
  5. Pardoning the White House turkey has since become
    an annual tradition for presidents.

47
3.1.1.2. Identifying Verbs
  • The verb
  • Says what the subject does or is.
  • Usually has a tense indicating if the verb
    discusses the past, present, or future.
  • Usually follows the subject and begins a
    statement about the subject.
  • May contain more than one word.

48
Example Circle the verbs in the following
sentences.
  1. Lincoln was controversial throughout his
    presidency.
  2. By todays standards, people might even consider
    Lincoln as racist.
  3. Lincoln didnt free the slaves at the beginning
    of the Civil War for a simple reason.
  4. He wanted to bring the South back into the Union
    quickly.
  5. However like other great presidents, he grew in
    office and took courageous positions.
  6. In the fall of 1862, he drafted the Emancipation
    Proclamation, freeing the slaves in the areas
    still in rebellion as of January1, 1863.

49
3.1.2. Coordination
  • If you want to keep your readers interested, you
    need to create some variety in your sentences.
  • Sentence variety comes largely from joining
    sentences.
  • One way to add sentences is to add words that
    join them.
  • A joining word is called conjunction.
  • Notice how conjunctions connect the following
    pairs of words

John and I (two people, or subjects)
Tripped or fell (two action verbs)
A fat yet athletic man (two adjectives)
Moved quickly but carefully ( two adverbs)
50
  • One kind of conjunction is called
  • coordinating conjunction.
  • As you can see in these examples each pair of
    word is grammatically equal or coordinate.
  • So
  • Coordinating conjunctions are the ones that can
    join grammatically equal structures.
  • The coordinating conjunctions are seven
  • for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

51
  • ? As coordinating conjunctions can join two
    grammatically equal structures, they can connect
    two sentences. Remember that every sentence must
    have at least one independent clause (a subject
    and a verb that can stand alone). In this case
    you create a single sentence with two independent
    clauses. This single sentence is called compound
    sentence.
  • Examples
  • Male babies often wear blue, and female babies
    were pink.
  • Years ago, people wanted to protect their infant
    boys from evil spirits, so they dressed the boys
    in blue.
  • People associated blue with good spirits, for
    those spirits live in the blue sky.
  • Of course, people cared about their female
    children, yet people did not care enough to dress
    them in blue.

52
Coordinating conjunctions do not connect two
structure without any additional impact. They
also explain the logical relationship between the
two clauses
Conjunction Purpose Example
for Shows a reason (the second clause gives a reason for the first) He is gambling with his health, for he has been smoking far too long.
and Shows addition They gamble, and they smoke.
nor Shows a negative alternative (It is the negative form of or and it must contain a negative word such as not) They do not gamble nor do they smoke.
but Shows contrast They gamble, but they don't smoke.
or Shows and alternative or choice Every day they gamble or they smoke.
yet Shows an unexpected contrast (It is similar in meaning to although) They gamble, yet they don't smoke.
so Shows a result (the first clause results in the second.) He gambled well last night so he smoked a cigar to celebrate.
53
Punctuation rules say you do not need a comma for
all coordinating conjunctionsPlace a comma
before the coordinating conjunction that joins
independent clauses.Don not use a comma before
coordinating conjunctions that merely join two
words
  • Example
  • Tom likes ice cream, but he likes pizza better.
  • Tom likes ice cream and pizza.

54
Exercise Join each of the following pairs of
sentences with one coordinating conjunction
  1. It was August 3, 1877. A stagecoach was traveling
    across California.
  2. A man with a flour sack over his head stopped the
    coach. He pointed the rifle at the drivers.
  3. The man told them to throw their cash box. He did
    not harm anyone.
  4. Later someone found the box. That person was
    surprised.
  5. The box contained an angry poem signed by Black
    Bart". It also contained a note of apology
    saying, Driver, give my respects to your friend
    , the other driver.
  6. Black Bart continued robbing. He continued to
    leave humorous verses.
  7. The stagecoach company was not amused. It offered
    a reward of 800 for his capture.
  8. On Barts last hold up, someone shot and wounded
    him. He tried to stop bleeding with a
    handkerchief that he left behind.
  9. Detectives learned that Black Barts real name by
    tracing the laundry mark on the handkerchief. The
    robber might have gone free.

55
  1. He was Charles E. Bolton and elderly gentleman
    with a mustache, gold-headed cane, and fin
    clothes. He finally confessed to his crimes.
  2. He also said, I never robbed a passenger. I
    never treated a human being badly. (use nor, and
    change the wording of the second paragraph)
  3. He was supposed to serve a long term in prison,
    His behavior was so gentlemanly that he was
    released four years later.

