Foundations of Inclusive Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Foundations of Inclusive Education


Foundations of Inclusive Education Learning in Inclusive Environments – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Foundations of Inclusive Education

Foundations of Inclusive Education
  • Learning in Inclusive Environments

Effective practices for students with
disabilities that significantly affect learning
  • 10 well researched strategies
  • Effective with and across many different student
  • Important to apply the techniques in a way that
    matches the learning characteristics and
    strengths of individual students
  • (Effective Practices, 2004, Rhode Island College)

3 Outcomes for all Students in Inclusive Education
  • Knowledge / Skills

The Goal!
  • The goal is not just participation. The student
    is supposed to be actively engaged in LEARNING,
    not just taking part in activities and routines.
  • Tip think outcomes, skill development or concept
    development (these are different than activities)

Effective Practices
  1. Curriculum is linked to the general education
  2. Instruction reflects the students individual
    needs strengths
  3. Social skill development is embedded in typical
    activities and routines

Effective Practices
  • 4. The students life is predictable and
  • 5. Positive behaviour supports, based on a
    functional behavioural assessment, are
    implemented consistently across staff and

Effective Practices
  • 6. Data is collected in key areas of the
    students education to demonstrate progress
    towards goals.
  • 7. The student can self-organize and carry out a

Effective Practices
  • 8. The student has a way to communicate and to
    understand the communication of others.
  • 9. The students involvement is active and
    meaningful. The student has choices.
  • 10. The family participates as an equal partner
    in the students program.

Instructional Support
  • For every new activity, there should be visual
    information (or text) and physical organization
    of the environment that answer 5 questions for
    the learner (remember the Pyramid of Teaching -
    some students need to have this support
    individualized others need to read the natural
    cues in the classroom. The EA can support
    students to do either.)

5 questions for the learner
  • Where should I be?
  • What work or activity will I do?
  • How much work will I do? / How long will it last?
  • How will I know that I am making progress and
    when I have finished?
  • What will I do next?

Signals to you!
  • Student is
  • Wondering around the room
  • Asking repetitive questions
  • Refusing to start or end an activity
  • Leaving an activity before its finished
  • Behaving inappropriately during the activity

Supports for Learning Include
  • Physical structure
  • Time structure
  • Functional routines
  • Work Systems
  • Task Analysis
  • Instructional Strategies

Physical Structure
  • Answers the questions of why am I here and what
    do I need to do (for large and small group, as
    well as individual work)
  • Refers to organizing the environment to give
    meaning and context to each area
  • Helps students understand where different
    activities take place and where materials are
  • Make boundaries visually clear
  • Minimize distractions
  • Make materials accessible
  • Clearly mark and organize materials

Physical Structure
  • Visual structures to support tasks or activities
  • clarifies by drawing attention to the important
    details (labeling, highlighting,
    color-coding...anything that makes the relevant
    more obvious)
  • organizes materials in the space and sequences
    (all items in their place, limited number or
    spacing...anything to organize)
  • instructs by giving visual information about how
    to complete the task (jigs, arrows, pictures,
    product samples...anything that makes no verbal
    instructions necessary)

Time Structure
  • Provides a visual (objects, pictures or words) to
    tell students what activities will happen and in
    what order
  • Classroom Daily Schedules
  • Individual Schedules (may need to be portable)
  • Timetables or agendas
  • May fade but do not eliminate! (offers
    predictability and/or control manages change,
    emotional or psychological responses to the
    day promotes independence)

Functional Routines
  • Are part of the everyday life in a classroom
  • Include
  • Participating in routines and transitions
  • Engaging in academic activities
  • Interacting with others
  • Support the development of self-determination
  • Linked to participating in community,
    recreational and employment opportunities
  • Provide predictability and expectations
  • Students will develop own if not given ones to
    learn and follow

Shaping Up a Review
  1. What are some things you heard that squared with
    your beliefs?
  2. What questions are still going around in your
  3. What are 3 points you want to remember?

What Helps Us Learn (Education Leadership, Feb
  • Meet us face to face
  • Get to know us
  • Connect with our passions
  • Dont bore us
  • Make sure we understand

What Helps Us Learn (Education Leadership, Feb
  • Let us choose how to demonstrate our learning
  • Just talk to us
  • Honor our learning preferences
  • Meet us on our level
  • Give us the the time we need
  • Make learning interactive

Things to Try for Next Time
  • Learning in Inclusive Environments Observation
  • And
  • 2. Thought Question High school students with
    significant disabilities were asked to
    characterize their relationships with
    paraprofessionals. What do you think they said?
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