56
3.1.3. Subordination
  • Look at the following sentence
  • I came home from work, and I found an eight-foot
    cobra snake in my living room.
  • In this sentence two equal structure have been
    joined by a coordinating conjunction. Do you
    think the idea in both structures are also equal?
  • These ideas shouldnt be joined by and. They need
    to be joined in a way that expresses their
    inequality. Here are two possibilities
  • When I came home from work, I found an eight-foot
    cobra snake in my living room.
  • After coming home from work, I found and
    eight-foot cobra snake in my living room.
  • Now the less important idea is subordinate to the
    more important one. This process is called
    subordination.

57
  • Subordination creates a kind of clause called
  • dependent clause.
  • A dependent clause is a kind of clause which
    cannot stand alone as a separate sentence.
    Because its meaning is not complete without an
    independent clause. A dependent clause gives us
    the less important information than the
    independent clause.
  • Example
  • When Albert sits down for dinner, he can eat
    seven pizzas.
  • The joining word when subordinates the clause it
    introduces. Therefore, we call it a subordinating
    conjunction.

58
Exercise Each sentence contains a dependent
clause, an independent clause and a subordinating
conjunction. Label them with DC, IC, and SC.
  1. In 1936,when the Olympic Games begin in Nazi
    Germany, Adolf Hitler wanted them to prove his
    theories of Aryan (white) superiority.
  2. However after a twenty-two-year-old
    African-American named James Cleveland Owens had
    competed in the track-and field events, the young
    man ripped those theories to pieces.
  3. At the beginning of track-and-field events, Owens
    felt tense because a German had won a gold medal
    the day before and received Hitlers enthusiastic
    congratulations.
  4. But later the same day, when one of the
    African-American athletes won a gold medal,
    Hitler did not shake his hand but hurried out of
    the stadium.
  5. Although Hitler claimed he left to escape a light
    drizzle, the meaning of German dictators action
    was obvious.
  6. If Hitler felt bad about a black man winning a
    medal, Owens would soon make him feel much worse.
  7. When the track-and-field events were over, Owen
    had won four gold medals, breaking or equaling
    nine Olympic records

59
(When Conjunctions) After As As soon as Before Once Since Until When While After I lost, As I was walking down the street,.. As soon as you finish, Before the lights go out,.. Once you have finished the cleaning,(means after) Since I made my first billion dollar,. Until the sun sets, When the semester is over,. While the music was playing,..
(Why Conjunctions) Because Since Because you are improving your writing.. Since the water in the lake is o warm,
(Where Conjunctions) Where Wherever Where there is smoke, Wherever you can find a job,..
(Contrasting Conjunctions) Although Even though Whereas Although you look honest, Even though the test was difficult,. Whereas many people thought the world was flat,.
(Conditional Conjunctions) If Unless If I have the opportunity,. Unless he stops playing the music loudly
60
  • Punctuation rules say that you need a comma after
    the dependent clause at the beginning of a
    sentence.
  • Example
  • When the alarm clock rings in the morning, I put
    the pillow over my head.
  • You shouldn't use a comma before a dependent
    clause at the end of a sentence(but you may use a
    comma before a long clause beginning with the
    words unless, although, or since).
  • Example
  • I put the pillow over my head when the alarm
    clock rings in the morning.
  • I always get to work on time, although my hair
    may not be combed or my shirt buttoned.

61
Exercise Read the sentences and match each pair
with appropriate subordinating conjunction.
  1. No one was surprised at Jesse Owens success in
    the 1936 Olympics. He had done something even
    more remarkable a year earlier.
  2. He competed in the Big Ten championship on May
    25, 1935. He had the greatest day in the history
    of modern track competition.
  3. He didnt think he would even be able to
    participate. He has strained his back a few weeks
    earlier.
  4. He could not even jog at the warm-up before the
    meet. He decided to compete in the 100-yard dash.
  5. He got off to a perfect start. He finished the
    dash in 9.4 seconds, matching the world record.
  6. His coach advised Owen to take only a single long
    jump. He leaped almost 27 feet and beat the world
    record by nearly a half foot.
  7. Owens won the 200-yard dash in 20.3 seconds. He
    set another world record.
  8. Owens finished the 220-yard low hurdle in 22.6
    seconds. He broke an 11-year-old world record.
  9. Owens completed four events in forty-five
    minutes. He set three world records and tied
    another.

62
3.1.4. Pronouns
  • Pronouns
  • are words that can replace nouns.
  • This part will introduce you to additional ways
    of joining sentences, with pronouns.
  • Look at the two sentences below.
  • I talked to the counselor. She was very helpful.
  • The words the counselor and she refer to one
    person. In this example she could be replaced
    with another pronoun, who
  • I talked to the counselor who was very helpful.
  • We call who a relative pronoun because it relates
    the information was very helpful to the counselor.

63
  • The relative pronouns are
  • who, whom, whose, which, and that. 
  • The teacher who has that book is Ms.
    Lincoln. Jane is the person to whom I sent the
    invitation. The man whose car I hit was very
    nice about it. My report which is due
    tomorrow is finished. The tomatoes that John
    gave me from his garden are delicious.
  • Clauses beginning with the relative pronouns are
    called Relative clause.
  • They are dependent clauses because they cannot
    stand alone as a sentence. They are called
    adjective clause because they describe a noun or
    a pronoun.
  • The place of an adjective clause is exactly after
    the noun it describes.
  • Example Bill bought his daughter a car that
    costs a fortune.

64
There are two kinds of adjective clauses
65
Read the two sentences below1. You cant start a
car that has a dead battery.2. My new car, which
I bought in October, started everyday in the
coldest weather
  • Now
  • Omit the adjective clauses in both sentences.
  • You cant start a car
  • My new car.. started everyday in the coldest
    weather.
  • If you consider the changes in meaning you can
    see that there is a great difference between the
    meanings of sentence (1) and sentence (a).In
    sentence (1), the relative clause restricts the
    meaning of the car to the one with a dead battery
    and not any other car. So we call this relative
    clause a Restrictive Relative Clause. But the
    sentences (2) and (b) have similar meanings. In
    sentence (2) the relative clause just adds a bit
    of extra information and because the clause
    doesn't restrict the meaning in a particular way
    we call the clause a Nonrestrictive Relative
    Clause. We shouldn't use a comma around a
    restrictive relative clause while we should use
    commas around the nonrestrictive relative clause.

66
  • The relative pronoun who, which and that can
    serve as the subject of their clause
  • Examples
  • Dr. Dunn is the professor who teaches modern
    language.
  • Our car, which is ten years old, needs to be
    replaced.
  • You have to take a course that fulfills the
    natural science requirement.
  • The relative pronouns whom, that, which are the
    objects of their clauses.
  • Example
  • Please give this form to the man whom you see at
    the front desk.
  • You must fill out several forms that you can get
    from the receptionist.
  • This is the form on which you need to write your
    name and address.
  • The relative pronoun in the object position can
    be omitted except when it follows a preposition.
  • Please give this form to the man you see at the
    front desk.
  • You must fill out several forms you can get from
    the receptionist.
  • This is the form on which you need to write your
    name and address.

67
Exercise Combine the following sentences using
the relative pronoun.
  1. Throughout France in the early sixteenth century,
    New Years Day was celebrated on march 25. It
    began the spring season.
  2. People would celebrate for a week by exchanging
    gifts at parties and dinners. These ended on
    April 1.
  3. However, in 1564, King Charles IX moved the date
    of the New Years Day back to January 1. It was
    the beginning of the new Gregorian calendar.
  4. Nevertheless, for many of the French, gift-giving
    and parties continued to occur on April1. They
    resisted the charge.
  5. Some of the people made fun of these
    conservatives by sending foolish gifts and
    invitations to parties. The parties didnt exist.
  6. After the French became comfortable with January
    1 as the beginning of the year, they continued to
    play jokes on April 1. It became the tradition.
  7. Two hundred years later. The English adopted the
    custom. It then went on to reach the American
    colonies.

68
Now look at another example of relative clause
joining two sentences
  • I know something. You said it.
  • I know what you said.
  • Notice that what you said replaces something
    that is the object of the verb know. An object
    is a noun or here a pronoun. So we can call the
    relative clause in this case a
  • Noun Clause.
  • Because it function as a noun and replaces a noun
  • A noun clause can be the subject of a sentence
    compare these sentences
  • His behavior annoyed me. What he
    did annoyed me.

69
Other joining words can begin noun clauses.
  • where
  • how
  • He told me when I should go.
  • when
  • that
  • if
  • He asked me he should
    go.
  • weather

70
3.2. Revising Sentences3.2.1. Subject-verb
Agreement
  • As you know the subject of a sentence comes
    before the verb and could be
  • Nouns or Pronouns.
  • They could be singular (representing one person,
    thing or place) or plural (representing more than
    one).
  • A singular subject goes with a singular verb and
    a plural subject goes with a plural verb. This
    rule is called
  • subject-verb agreement.
  • Now look at5 the two sentences that did not obey
    this rule
  • I are reading a fascinating book.
  • He am a charming man
  • The correct forms are
  • I am reading a fascinating book.
  • He is a charming man

71
3.2.2. Present Tense Verb3.2.2.1. Simple Present
  • Read Roses answer to an interviewer
  • Yes, I like this supermarket. I think its very
    nice. Yes, my husband thinks so, too. We always
    shop here. We come here every week. We live quite
    near, so it doesnt take long to get here.
  • The bold verbs in this paragraph are in Simple
    Present Tense.
  • Positive Form I/you/we/they shop here.
  • He/she/ it shops here.
  • Negative Form I/you/we/they do not(dont) shop
    here.
  • He/she/it does not
    (doesnt) shop here.
  • Question Form Do I/you/we/they shop here?
  • Does he/she/it shop
    here?

72
Uses of Simple Present Tense
  • We use simple present for
  • Thoughts and feelings I think so, I like it. My
    husband thinks so.
  • States, things staying the same, facts, and
    things that are true for a long time We live
    quite near.
  • Repeated action We come here every week.
  • In phrases like I promise, I agree.
  • In negative question with why Why dont you go
    out.

73
3.2.2.2. Present Continuous
  • Sarahs train is late, so she is phoning Mark
  • Mark? Im at the station. Im waiting for the
    train. Oh I can hear it. Its coming now.
  • The bold words are the verbs in present
    continuous tense.
  • Form
  • Positive Form I am looking.

  • You/we/they are looking.

  • He/she it is looking.
  • Negative Form I am not looking.

  • You/we/they are not looking.

  • He/she/it is not looking.
  • Question Form Am I looking?
  • Are
    you/we/they looking?
  • Is
    he/she/it looking?

74
Use
  • We use present continuous to say that
  • We are in the middle of an action. Example Im
    waiting for the train.Im at the station now.
    Im getting the lunch ready. Im in the kitchen
    now.
  • We are in the middle of something but not
    actually doing it at the moment of speaking.
    Example I must get back top the office. Were
    working on a new project. Im quite busy these
    days. I am doing a course at college.
  • Things are changing over a period of time.
    Example The number of cars on the roads is
    increasing. The earth is getting warmer.
  • Something happen in future.

75
Exercise Complete the conversation using present
simple or present continuous.
  • 1. A Is Janet in please?
  • B Yes but.(I/think) she is busy at the
    moment(she/wash) her hair.
  • A..(I/think) of buying a new computer
  • B But computers(cost) so much money. Whats
    wrong with the one weve got?
  • A..(it/get) out of date now.
  • 2. A What..(you/do)?
  • B .(I/weigh) this letter..(I/need)to know
    how many stamps to put on it.
  • 3.A (I/think) this road is really dangerous.
    Look how fast that lorry.(go).
  • B(I/agree).People shouldnt go so fast.
  • 4.A ..(I/always/fall) asleep. I just cant
    keep awake.
  • B What time.(you/go) to bed?
  • A About ten oclock usually. But(it/
    not/make)any difference.

76
3.2.3. Past Tense Verb3.2.3.1. Simple Past
  • Read the paragraph that is Joes description of
    how the accident happened
  • It all happened very quickly. The car came
    straight out of the side road. And the van went
    into the back of it. The van driver didnt have a
    chance. It was the car drivers fault.
  • The bold words are the verbs in simple past
    tense.
  • Positive Form
  • A regular past form ends in ed.
  • It happened very quickly.
  • I posted the letters yesterday.

77
  • Some verbs have irregular past form which is a
    completely different word
  • The car came out of the side road.
  • Vicky rang earlier.
  • The past simple is the same for all persons
    except for the verb be
  • I/he/she/it was ill.
  • You/we/they were ill.
  • Negative Question Forms
  • I/you/we/they/he/she/it did not stop. (didnt
    stop)
  • Did I/you/we/they/he/she/it stop?
  • I/he/she/it was not sad. (wasnt)
  • You/we/they were not sad.(werent)
  • Was I/he/she/it sad?
  • Were you/we/they sad?

78
Use
  • We use past simple for something that happened in
    the past and finished
  • Example
  • Emma passed her exam last year.
  • We went to the theater on Friday.
  • Elvis Presley died in 1977.
  • I knew what the problem was.

79
3.2.3.2. Past Continuous
  • Read what Jane says to Emma
  • I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting
    in park. The sun was shining and the birds were
    singing. Children were playing and laughing. I
    was very peaceful. I didnt want to wake up.
  • Form
  • I/he/she/it was playing soccer.
  • You/ we/they were playing soccer.
  • I/he/she/it was not playing soccer.(wasnt
    playing)
  • You/we/they were not playing soccer. (werent
    playing)
  • Was I/he/she/it playing soccer?
  • Were you/ we/ they playing soccer?

80
UseRead the conversation
  • Melanie I rang at about 3 yesterday afternoon.
    Bit you werent in. I didnt know where you were.
  • David Oh I was helping Mike. We were repairing
    his car. It took ages. We were working on it all
    afternoon.
  • Melanie It was raining. I hope you werent doing
    it outside.
  • David No we were in the garage. So I didnt get
    wet. But Im afraid I got oil all over my
    trousers.
  • Melanie Why were you wearing your new trousers
    to repair a car?
  • David I dont know I forgot I had them on.

81
  • It was raining at three oclock means that at
    three oclock we were in the middle of the rain.
    The rain began before three and stopped some time
    after three.
  • We were working all afternoon means that The
    action went on for the whole period. David is
    stressing the length of time that the work went
    on.

82
Now look at the following example
  • You drove right past me when I was waiting for
    the bus.
  • In this example you can see past continuous and
    past simple used together.
  • We use this form when
  • a shorter action came in the middle of a longer
    action in the past. Longer action is used in past
    continuous and shorter action is used in simple
    past.
  • In this kind of sentences past continuous is used
    after
  • as, while, when.
  • We were driving down the hill when a strange
    object appeared in the sky.
  • David was making lunch when the phone rang.

83
Choose the correct verb forms. Use Simple Past or
the Past Progressive.
  • 1) We (sit) at the breakfast table when the
    doorbell (ring) .
  • 2) He(meet) a lot of friendly people while
    he(work)in California.
  • 3) When they(leave)the museum, the
    sun.(shine).
  • 4) The students.(play)cards when the
    teacher(come)in.
  • 5) While the children..(sleep), their
    parents(watch)TV.
  • 6) It.(start)to rain while she..(water)the
    flowers in her garden.
  • 7) When I(open)the door, it(rain).
  • 8) While Henry..(have)a drink at the bar, his
    wife.(swim) in the sea.
  • 9) He(hear)a loud bang while he..(talk) to
    his friend.
  • 10) While he(take)a shower, his
    dogs.(eat)his steaks.

84
3.2.4. Future Tense Verbs3.2.4.1. Will Shall
  • Read this report from a reporter.
  • The world leaders will arrive here tomorrow.
    They will have plenty to talk about, but they
    wont be here for long-only 24 hours. Youll hear
    live reports every hour.
  • Form
  • I/you/we/they/he/she/it will pass the course.
  • I/you/we/they/he/she/it will not (wont) pass the
    course
  • Will I/you/we/they/he/she/it pass the course?

85
Use
  • We use will to say what we know or think about
    the future. It has a neutral meaning. It doesnt
    express a decision or a plan.
  • The world leaders will arrive here tomorrow.
  • There is no decision or plan here its just
    a of piece knowledge about future.
  • We also use will for instant decision, when we
    decide on something or agree to do it more or
    less at the moment of speaking.
  • Im thirsty. I think Ill make some tea.
  • We use will when we want to order something.
  • Ill have the ham salad ,please.
  • We use will for offers and invitations.
  • A Ill peel the potatoes.
  • B Ok Thank you.

86
Shall
  • We can use shall for the future, but only in the
    first person after I or We.
  • I will be/ shall be on holiday in August.
  • We will know/shall know the results soon.
  • I will and I shall have the same meaning here but
    shall is a little formal. Both I will and I shall
    can be shortened to Ill.
  • We can also use shall in offers and suggestions .
  • Shall I pack your shopping for you?
  • Shall we all go out together?
  • We do not use shall in American English.

87
Exercise Read the conversations. Which replies
are statements about future and which are instant
decision.
  1. What would you like? Ill have an orange juice
    please...
  2. Shall we go out tonight? Ill be too tired, I
    think
  3. Weve lost a tennis ball. Ill help you look for
    it
  4. Im worried about the exam. Oh youll be all
    right
  5. I must fix this shelf some time. Well be dead
    before then
  6. I havent got any transport. Oh well give you a
    lift

88
3.2.4.2. Be going to
  • Look at the picture below and read the
    conversation.
  • Form
  • I am/ You, We, They are/He, She, It is going to
  • climb the tree.

89
Use
  • We use be going to to talk about something we
    have decided to do (an intention). David intends
    to climb up the ladder.
  • Im going to watch the next program.
  • We use be going to for a prediction based on the
    present situation. Look at the picture
  • The ladder is moving so David is going to fall.
  • My sister is
    going to have a baby in March.
  • Its nearly nine
    now. Were going to be late.

90
Exercise Put in the verbs with be going to.
  • Laura What are you doing with that camera?
  • Trevor (?) I'm going to take (I / take) it to
    work. (1).. (I / lend) it to Phil.
  • (2) ..............................................
    .. (he / take) a few photos with it.
  • Laura Why can't he buy his own camera?
  • Trevor He's got one, but it isn't working
    properly. (3).......... (it / be) a
    while
  • before he can get it repaired.
  • Laura Well, how long (4).........................
    ............. (he / keep) ours? When
  • (5). (we / get) it back?
  • Trevor (6).. (he / have) it over
    the weekend.
  • (7) ..............................................
    ........ (we / get) it back on Monday.
  • Laura Well, I hope (8) ....................
    ............... ( it / not / get) damaged.

91
Exercise What would you say in these situations?
Use these words be sick, crash, get wet, lose,
not stop, rain
  • ? The sky is full of dark clouds.
  • Its going to rain.
  • 1 Now it's starting to rain. There's nowhere to
    shelter, and you haven't got an umbrella.
  • 2 You feel awful. There's a terrible feeling in
    your stomach.
  • 3 You are playing Scrabble. The game is nearly
    over and you are 100 points behind.
  • 4 You can see a plane coming down. It's out of
    control and falling to the ground.
  • 5 You are waiting for a train. There's one
    coming, but you don't know if it's the one you
    want.
  • It's travelling very fast.

92
Exercise What would you say? Use will or be
going to.
  • ? You want to express your intention to look
    round the museum.
  • Your friend Do you have any plans for this
    afternoon?
  • You Yes, I'm going to look round the museum.
  • 1. You hate dogs. Dogs always attack you if they
    get the chance.
  • Your friend That dog doesn't look very friendly.
  • You It's coming towards us ......................
    ..............
  • 2. You predict the landing of aliens on the earth
    in the next ten years.
  • Your friend All this talk about aliens is
    complete nonsense, isn't it?
  • You Is it? I think ..............................
    ...........
  • 3. You know that your friend's sister has decided
    to get married.
  • Your friend Have you heard about my sister?
  • You Well, I heard that ..........................
    ..............
  • 4. You suddenly decide you want to invite Ilona
    for a meal.
  • Your friend Did you know Ilona will be in town
    next weekend?
  • You No, I didn't. ...............................
    .....................

93
3.2.4.3. Present Tenses for FuturePresent
Continuous for Arrangements
  • Tom Are you doing anything this evening?
  • Nick Yes, I'm going to an ice hockey match.
  • The Tigers are playing the Kings.
  • I bought my ticket yesterday.
  • We use present continuous for what someone has
    arranged to do in future. Here Nick has arranged
    to go to the match. (He has bought a ticket.)
    Here are some more examples.
  • I'm meeting Harriet at six o'clock. David is
    coming round later on.
  • We're having a party tomorrow. Sarah is going to
    Paris next week.
  • The present continuous for the future and be
    going to have similar meanings.
  • We're having a party next week. (We have made the
    arrangements.)

94
The present simple for a timetableRead the
conversation
  • Mark What time does your train leave tomorrow?
  • Sarah Seven twenty-three in the morning.
  • It gets into Paris at eleven
    twenty-three.
  • We can use the present simple for the future when
    we are talking about a timetable, usually a
    public one such as a train timetable.
  • The train leaves at seven twenty-three tomorrow
    morning.
  • The match starts at half past seven.
  • Next Friday is the thirteenth.
  • I've got the tour details here. We spend three
    days in Rome.

95
ExercisePut the verbs into the present
continuous or the present simple.
  • Emma (?) Are you doing (you / do) anything
    tonight?
  • Matthew Yes, (1).. (1 / go) to the
    station to meet my friend Richard.
  • (2) (he / stay) here for the weekend,
    remember? His train
  • (3)............... (get) in at eight
    fifteen.
  • Emma Oh, of course. I'd forgotten about that.
  • Matthew Maybe we'll see you later. What
    (4).. (you / do) tonight?
  • Emma Oh, (5) (I / go) to the cinema
    with Vicky and Rachel and a couple of
  • other people. The film (6) (finish)
    quite early, so
  • (7).........................................(we /
    go) to a pizza place afterwards.

96
3.2.5. Perfect Verb3.2.5.1. Present Perfect
  • Form
  • The present perfect is the present tense of have
    a past participle.
  • I/you/we/they have washed OR I/you/we/they've
    washed
  • he/she/it has washed OR he/she/it's washed
  • NEGATIVE
  • I/you/we/they haven't washed.
  • he/she/it hasn't washed has
  • QUESTION
  • have I/you/we/they washed?
  • he/she/it washed?

97
  • Regular past participles
  • They end in -ed, e.g. washed, landed, finished.
    We've
  • washed the dishes. Have you opened your letter?
    The aircraft has landed
  • safely. How many points has Matthew scored? The
    students haven't
  • finished their exams.
  • Irregular forms
  • Some participles are irregular.
  • I've made a shopping list. We've sold our car.
    I've thought about it a lot.
  • Have you written the letter? She hasn't drunk her
    coffee.
  • Use
  • When we use the present perfect, we see things as
    happening in the past but having a result in the
    present.
  • We've washed the dishes. (They're clean now.) The
    aircraft has landed. (It's on the ground now.)
  • We've eaten all the eggs. (There aren't any left.)

98
Present Perfect or Past Simple
The present perfect tells us about the past and
the present. United have won the Cup, so it's
theirs now. The past simple tells us about the
past, a time which is finished. Last year is in
the past.
Trevor We've bought a new car. Tom Oh, have
you? What sort? Laura An Adagio. We bought it
last week. We often give a piece of news in the
present perfect, e.g. We've bought a new car.
(The car is ours now.) We use the past simple,
e.g. We bought it last week, to give details or
to ask for details about things such as when and
where it happened.
99
PRESENT PERFECTWe use the present perfect for a
state or an action which hasgone on up to the
present. (David is still inhospital.)We've
lived here for ten years.
PAST SIMPLE We use the past simple for a state or
an action in the past, in a period which is
finished. (David's stay in hospital is over.) We
lived there for ten years. (We don't live there
now.)
100
Exercise Trevor and Laura are decorating their
house. Put in the verbs. Use the present perfect.
  • Laura How is the painting going? (?) Have you
    finished ? (you / finish)
  • Trevor No, I haven't. Painting the ceiling is
    really difficult, you know.
  • (1) ................... (I / not / do) very much.
    And it looks just the same as
  • before. This new paint (2) .......................
    ................................ (not / make) any
    difference.
  • Laura (3) .......................................
    .............. (you / not / put) enough on.
  • Trevor (4) ......................................
    ..... (1 / hurt) my back. It feels bad.
  • Laura Oh, you and your back. You mean
    (5). (you / have) enough of
  • decorating. Well, I'll do it. Where (6)
    ................. (you / put) the
    brush?
  • Trevor I don't know. (7) ........................
    .................................... ( it /
    disappear).
  • (8). (I / look) for it, but I
    can't find it.
  • Laura You're hopeless, aren't you? How much
    (9) (you / do) in here?
  • Nothing! (10) ....................................
    ........................ (I / paint) two doors.
  • Trevor (11) (I / clean) all this
    old paint around the window.
  • It looks much better now, doesn't it?
  • Laura (12) (we / make) some
    progress, I suppose.
  • Now, where (13) ..................................
    ...................... (that brush /go)?
  • Oh, (14)..... (you / leave) it on
    the ladder, look.

101
Exercise Put in the present perfect or past
simple of the verbs in brackets.
  • 1 The last time I ................................
    ............... (go) to Brighton was in August.
  • 2 I'd like to meet a ghost, but I
    .................................................(
    never / see) one.
  • 3 I've finished my homework. I ...................
    .................... (do) it before tea.
  • 4 And the race is over! And Micky
    Simpson...........................................
    ..... (win) in a record time!
  • 5 I ................... (work) for a computer
    company for a year. That was after college.
  • 6 What time ......................................
    ...........(you / get) to work this morning?
  • 7 Martin ............................... (be) to
    Greece five times. He loves the place.
  • 8 The President .............. (come) out of the
    building and is going to make a speech.
  • 9 You won't believe this, but I've got some
    tickets for the concert. Oh, well done.
    How........................ (you / get) them?
  • 10 Of course I can ride a bike. But I
    ........... ....................(not / ride)
    one for years.
  • 11 Marilyn Monroe.................................
    .................(be) in about thirty films.

102
3.2.5.2. Past Perfect
  • Form
  • The past perfect is had a past participle.
  • He had enjoyed the party, OR He'd enjoyed the
    party.
  • They hadn't gone to bed until late. Where had he
    put his wallet?
  • Read the paragraph below.
  • I felt really tired when I took the train to work
    yesterday because Sarah and 1 had been to a party
    the evening before. We hadn't gone to bed until
    after one. I hadn't been on the train long when I
    had a bit of a shock. I suddenly realized that
    I'd left my wallet at home. Then I began to
    wonder. Had I left it in the office the day
    before? I just couldn't remember.

103
Use
  • In the previous paragraph, the situation is in
    the past (I took the train ... I felt
  • tired ...). When we talk about things before this
    past time, we use the past perfect.
  • Sarah and I had been to a party the evening
    before.
  • I'd left my wallet at home.
  • We are looking back from the situation of the
    train
  • journey to the earlier actions - going to a party
    and
  • leaving home without the wallet.

104
Exercise Add a sentence with the past perfect
using the notes.
  • 1. We rushed to the station, but we were too
    late.
  • . (the train /just /
    go)
  • 2. I didn't have an umbrella, but that didn't
    matter.
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ............. (the rain / stop)
  • 3. When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn't
    let me in.
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ..... (forget / my ticket)
  • 4. Someone got the number of the car the raiders
    used.
  • ..................................................
    .................................................
    (steal / it / a week before)
  • 5. I was really pleased to see Rachel again
    yesterday.
  • .. (not see / her / for
    ages)
  • 6. Luckily the flat didn't look too bad when my
    parents called in.
  • (just / clean / it)
  • 7. The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I
    had to refuse the invitation.
  • ... (already / eat / my
    sandwiches)

105
Exercise Put the verbs in the present perfect
(have done) or past perfect (had done).
  • 1. The park looked awful. People
    ..............................................
    (leave) litter everywhere.
  • 2. You can have that newspaper. I
    ............................................(finis
    h) with it.
  • 3. There's no more cheese. We.....................
    ...........................(eat) it all, I'm
    afraid.
  • 4. There was no sign of a taxi, although
    I............................................
    (order) one half an hour before.
  • 5. This bill isn't right. They ...................
    .......................... (make) a mistake.
  • 6. I spoke to Melanie at lunch-time. Someone
    ..........................................(tell)
    her the news earlier.
  • 7. I was really tired last night. I
    ...............................................(ha
    ve) a hard day.
  • 8. Don't you want to see this programme? It
    ...............................................(st
    art).
  • 9. It'll soon get warm in here.
    I...............................................
    (turn) the heating on.
  • 10. At last the committee were ready to announce
    their decision.
  • They .................. (make) up their
    minds.

106
3.2.6. So, Neither, I think so
  • So and neither
  • Vicky I'm hungry.
  • Rachel So am 1.1 haven't eaten anything all day.
  • Daniel Neither have I . I didn't have time for
    breakfast.
  • We use so after a positive statement and neither
    after a negative one. I'm hungry. So am I. (
    And I'm hungry./I'm hungry, too.)
  • I haven't eaten. Neither have I. (And I
    haven't eaten./I haven't eaten either.)
  • The structure is so/neither an auxiliary the
    subject.
  • The auxiliary is a form of be or have or a modal
    verb, e.g. can.

107
  • I think so
  • Vicky It's 'Round the Corner' at half past
    seven, my favourite
  • soap opera. Are we going to be back in time?
  • Daniel I think so. We haven't got far to go now.
  • Rachel We might miss the beginning.
  • Vicky Oh, I hope not. I want to know if Bernard
    really did steal
  • the money.
  • Here I think so means I think we'll be back in
    time', and I hope
  • not means I hope we don't miss the beginning'.
  • We can use so after be afraid, believe, expect,
    guess, hope, suppose and think.
  • Do you think you'll get the job? Well, I hope
    so. Are you going
  • on holiday this year? Yes, I expect so. I don't
    know for sure if
  • Henry is rich, but I should think so. But we
    cannot use so after know or be sure.
  • There's been an accident. Yes, I know, NOT I
    know-so.
  • Are you sure you're doing the right thing? Yes,
    I'm sure, NOT Im sure so.

108
  • There are two negative structures.
  • NEGATIVE SO
  • Is it raining? I don't think so.
  • Are you going to the concert? I don't expect
    so..
  • POSITIVE not
  • Is it raining? I hope not.
  • Have we won a prize? I'm afraid not
  • With expect and think, we normally use the With
    be afraid, guess and hope, we use the negative
    and so. positive and not.

109
Exercise Complete these short conversations. Put
in structures with so or not and use the words in
brackets.
  • ? Laura Does the library open on Saturdays?
    (think)
  • Trevor Yes, / think so. But I'm not absolutely
    certain.
  • ? Harriet You can't go out for an evening meal
    wearing shorts, (guess)
  • Mike ! guess not. I'd better put some trousers
    on.
  • 1. Sarah Will there be a lot of people at the
    concert tonight? (expect)
  • Mark ............................................
    ...... There aren't usually very many.
  • 2. Daniel Are you going to apply for the job?
    (suppose)
  • Vicky It's the only one available.
  • 3. David Do you think it's going to rain? (hope)
  • Melanie Well, ...................................
    ...... I'm just about to go out.
  • 4. Nick Will the match take place in this
    weather? (think)
  • Tom In fact, I'm sure it won't.
  • 5. Claire Are my photos ready, please? (afraid)
  • Assistant . . We're having problems
    with the machine.

110
3.2.7. Modals 3.2.7.1. Ability (can, could, be
able to)
  • Can and can't
  • Read the conversation.
  • Vicky How many instruments can you play,
    Natasha?
  • Natasha Three - the violin, the clarinet and the
    piano.
  • Vicky That's terrific. You haven't got a piano
    here, though.
  • Natasha No, but I can go to the music room in
    college and play the one in there.
  • Vicky I'm not musical at all. I can't even sing.
  • We use can to say that something is possible
    that someone has an ability (Natasha can play the
    piano) or an
  • opportunity (She can go to the music room). Can
    is usually pronounced but sometimes we say . The
    negative
  • is cannot or can't .

111
Can and be able to
  • In the presen
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